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o?<?^ ^ 









Bt lieutenant-colonel W. J. WILSON, 





f>^. ) 

■^ • 

fO >- 


/ / 



Government Records. 

Wellington's Dispatches. 

Brialmont and Gleig's Life of Wellington. 

Wilson's History of India. 

Marshman's History of India. 

Asiatic Register. 

James' Naval History. 

Jones's ** Papers on the Progress of British Power in India." 

Sir John Malcolm's Report on the Province of Malwa. 

Stewart's BLighlanders. 

Welsh's Reminiscences. 


Fiige 98. The figures under the head '< Batta per daj " in the table 

ought to be in the colnmnB for fanams and cash** 

thna 6 ^ 



1 80 


Page 161. 8rd line from bottom, for 4 feet 6 inches, ttad 6 feet 

4 inches. 
Page 199. Top line, f^ " indifferent," t9oA ** in different." 
Page 246. 18th line from bottom, for " Bnperior," read ** superior. 
Page 878. Foot-note, for ** Godayery," rsod '< Nerbndda." 
Page 406. For " Cnnoia, ' read *' Cnnnia." 




Fbom the Capttrb of Sebinoapatam in 1799, to the Commkncxment 
OF THE Hahbatta Wab IN AuousT 1808. 


The conqaered territory — Operatione against Dhoondia — Capitalation of 
Gooty — Sarrender of Jamalabad — Oocnpation of Soonda — Southern Poly- 
gars — Northern Giroars — ^Acqoisition of Tanjore — Resignation of General 
Harris — Serrioe in Bidlam — ^Final operations against Dhoondia— Aoqnisi* 
tion of the Ceded Districts — Operations against the Pyohy Bajah — 
Polygars of Dindigal — Expeditions against Temate — Acquisition of the 
Camatic — Insurrection in TinneTeUy and Madura — Expedition to Egypt — 
Treaty of Amiens — Final service in Bullum — Insurrection in the Wynaad 
— Affairs in BCalabar — Mahratta affairs — Advance from Huiryhur — Belief 
of Poonah — Declaration of war — Foreign settlements 1 

SepalMe accounts of each branch of the Army, 1799-1803 67 


Fbom the Commencement of the Mahbatta Wab in 1806, to thx 

Tbbaty with Holkab, 1806. 

Storm of Ahmednuggor, and Jaulna- -Battle at Assaye — Defence of Korjet 
Koregaum — Affair at Umber — Gallant conduct of a Jemadar — Surrender 
of Burhanpoor, and Asseeighur— Armistice with Bcindia — ^Battle at 
Argaum — Siege and storm of Gawilghur — Treaties of Deogaum and 8ur- 
jee Anjengaum — Mahratta armies ^Banditti in the Nisam's country— 
Lieutenant Wight's detachment — Affair at Munkaisir — ^Detachment in 
Berar*~General Wellesley leaves the army— His order on the occasion — 
Prise-money — Thanks of the House of Commons, Ac. — ^Army of reserve — 
AfEair at Hunmunsagur — Conquest of the province of Cuttack — Operations 
against Holkar in Oandeish — Capture of Chandore, Lussulganm, Dhoorb, 
and Galna — Thanks to the iroops — ^Attacks on the camp of the Besident 
wiUi Scindia — Steady conduct of the escort — General Wellesley's farewell 
order, 1805 — Defeat of Arabs on the Beema, and of Mahratta horse near 
Mulkapoor — Conclusion of the war, and thanks to the troops, 1806 — 
Aoquiidtion of territory — Belief of the Madras troops at Poonah ... 108 

Military Operation$ within the limit$ of the Madras Preeidenejf, 1804-6. 

Outbreak in Dindigul — Operations in the Chittoor Pollams — Aflsiis in 
Traranoore, Malabar, and the Wynaad — ^Death of the Pychy Bajah — Suo- 
oession of Governors and Commanders-in-Chief, 1808-6 140 

Separate accounts of each branch of the Armyi 1808-6 161 




Mutiny AT Vbllore, 1806 169 


FaoM THE Treaty with Holkae in 1806, to the Termination of 

THE War in Trayancorb, 1809. 

Arriyal of Sir Qeorge BarloW'-^Mohiput Bam — ^Affair at Amalnair — Order 
of the Governor- General thereon — Capture of Bnngnsh, and Dandin Khan 
— Northern Circars — Projected expedition to the Persian Gnlf — ^Insnrrec- 
tionin Travancore — Flight of the Resident — Actions at and near Qnilon — 
Defence of Cochin — Thanks to the troops — ^Colonel Sentleger's force enters 
Travancore — Takes the Arambooly lines and other places, and encamps 
before Trevandrum — Further actions at Qnilon — Thanks to the troops — 
Colonel Chalmers encamps before Trevandmm — Sabmission of the Bajah 
and settlement of the province 202 

Separate accounts of each branch of the Army, 1806-9 ... ... ... 220 

Mutiny oT THE SuBOPEAN 09FICBRS, 1809 .«, 235 


From the Termination or the War in Travancore; 1809, to the 


Ameer Khan seizes Jnbbnlpoor — Colonel Close advances against him to 
Seronge — Order on the tetnm of Colonel Close to England — Occupation 
of Bodrigues — Capture of St. Paul's — Bzpedition to Bourbon — Surrender 
of the ishund — Thanks to the troops — Capture of the Isle de la Passe- 
Disasters of the British squadron — Surrender of the Isle de la Passe to 
ihe French — The French blockade Bourbon — ^The blockade raised — 
Capture and recapture of H.M.'s Africaine — Capture of the French frigate 
Venus, and recapture of the British ship Ceylon — General Aberorombie 
takes command of the expedition — General Sir Samuel Auchmuty assumes 
command of the Madras Army — Capture of the llauritius — Becapture of 
British ships, and rescue of British prisoners — Casualties — Strength of 
the enemy — Thanks to the troops — Medals — ^Disposal of the islands of 
Bourbon and Mauritius — ^Volunteering for foreign service — Capture of 
Amboyna, and the dependent islands — Occupation of Manado — Thanks to 
the troops — Capture of Banda Neira, and dependent islands — Thanks to 
the troops — Capture of Temate — ^Thanks to the troops — fiestoration of 

; the islands, 1816—Korthem Circars, 1810-^12 — Auxiliary force at Goa, 
1809-18 — Expedition to Java — Occupation of the capital — ^Assault and 
capture of the lines at Comelis — Casualties — Captured ordnance and 
stores— Surrender of the island — Thanks of the Governor-General and 
Prince Begent — Expedition to Palembang — Capture of Djojo-carta — 
Cessation of hostilities — Complimentary orders — Java restored to the 
Uutcli, lolv ... •.. ..• ... ... .•• ... «.. ••« 2«70 

Separate accounts of each branch of the Army, 1810-11 ... ••• .•. 833 





Coloael Dowse's force — Complimentary order — First trial of the Commis- 
Bariat in the field — Intelligence Department— Insurrection in the 
Wynaad — Mntiny at Qmlon — Sacoession of GbTemors and Commanders- 
in-Chief, 1818-14 — Northern Circars — ^Aifaim in Knmool — Surreniler of 
the fort — Treaty of Paris — Thanks of the Honse of Commons — Return of 
the troops from the Molnocas, and orders thereon — Pindskries, 1812-17 — 
They enter Mirsapore and plnnder (Sanjam — Defeated by Major Oliver, 
Lieutenant Borthwick, Major Loshington, and Major M. McDowall 

Separate accounts of each branch of the Army, 1812-16 




A. — ^Armfl taken from the Southern Polygars, 1802 
B. — Casualties at Ahmednuggfur, 1803 ... 

C— Do. at Assaye, 1803 

D. — Do. at Argaum, 1803 
K. — Ordnance taken in Travancore, 1809 
F. — Booty taken at Amboyna, &o,, 1810 
6.— Military Establishment at Amboyna, 1810 







IN AUGUST 1808. 

Ths territory acqaired by the conqaest of the Kingdom of CHAP. XVI. 
Mysore was taken possession of without opposition with ij^^ 
the exception of the districts of Nuggtuv and BuUnm in conquered 
Mysore, Wynaad and Ootiote in Malabar, the fort of 1799. 
Jamalabad in South Ganara> and the fort at Gooty, situated 
in what were afterwards known as the Ceded Districts. 

Operations against Dhoondiah. 

Daring the confusion attending the storm of Seringa- 
patam^ Dhoondiah Waugh, a notorious freebooter who had 
been imprisoned by Tippoo, managed to effect his escape,^ 
and having collected a body of horse, he took possession 
of Shimooga and other forts in Nuggur or Bednore^ and 
having thus provided himself with artillery, ammunition, 
and money, he increased his force, and asserted his right 
to the sovereignty of the province. 

Two field detachments were immediately equipped Colonel 
HgBinst liim. One, under Colonel Pater, composed of the Detachment. 
4th cavahy, the 1st battah'dn 1st, and the 1st battalion 8th 

1 Colonel Beatson (page 246} sajs that Dhoondiah was released by the 
iiMwiisiderate hnmanity of the British troops. The yersion in the text 
-ia taken from General Harris' report. 

VOL. III. 1 





CHAP. XYI. N.I., advanced to the fort at Hassan ^ in order to check 
any possible incursion from Nuggar, and to act according 
to circumstances. 

The other, under Lieutenant-Colonel James Dalrjrmple, 
who had succeeded to the command of the Hyderabad 
Subsidiary Force after the capture of Seringapatam, was 
composed of the Ist cavalry, the 2nd battalion 7th, the 
2nd battalion 11th, and a party of Bengal Artillery. This 
detachment obtained possession of the hill forts at Cfait- 
tledroog' on the 6th July without opposition. Colonel 
Dalrymple gave a minute description of the place in his 
report to the Adjutant-Gleneral, from which the following 
is an extract : — 

" The lower fort is very extensive, and contains within it 
several other smaller forts, and a great number of inhabitants. 
Some parts of the old Hindoo fortifications are still remaining 
in the upper and lower forts, but by far the greatest part of 
the works are all done in the modem style of solid masonry, 
and built under the inspection of our unfortunate prisoners 
during their confinement at this place." 

A few days after the occupation of Chittledroog, 
Colonel Dalrymple was joined by the 2nd cavalry, and 
both battalions of the 10th regiment of Bengal sepoys. 
On the 14th he marched with the two regiments of 
cavalry and 400 grenadier sepoys in pursuit of a body of 
Dhoondiah^s men who had been plundering the country. 
He came up with them on the 15th, about 20 miles from 
Chittledroog, and having halted his infantry and guns, he 
attacked with the cavalry, and destroyed nearly the whole 
party, the number of which was estimated at about 250 
horse, and 400 foot. 
. This service was accomplished after a march of 40 

parties of 

> About 00 miles north-west of Seringapatam. 
' About 150 miles north of Seringapatam. 


miles in 24 hoars. The marftuclers having been guilty OHAP. XTI. 
of many atrocities^ more especially after their capture of "" 
the small fort at Ooondair> the Commander-in-Chief 
directed that the 40 prisoners taken by Colonel Dalrym- 
pie shonld be hanged at that plaoe> with the exception of 
one man who was to be set at liberty after having wit- 
nessed the execati(m of his comrades. 

On the 17th Colonel Dalrymple again surprised a small 
body of horse and foot near the fort of Chengherry in 
Naf^gar^ and dispersed it with his cavalry^ killing 40 men 
and taking 40 prisoners. He then attacked the fort and 
carmd it by a ^' coup de mam'* On the 29th he captured 
abont 6^000 head of cattle from Dhoondiah's brinjarrieSj 
together with a quantity of grain. Colonel Dalrymple. 
receiyed the thanks of the Commander-in-Chief for these 
services, and was authorised to grant the captured cattle 
and grain to his detachment. 

About the end of July, Colonel James Stevenson Colonel 
relieved Colonel Pater, and advanced towards the fort of reiievea 
Shimooga in order to co-operate with Colonel Dalrymple. S^^^^ 
By the 7th August both detachments had crossed to the 
western banks of the rivers upon which the forts of 
Shimooga and Honelly are situated, and on the morning Capture of 
of the 8th these places were attacked and taken by storm, midH^liy. 
the former by the detachment under Stevenson, the latter 
by that nnder Dalrymple. General Harris, in his report 
to the in India, remarked that '' the 
gallant behaviour of the native troops, who alone were 
employed, was highly honorable to them, and reflected 
gro at credit on Colonels Stevenson and Dalrymple, and 
the officers, who, under their orders, conducted the 
attacks/' Colonel Stevenson was thanked in General 
Orders of the 10th August , as were also Captain Mac- 
farlane, Ist battalion 8th regiment; Captain Strachan 


Storm of 

Defeat of 

CHAP. XYl. Staff Officer^ and Lieutenant Whitney McCallj, Ist batin- 
lion 1st regiment. 

The head<>qaarter8 of the Army left the neighbourhood 
of Seringapatam on the 10th July, reached Chittledroog 
on the 24th9 and early in August advanced to Hurryhur 
. on the east bank of the Toombuddra. a fort which had 
surrendered to Captain WiUet of the 1st battalion 10th 
Bengal sepoys, on the 30th July. On the 14th August a 
detachment,^ under Lieutenant-Colonel Wallace, H.M.fs 
74th regiment, was sent against the fort of Hoolal, 
about 20 miles direct north of Hurryhur. The place was 
. carried by storm on the 16th, and most of the garrison 
were killed, either during the assault, or in their attempt 
to escape. Colonel Wallace and the detachment were 
thanked in orders. 

£arly on the morning of the 17th August, Dhoondiah's 
collected force, amounting to 1,200 horse, and 300 in&ntry, 
posted under the walls of the fort at Shikarpoor in 
Nuggur, was attacked and defeated by Colonel Dalrymple, 
aided by a part of Colonel Stevenson's detachment. The 
action was thus described by General Harris :— 

^The in&ntry and artillery of Dhoondiah were formed 
behind a small river, which, swelled by the rains,. had become 
almost unfordable from the depth and rapidity of its current. 
His horse, separated by this stream from the infantry, formed, 
and steadily waited the attack of the regiments of Native 
cavalry which led Lieutenant- Colonel Dalrymple's detach- 
ment. These instantly charged, and in a short, but arduous 
conflict, drove the enemy into the river, who left 600 men and 
horses killed or drowned. Lieutenant Colonel Dalrymple's 
infiuitry at the same time assaulted and took the fort by storm, 
assisted by part of Colonel Stevenson's detachment, whose 
march had been retarded by the badness of the roads. The 

' Two flank companies, H.M.'s 78rd and 74th, and a battalion of Bengal 
Kative Yolonteers. 


Killadars of the fort, when taken, were hanged on its walls OHAP. XTT. 
in sight of the enemy's troops, who fled in the utmost disorder, 
while the^depth of the river prevented an immediate pursuit." 

The effect of this blow was decisive. Colonel Stevenson, 
who had assumed command of the united detachments^ 
pursued Dhoondiah as far as the frontier of the Mahratta 
country, in which he took refuge on the 20th August. 
That very night his camp was attacked by a chief named 
Doondah Punt Gk>kla, who dispersed his remaining fol- 
lowers and captured his elephants, camels, bullocks, and 

The province of Bednore was then occupied by our 
troops without further opposition. 

Capitulation op Gooty. 

A detachment of the Hyderabad Subsidiary Force under 
Colonel Bowser obtained possession of Gurrumcondah, 
and other places which had fallen to the share of the 
Nizam, without resistance, but the Killadar of the strong 
and extensive hiU-f ort at Oooty refused to give it up, 
and did not capitulate until the 9th August when a prac- 
ticable breach had been made. The casualties^ in the 
detachment during the investment ^ere trifling. 


The fort of Jamalabad in Canara was reduced by 
blockade, and surrendered to the Bombay troops on the 
8th October. 

Killed. Wounded. Total. 
ArtiileEy ••* ••. ••• ••. 8 o 8 

Sndbatn. 2nd regt. (20th M.N.I.) ... 6 17 28 

l8t do. 11th do. (2l8t M.N.I.) ... 2 16 18 . 

Total.. 10 89 48 

Lientenant-Colonel Bowser wonnded. 
Captain Boberts, 2nd battalion 2nd, killed. 




to Madras. 

Action at 

Qeneral Harris^ being required at the Presidency, left 
the Army on the 24th Ang^t, having made orer the 
command to Oolonel Wellesley, and taken farewell of the 
troops remaining in the field in a very flattering order. 


The Peshwa Haying rejected the conditions attached to 
the offer of Soonda^^ Harponelly, and certain talooks in 
Mysore, viz., that he should accept the mediation of the 
British Government on every question in dispute between 
him and the Nizam, and that he should exclude the 
French from his dominions ; these districts were divided 
between the Company and the Nizam, and Lieutenant- 
Colonel, the Honorable A. Sentleger, with the 4th 
cavalry, the Ist battalion Ist regiment, and 4 guns, was 
sent early in September to take possession of Soonda, 
He met with no opposition until he arrived at the village 
of Sambranee near HuUihal, which was held by 300 Mah- 
rattas sent from Dharwar by the Killadar of that place, 
to plunder the country, and to maintain the post against 
the British. The fort at Hullihal was held by 500 men 
with similar instructions. 

Colonel Sentleger made his attack on Sambranee on 
the 29th. The village was strongly barricaded, and the 
walls loop-holed, but it was carried after an action of 
about two hours. The loss of the detachment was trifling, 
but most of the garrison were killed. The fort at HuUi- 
hal was evacuated the next day, and no further opposition 
was offered. Colonel Sentleger was thanked in Division 
orders by Colonel WeUesley for having '' brought 
forward, with incredible expedition, his troops and guns 

' Soonda is a small district abore the Western Ghauts, now incladed 
in North Canara. Harponelly is the western district of the ceded terri- 


ibToagfa jungles^ over BWftmps, by the worst roads that I CHAP. STL 
have seen in India.'' Lieatenant Mason^ 4th cavalry^ and 
Lieutenant Macallj^ Ist battalion 1st regiment^ were 
specially mentioned on this occasion* 

Opbbations against thb Southern Poltoars, 1799. 

Although the distarbances in Madura and Tinnevelly 
had been put down by Colonel Maxwell's detachment in 
1792^ the Polygars soon began to resume their turbulent 
and predatory habits. They withheld payment of their 
kists^ and not only attacked each other, but made inroads 
into the district of Ramnad^ and into the Company's 
territory, burning villages, and murdering the inhabi- 

The campaign against Tippoo had rendered it expedient Major 
to postpone operations against these offenders^ but early Detaohmont 
in August 1799, the Goyemor-Greneral directed the form- 
ation of a detachment^ at Palamcottah for that service, 
and appointed Major John Bannerman to the command. 
He was ordered to proceed in the first instance against 
Cataboma Naig, Polygar of Pan jalamcoorchy, a fort about 
26 miles north-east of Palamcottah^ and after having 
secured his person, he was then to dispossess the inferior 
chiefs who had acted in concert with him, and finally to 
disarm the whole of the Southern Polygars, friendly or 
otherwise* He was invested with the power to execute 
such of the Polygars and their followers as might be 
found in open rebellion, and to sequester their lands. 

> DeteohmeBt native cavalry. 

Detachment Bengal artiUeiy, with two 6 and two S-ponndem, nnder 
a Snbaltem. 

H.M.'8 19th Foot, 400 men. 

lat battalion Srd regiment i 6 companies let battaUon 18th ragS- 

5 companies 2nd battalion 18th r^ment (Srd, 25th, and 26th 


CHAP. XVI^ Major Bannerman wrote to Gataboma Naig from Pal- 

""^ amcottah on the 1st September^ directing his attendance 

BepnUe at on the 4th^ to which a reply was sent dated the 2nd idem^ 

Panjaiam- j^ ^j^^ effect that there was no lucky day at that time, but 

that as soon as there should be one, he would come. 

On receipt of this communication Major Bannerman 
marched for Panjalamcoorchy^and arrived on the morning 
of the 5th with the Native troops. The fort was sur- 
rounded by a detachment of the 3rd cavalry under 
Lieutenant Dallas supported by a party of infantry ; soon 
after which a considerable body of Polygars endeavoured 
to force their way into the fort, but they were repulsed 
with loss. 

Oataboma Naig was then called upon to surrender at 
discretion, but he refused to leave the fort unless fur- 
nished with a written safe conduct. Major Bannerman 
being apprehensive that the Polygar might make his 
escape during the night, and not anticipating any diffi- 
culty in getting possession of the fort, determined to 
assault it at once. The storming party was composed 
of six companiesi viz. j^ the flank companies Ist battalion 
8rd legiment under Captain Bruce, and the flank com- 
panies of the 13th regiment under Captain O^Beilly. 
A few artillerymen, with a 6-pounder intended to blow 
open the southern gate, accompanied the party. The 
supports consisted of the battalion companies 1st batta- 
lion 3rd regiment, and three companies 1st battalion 
13th regiment. The men advanced with seeming 
resolution, and the gate was blown open by the artilleiy, 
supported by the leading sections of infantry under Cap- 
tain CBeilly, who believed the place to be in his hands. 
At this moment Lieutenant Douglas of the artillery was 
piked in the gateway, and the storming party, falling 
back, commenced a disorderly fire in return to that from 


the fort. Captain O'Beilly, after haying in yain endea- OHAF. ZVI. 
▼onred to induce the men to advance, was finally obliged 
to retire with the loss of 93 men, and 6 European ^ officers 
killed and wounded. The Native commissioned and 
non-commissioned officers having, with a few ezceptions, 
behaved ill on this occasion^ General Harris recom- 
mended their summary dismissal, and that the vacancies 
thus made should be filled up from the detachments 
under Colonels Stevenson and Dalrymple, which had 
recently distinguished themselves in Mysore. 

The companies of H.M/s 19th Foot arrived at Panjalam- Evaoufttion 
coorchy on the evening of the 6thy and during that night 
the fort was evacuated. Early on the 7th the vakeels of 
tlie Polygar waited on Major Bannerman with a request 
that their master might be permitted to proceed to the 
Presidency with his ordinary retinue, and accompanied 
by a British officer, but without being in any respect 
considered as under restraint. 

- Major Bannerman having refused to listen to any- Flight of tlia 
thing less than an unconditional surrender, the Polygar ^ ^^^* 
went off in a northerly direction with a number of 

A day or two afterwards he was overtaken by the C»pkaeor ' 
Zemindar of Etiapooram, who dispersed his people and ^S^JJJ** 
captured Soobramoonia Pillay, his principal officer and 
adviser. CatabomaNaig effected his escape on horseback. 
Soobramoonia Pillay was executed at J7aglepoor on the 
13th for acts of plunder and outrage committed in the 
territories of the Company, and of the Nawaub, and on 
the same day Soondrapandia Naig, brother of the Polygar 

* Lienfccaatit Dooglsa Bengal artillery, laeatenantd D'Ormieiiz and 
Collins Ist battalion 18th, and laeatenant Blake Snd battalion ISth, 
kOled ; Comet Mont ol the caTalxy, and laeutenant MoDowaU, 1st bat- 
talion 18th, wounded. 

VOL. m. 2 




Oaptnre and 
ezeoation of 
tho Folygar. 

Forfeiture of 
liT« PoUams. 

•of forts. 

Measares for 
•ettling the 

of Naglepoor, was sent for ezecntdon to the village of 
Gt>palpoomm in the Zemindary of Ramnad, the inhabi- 
tants of which had been murdered by a party under his 
immediate orders. 

Cataboma Naig was taken on the 23rd by the peons of 
the Tondiman/ and was executed at Eytar on the 16th 
October. His brother, and several other members of his 
family^ were brought to Eytar at the same time, and sent^ 
shortly afterwards^ to Palamcottah as prisoners. 

The lands of the five most refractory Polygars, viz., 
those of Panjalamcoorchy, Naglepoor, Eolampettah^ Yali- 
rampanna, Gadulgoody, and Eylatoor, were forfeited to 
Government. The remaining Polygars tendered their 
submission^ and consented to demolish their forts under 
the supervision of European officers^ and to give up 
their arms. 

The destruction of the forts in the forfeited PoUams 
was effected by the detachment of pioneers under 
Lieutenant Bagshaw. The completion ' of these measures 
was reported to Government on the 21st October, and 
Major Bannerman left camp, for Madras the next day, 
having made over charge to Major Turing. 

Shortly afterwards, steps were taken for revising the 
assessment, and for relieving the Polygars from the obli- 
gations of military service and police duties which were 
attached to their tenures; the Government charging 
themselves with the military protection of the country, 
and the administration of the police. 

' Bepreeented by the Rajah of Poodoocottah, whose ancestorB ren« 
dered material aerrioe to the English during the early wan in the 
Bontbem Camatic. This dignitary does not pay any tribute. 

* Forty-four forts were reported as haying been destroyed. The arms 
eoasisted principally of moskets, matchlocks and pikes. About 1,800 of 
the two first, -and 8,800 of the last, were g^yen up. 
- Subsequent ev'ents showed that the Polygars had managed to ret«un 
a considerable number. 



Major Bannerman was thanked for his services by the OHAP. XYT. 
Governor-General, as weU as by the Government of 


A detachment^ nnder Lieutenant-Colonel Fotheringham 
was employed dnring March and April against parties 
of maranders in Ganjam^ but Hili progress having been 
slow, he was superseded by Colonel Urban Vigors, 
commanding the division, who soon brought matters to 
a satisfactory termination, and received the thanks of 

Acquisition of Takjobb, 1799. 

On the 25th October 1799 the Kingdom of Tanjoro 
was made over to the East India Company on condition 
of the annual payment to the Bajah of one lakh of pago- 
das, and one-fifth of the net revenue of the province, 
after deducting bhe charges of collection. The fort of 
Taujore was given up to the Bajah to be garrisoned at 
his pleasure. 

General Harris resigned command of the Army on the General 
26th January 1800, and was succeeded by Major-General „g|gQg^ xsoo. 
Brathwaite of the Company's service. 

Early in February the three battalions of Bengal Volun- The Bengal 
teers under Lieutenant-Colonel Gardiner, set out on their y^^^^^ 
return, but were detained in the Northern Circars for 
some little time on account of disturbances in the Zemin- 
dary of Polaveram. Operations were brought to a suc- 
cessful termination in April, and the services of Colonel 
Gardiner and his brigade were acknowledged in hand- 
some terms by the Madras Government in a General 
Order dated 12th May. 

' 1st battalion lOtb, 3 companies ; 2nd battalion Stb, 7 companiei ; 


CHAP. XYI. The lOth regiment ^ Bengal native infantry^ and the 
company of Bengal artillery, which had formed part of the 
Subsidiary Force at Hyderabad, marched for their own 
Presidency on the 27th Febmary. Colonel Dalrymple ' 
issued a very complimentary order on their departure^ a 
copy of which he forwarded to the Madras Government 
with a letter from which the following is an extract : — 

*'The accompanying extract from the order issaed at 
parting with the Bengal troops is fully expressive of the 
estimation in which I held them, and conveys the general 
sentiments, I am convinced, of the Coast officers here, who 
have so long served with them on the most cordial terms." 

Sebvicx in Bullum^ 1800. 

About the end of March a detachment ^ under Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Tolfrey was sent against Kistnapah Naik, 
the Bajah of BuUum^ who had taken possession of the 
Bissly or Soobroomony ghaut leading from Mysore into 
Canaraj and interrupted our commanication with Manga- 
lore. Colonel Tolfrey arrived at Eygoor on <the 80th 
March^ and finding it abandoned^ he destroyed the place 
and advanced to Arrakaira,^ where the Bajah occupied a 

^ The Iflt battalion afterwards became the 14th regiment, and the 
2nd battalion the 16th reipment. Neither of these is now in existence. 

' This distinguished and popular officer died at Hyderabad 10th 
December 1800, and was saooeeded hj Colonel Urban Vigors. Colonel 
Dalrymple rendered many Important serrioes to the Btate^ amongst which 
may be mentioned the storm and capture of the fortress of Baichoor in 
1796, and the expulsion of Dhoondiah from the Mysore territory in 1799. 
He was selected to lead the 8 flank companies of M.N.I. employed at 
the storm of Seringapatam. General Wellesley wrote of him as follows 
in a letter to the Resident at Hyderabad, dated 17th December 1799 : — 
" I join in the general regret for the loss of Lieutenant- Colonel Dalrym- 
ple. I fear that it will be difficult to replace him ; indeed, on public 
as well as private grounds, his death is looked upon by all as a publio 

' 1st battalion 12^th regiment, 8 companies ; 2nd battalion 8rd regi- 
loent, 5 companies ; 2 gfuns, 60 pioneers, and a body of Mysore tro(^. 

* About 8 miles south-east of Mnnzerabad, 


Btrong stockaded position in thick forest. The barriers CHAP. XYI. 
were attacked on the 2nd Aprils bat the detachment was 
repulsed with the loss of 47 men killed and wonnded. 
About the end of the month, a reinforcement ^ arrived 
under the command of Colonel Montresor, H.M/s 77th 
regiment, and the place was carried by storm on the 30th Capture of 
after a stout resistance.' The following is an extract 
from Colonel Montresor's report : — 

** I accordingly marched to Monzerabad on the 29th, and 
on the following morning (this day) after leaving my eqaip. 
age and stores under the protection of the g^ns of that fort, 
and of the Rajah of Mysore's cavalry, I attacked and carried 
Arrakerry, dispersed the Polygar's adherents, and bomt 
several of his villages and magazines of grain. I am much 
indebted to the troops under my command for the zeal and 
gallantry displayed throughout the day. 

" The colunm of attack, consisting of the flank companies 
of H.M.*s 73rd and 77th regiments under Captain McPherson, 
three companies of the 2nd of the 3rd, and the grenadiers of 
the 1st of the 12th, was led by Major Capper with a degree 
of spirit and gallantry which overcame a continoed range of 
obstacles and resistance for near a mile and a half through 
a most intricate country." 

^ Flank oompamefl H.M.'b 78rd and 77th, and 4 companies 2nd batta- 
lion 4th regiment, under ICajor Capper. 

Killed. Wounded. TotaL 

* H.M.'b 73rd regiment 5 ... 6 

H.M.'s77th do. 4 ... 4 

2nd battalion 8rd regiment N.I. (18th 

JLpPi.i.^ ... •.• ••• ... ... Z 12 X4 

2nd battalion 4th regiment N*I. (16th 

J&.lCl.y ... ... ... *•• ... 2 42 44 

Ut battalion 12th regiment K.I. (23rd 

vt.Ij.X.I ••> ••• .«. ... .»• 9 O O 

... ••• ••• ••• I . • 2 4 O 

Total ... 18 es 81 

Kyiore troopi, 19 killed, 41 wounded. 


CHAP. XTI. The thanks of Goyemment to Golonel Montresor and 
t nuL«ir« ».rt tho detachment were published to the Army in an order 
the troops. dated 12th May. 

Final Operations against Dtoondiah, 1800. 
Dhoondiah, after his defeat by Q-okla in August 1799, 
soon collected his scattered followers, and having been 
joined by nearly the whole of Tippoo^s cavalry, and a 
number of disaffected men from the Hyderabad country 
and from Guddapah, he obtained possession of several 
places in the Southern Mahratta country, and threatened 
to enter Mysore. The Peshwa sent a force consisting of 
5,000 horse and a large body of infantry to oppose his 
further progress in Savanoor, but this force was beaten, 
and a large number of horses captured. Such being the 
state of matters, orders were sent to Colonel Wellesley on 
the 2nd May 1800, directing him to assemble a field force 
as speedily as possible, and giving him authority to 
pursue Dhoondiah into the Mahratta territory or else- 
where. In conformity with this order a body ^ of troops 

' CavaZry— Colonel Sceyesson. 

1 f ki*im>^A / H.M.'8 19th dragoons. \ Lieutenant-Colonel Torin, 

igiongaae. | igt and 4*h native cavalry, f Ut cavalry. 

9 A Ary f H.M.'s 25th dragoons. \ Colonel Pater, 2nd cav- 

zna ao. ^ 2nd native cavalry. / airy. 

Firgt Brigade of Infantry, 

H.M.'b 73rd and 77th regimentB ... ... Lieut.-Col. Monypenny, 

H.M.'b 73rd. 

Second Brigade of Infantry, 

l0t battalion Ist regiment. \ 

let do. 8th do. } ... Lient. -Colonel Tdfrey, 

let do. 12th do. ) l8tl2th. 

Third Brigade of InfanU-y, 

2nd battalion 4th regiment. \ -u^i^ n*».*«*» o^a a^\, 

2nd do. 2nd Bombay regiment. \' Major Capper, 2nd 4th. 

The let battalion 4th Bombay regiment, was ordered to join this 
brigade, but did not do so nntil abont the middle of August. 
Detachment Madras artillery under Captain, Sir John, Sinclair. 
Detachment Madras pioneers under Captain Heitland, 6th regiment. 


was assembled at Chittledroog daring the early part of OHAP. XYI. 
Jnne^ and by the 28rd of that month they had crossed 
the riyer Toombaddra at Hurryhur^ and encamped in the 
Mahratta country. 

A detachment^ of the Hyderabad Subsidiary Force petoohmentg 

from Hydeza- 

under Lieutenant-Colonel Maclean^ 2nd battalion 9th bad. 
regiment, was sent to co-operate in the Baichoor Doab, 
and this was reinforced soon afterwards by another 
detachment ' from the same f orce^ composed of a regi* 
ment of cavalry and 8 companies of in&ntry* under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Bowser, who assumed command of 
the whole. 

Colonel Wellesley marched for Ranee ' Bednore on the Capture of 


27th. His adyanced guard having been fired at from Bednoxe. 
the fort, it was immediately attacked by the pioquets 
under Colonel Monypenny, consisting of 50 europeans 
and 150 natives, supported by the 1st battalion 1st 
regiment, and carried by escalade without the loss of a 

The cavalry having surrounded the fort so as to cut 
off retreat, Dhoondiah's garrison, amounting to about 500 
men, were nearly all killed. 

The following order was issued to the troops: — 

'< Eanee Bednore, Friday, 27th June^lB89. ' ^ 

" Colonel Wellesley received much pleasure from observing 
the vivacity with which the attack of the fort of Banee 

1 l«t battalion 6t1i, and 2nd battalion 9th regiment, 8 field pieces, 
and 1,000 Kiiam'a hone. 

* 8rd i«£^ent native oavahrj and six companies of infantry, vis., 
the flank companies 2nd battalion 2nd, 2nd battalion 7th, and 2nd 
battaUon llth. 

* About 14 miles north-west of Harryhur. 



Defeat of 

Gokla by 

Oaptare of 

CHAP. XVI. Bodnore was conducted this xnoming under the orders of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Monypenny. To this is to be attributed 
the immediate success of the attack without any loss on our 
side, although it appears that the fort contained a large 

DhocndaPant Gokla^ the Mahratta leader, with 10,000 
horse, 5,000 foot and 8 guns, who was at this time in the 
vicinity of Kittoor for the purpose of co-operating with 
the British, was suddenly attacked by Dhoondiah ^ on the 
SOth June, and defeated with the Io]3s of his guns. He 
himself was killed. 

Colonel Wellesley crossed the Werdah near Deogherry 
on the 8th and 9th July, and after having constructed a 
redoubt upon the river, in which he left a small detach- 
ment, he marched to Savanoor on the 12th. Leaving his 
heavy baggage and stores in that place, he proceeded 
against the fort of Koondgul, in which Dhoondiah had 
left a garrison of 600 men, and carried it by assault on 
the evening of the 14th with trifling loss. The following 
is an extract from his report to the Adjutant-General, 
dated 18th July :— 

*' The troops attacked Koondgul after a march of above 22 
miles, and that they had been under arms above 12 hours. 
The cavalry surrounded the place ; the gateway was attacked 
by the Ist of the 12th, and an endeavour was made to blow it 
open, while the grenadiers of the 73rd regiment under Captain 
Todd, supported by those of the 1st of the 8th, escaladed the 
curtain on the opposite side with a spirit which overcame 
every obstacle." 

On the 16th Colonel Wellesley relieved the fort at 
Sirhetty, which was besieged by one of Dhoondiah's 

Belief of 

^ It waa said that Dhoondiah dyed his mnataoheB in the heart's blood 
of Gokla, in fulfilment of a vow of reyenge made after his defeat by 
that chief in August 1799. 


adherents, and lie then returned to Savanoor for the CHAP. XYL 
baggage and stores. 

Dhoondiah, who had fled from Koondgnl on the Capture of 
approach of the detachment, being reported to be in the 
forest in the neighbourhood of the fort of Dummul, 
Colonel Wellesley moyed in that direction from Sayanoor 
on the 22nd, haying been joined a day or two preyiously 
by a body of Mahratta horse recently under Gokla. He 
came before the fort on the morning of the 26th, and the 
garrison, consisting^c^ about 1,000 men, haying refused 
to surrender, the place was immediately attacked and 
carried by escalade. 

The following is an extract from Colonel Wellesley's 
report to the Adjutant-General : — 

" Camp at Dtimmul, 2eih My 1800. 

" The fort was surrounded by the cayalry under Colonel 
Steyenson, and by the Mahrattas under Goklah/ It was 
attacked in three places : at the gateway by Major Desse with 
the picquets, supported by two companies of the 2nd of the 
2ud; on one face by Lieutenant-Colonel Capper with the 
grenadiers and light infantry of the 73rd, and the 2nd batta- 
lion 4th ; and on the other face by Captain Macpherson with 
the grenadiers and li^ht infantry of the 77th, and the 
remainder of the 2nd of the 2nd Bombay regiment. It was 
impossible to force the gateway, and t|ie party on that attack 
entered the fort by escalade ; and the other two attacks like- 
wise succeeded nearly at the same time." 

" The fort is strong and well built, the wall about 30 feet 
high, with a dry ditch, in some places of considerable depth. 
I cannot say too much in fayor of the troops, who, by this 
exploit^ haye added to the reputation which they haye 
already gained in this country.*' 

Colonel Steyenson, Lieutenant-Colonel Capper, 2nd 

^ A leader who had snooeeded hia namesake. 

yoL. III. 3 



retreats to 
the north. 

Defeated at 

CHAP. XVI. battalion 4th, Major Desse, Ist battalion 8th, Captain 

Macpherson, H.M/s 77th, Lieutenant Hooper, H.M.'s 
73rd, and Captain Heitland of the Pioneers were specially 
mentioned as having distinguished themselves. 

The fort at Gaddack was evacnated after the arrival of 
the accounts of the fall of Dummul, and was occupied by 
the British on the 27th. Dhoondiah, having thus lost all 
his forts in Savanoor and in the Dharwar country, moved 
northwards with the intention of crossing the river 
Malpurba at Manolee, and encamped near Soondootty, 
about six miles south of that place. While there he 
heard of Colonel Wellesley's approach, and broke up his 
army into .three divisions. One division and the baggage 
marched towards Manolee and encamped in front of it, 
but without crossing the river. In this hazardous posi- 
tion it was surprised on the afternoon of the 30th and 
destroyed. The following is an extract from Colonel 
Wellesley's report : — 

" I arrived here with the cavalry at about 3 o'clock in the 
afternoon and found the camp standing, and that we had 
surprised the enemy. I instantly attacked his camp with 
the cavalry only. Lieutenant-Colonel Torin attacked their 
left with the 1st and 4th regiments, and Colonel Stevenson 
and Colonel Pater their front and right with the 25th 
Dragoons and 2nd regiment of cavalry. 

"The camp was strong, with its rear to the Malpurba, 
covered by the fort of Manowly on the other side of it, and 
a deep nullah along its front and left. The 2nd regiment of 
cavalry, under these circumstances, was the only corps which 
got into it ; but every person there was either killed or driven 
into the river. All the baggage, two elephants, many camels, 
horses, bullocks, &c, fell into our hands. Numbers ^ of people 

^ In a letter to Major Hiinro, dated Ist August, Colonel Welledey 
gave the number at about 5,000. A number of arms and aooontremente 
belonging to the 26th Dragoons -and the Sootoh Brigade, whioh had 
been stolen at Vellore, were found in the oamp. 


were drowned or shot in attempting to cross fche river, and CHAP. XYI. 
many prisoners, women and children, &c. were taken." 

This exploit was performed after a march of 26 miles. 

On the 2nd August the detachment from Hyderabad, Colonel 


augmented by the 4th cavalry, was placed under the com- command. 
mand of Colonel Stevenson with instructions to follow ^^ ^eSch- 
Dhoondiah up the river Malpurba; Colonel Wellesley nieJit- 
moving in the same direction, but at the distance of about 
15 miles from the river. A few days later it was ascer- 
tained that Dhoondiah having crossed the Malpurba near 
its sources had again turned eastward, and reached a place 
named Cowdelghee, about 24 miles east of the fort of Farther 
Grokauk on the Grutpurba. In consequence of this intelli- in ponnit of 
gence the following disposition of the troops was ordered. ^^«>^d»^- 

Colonel Capper, with his brigade strengthened by the 
Ist battalion 4th Bombay regiment recently arrived in 
camp, and a body of Mahrattas, was directed to move 
down the southern bank of the Malpurba towards Jellahali 
while Colonel Wellesley was to march along the northern 
bank by Manolee. Colonel Stevenson was to move 
down the river Outpurba from Hanoor by Cowdelghee 
towards Bhagalcottah. The Mahrattas were to move 
between Colonels Wellesley and Stevenson. 

On the 22nd August Lieutenant-Colonel Capper arrived Colonel 
at the fort of Hooley, jthe garrison of which had carried DeSaohment. 
off the baggage of the Dragoons as it was passing on the 
march to Soondootty on the Ist. Colonel Capper attacked 
the place at once and carried it by escalade ; after which 
he marched to Syringhy, a fort about eight miles east of 
Hooley. The place was strong, the scaling ladders too Capture of 
short, and the resistance determined, but it was taken s^i^hy? 
after a sharp struggle. These afiEairs were brought to 
ihe special notice of the Commander-in-Chief, by whom 
the following order was issued on the occasion :— - 

30 HI8T6RT or tBS MADftAS ARMY. 

CHAP. XTI. *< Bead-quarters, Chauliry Plain, Qth Septemh^ 1800. ' 

" Miyor.Gkneral Brathwaiie has receii^ firom the Officer 
Gommandiiig in Mysore a report of the Teiy spirited oondnct 
of a detachment from his force under lieutenant-Colonel 
Capper, of the 2nd battalion 4(th regiment, Madras native 
infantry, and oomposed of detachments from that corps, from 
the 2nd battalion 2nd, and 1st battalion of the 4th Bombay 
regiments under Captains Look and Dickinson, and a detail of 
Coast and Bombay artillery under Captain Sir John Sinclair. 
This force, on the morning of the 22nd August, attacked and 
carried by assault the forts of Hooley and Syringhy. 

'* The praise with which the Honorable Colonel Wellesley 
reports the conduct of the officers of the detachment in 
carrying a ladder to the walls, and of the troops in general 
in the course of these attacks is so favorable to their military 
character, that Major-General Brathwaite deems it his duty to 
announce it to the Army at large ; and to particularize the 
meritorious exertions of Captain Sir John Sinclair with his 
detachment of artillery in dismounting and carrying a gun 
(which the outer entrance was too small to admit on its 
carriage) for the purpose of bursting the inner gate of the fort 
of Syringhy. This service, successfully performed under a 
heavy fire from the place, reflects the highest honor on that 
officer, and on the gallant detachment under his immediate 

Dhoondiah From Syringhy Colonel Capper proceeded towards 

the^Doab. Boodihall, a short distanoe above the junction of the 
ICalparba with the Kistna^ and he had got within 20 
miles of Dhoondiah when the Malpurba fell suddenly. 
Dhoondiah^ taking advantage of this, crossed near Boodi- 
hall on the night of the 24th, and marched towarda the 
Baichoor Doab. His escape was attributed to the miscon- 
duct of the Mahratta troops with Colonel Capper, who 
refused to proceed in advance and guard the ford as had 
been directed by Colonel Wellesley. 


8I8T0fiT 6t THE KAPSAB ARXT. 21 

On the 5th September Dhoondiah and his parsners CHAP. XVL 
oocapied the nndennentioned positions. Dhoondiah was pogiaons of 
at Mooski^ nearly in the centre of the Doab ; Colonel ^^ *«»?•. 
Bteyenson was at Hdonagoonda^ close to the north- 
western frontier ; Colonel Wellesley near Hnnmnnsagor 
at the sonth-westem frontier; and the Mahratta and 
Nizam's horse in the centre; the intention being to 
driYe Dhoondiah into the narrow fork between the Kistna 
and Toombnddra, by which the Doab is bounded on the 

The next few days were passed in getting nearer to the Defeat and 
fagitire, and on the 10th he was defeated and killed at Dbooodiali. 
Conahgul. The following is an extract from Colonel 
Wellesley's account of his proceedings from the time of 
his entering the Nizam's country up to the conclusion of - 
the action. 

** Camp at Tepuljpervy^ lOth September 1800. 

" After I had crossed the Malpnrba at Jellahal, I marched 
on the 8rd instant^ and entered the Nizam's territories at 
HnnmniiBagar on the 5th. As Colonel Stevenson was obliged 
to cross the Malpnrba in boats, he was not able to advance 
from that riyer until the 4th. It appeared to me probable 
that when Dhoondiah should be pressed by the whole of our 
force on the northern side of the Doab, he would return into 
Savanoor by Kanagherry and Copaul, and would thus impede 
our communication ; or, if favored by the Patans of Kumool, 
and the Foligars on the right bank of the Toombuddra, he 
would pass that river and enter the territories of the Rajah 
of Mysore. I therefore determined to bring my detachment 
to the southward, and to prevent the execution of either of 
these designs, if he had them : and afterwards push him to 
the eastward, and to take such advantage of his movements 
as I might be able ; while Colonel Stevenson should move by 


CHAP. XYI. Ifoodgul and Mooski, at the distance of between 12 and 20 
miles from the Kistna, and the Mahratta and Mogul cavalry 
collected in one body between his corps and mine. 

" I arrived at Eanagherrj on the 7th, and on the 8th moved 
with the cavalry to Baswapoor, and on the 9th to this place ^ 
the in&ntry being on those days at Hatty and Ghinnoor, about 
15 miles in my rear. On the 9th in the morning, Dhoondiah 
moved from Mndgherry, a place about 25 miles from Baichoor, 
at which he had been encamped for some days, towards the 
Kistna; but on his road having seen Colonel Stevenson's 
camp, he returned and encamped about 9 miles in my front, 
between me and Bunnoo. It was clear that he did not know 
that I was so near him ; and I have reason to know that he 
believed that I was at Chinnoor." ^ 

'* I moved forward this evening, and met his army at a 
place called Conagpil, about six miles from hence. He was on 
his march, and to the westward ; apparently with the design 
of passing between the Mahratta and Mogul cavalry and my 
detachment, which he supposed to be at Ghinnoor. He had 
only a larg^ body of cavalry, apparently 5,000, which I 
immediately attacked with the 19th and 25th Dragoons, and 
Ist and 2nd regiments of cavalry.*' 

" The enemy was strongly posted, with his rear and left 
flank covered by the village and rock of Conagul, and stood for 
some time with apparent firmness; but such was the rapidity 
and determination of the charge made by those four reg^- 
inents, which I was obliged to form in one line in order at all 
to equalize in length that of the enemy, that the whole ga^e 
way, and were pursued by my cavalry for many miles. 
Many, among others Dhoondiah, were killed ; and the whole 
body dispersed, and were scattered in small parties over the 
fb.ce of the country." 

^ Thig allades to the discovery of the fact that the headman of 
Chinnoor had been famishing Dhoondiah with intelligence of Colonel 
Wellesley's moyements. 


*'Pari of the enemy *8 baggage was stiU remaining in bis camp CHAP. XYI. 
about tbree miles from Gonagnl. I returned tbitber, and got 
possession of elepbants, camels, and everjtbing be. bad." 

'* Tbe complete defeat and dispersion of tbe enemy's force, 
and aboye all, tbe deatb of Dboondiab, put an end to tbis 
warfare, and I cannot avoid taking this opportunity of 
expressing my sense of tbe oondact of tbe troops. Upon tbis 
last occasion tbeir determined valonr and discipline were con* 
spicaons, and tbeir conduct, and tbat of tbeir commanding 
officers. Colonel Pater,^ Major Paterson,' Major Blaquiere,' 
Captain Doveton,^ and Captain Price,' bare deserved my most 
particular approbation. At tbe same time I must inform you, 
tbat aU tbe troops bave undergone, witb tbe greatest patience 
and perseverance, a series of fatiguing services." 

Colonel Stevenson came up witb tbe retreating enemj Colonel 
tbe same evening near Deodroog, and entirely dispersed ^^^^J^^ 
them^ capturing tbeir remaining guns^ ^^gg^g^t tknd the enemy, 
cattle. Colonel Wellesley in his report stated tbat be 
attributed *' tbe opportunity which was given of destroy- 
ing the enemy's army to the movements of the detach- 
ment ^ under Colonel Stevenson ; in no part of the army 
has there been greater exertion or more fatigue^ or has it 
been more cheerfully borne, and I conceive Colonel 
Sterenson, Lieutenant-Colonel Bowser, and the officers 
and troops under their orders^ to be entitled to my appro- 
bation, and to the favorable report of their conduct which 
I now make to you." 

Colonels Wellesley and Stevenson, as well as the Thanks to 
officers and men, received the thanks of the Madras ^ 

^  iMi I III »  I ■! ^ ■^■■i«   ■■■■^»i M ■■»»■■■ 11 I I  i^iii mm »■ ■■!   III. 

' find cayalry. ' 19th Dragoons. ' 25th Dragoons. * Ist oavahry. 

* 2nd cavalry. 

* Tbe 4th oaTalry and the detachment from Hyderabad. The 
information as to the position of Dboondiab on the night of tbe 9tb 
September was given by a sepoy of Linntenant-Colonel Bowser's regi- 
ment, rix., the 2nd battcdion 2nd. Ck>lonel Wellesley presented the man 
with a reward of 200 pagodas, and recommended him for promotion. 


CHAP. XYI. Ooyemment and of the Qoyemor-Gteneral ; the latter 
deBiring that it might be particalarly expressed '' to the 
officers and men of the detachment of cayalry employed 
in the action of the 10th September, the high sense 
entertained by the Qoyernor-Oeneral in Goancil of the 
eminent courage and discipline manifested by them in 
the attack of the army of Dhoondiah Waugh, which 
terminated in the &11 of that insurgent, and in the 
complete destraction or dispersion of his force/' 

AcQuisrnoN of thi Cidsd Districts, 1800. 

The territory on the south of the Toombuddra and 
£istna, now known as the Ceded Districts, which had 
come into the possession of the Nizam under the treaties 
of 1792 and 1799, was principally held by Poly gar chiefe^ 
generally in a state of rebellion, and from whom both 
Hyder and Tippoo had experienced great opposition. 
Matters became worse under the Nizam, so much so that 
he made over the country to the East India Company on 
the following terms, embodied in a treaty dated 12th 
October 1800, viz. :— 
Treaty with That two battalions of sepoys, and one regiment of 
SSo^^*^ cavalry, with a due proportion of guns and artillery, 
should be added to the existing Subsidiary Force at 
Hyderabad, bringing the strength up to eight battalions 
of sepoys (or 8,000 firelocks) and two regiments of 
cavalry (or 1,000 horse), with the requisite complement 
of guns^^ European artillerymen, lascars, and pioneers,' 
fully equipped with warlike stores and ammunition. 

That for the regular payment of the whole, all the 
territories acquired by the Nizam under the treaties above 

* Two 12, And eighteen B-ponndera, 140 artiUerymen, eaoolnnTe of 
oommiuioned and noim)ommiBno&ed offioen. 

* 1 Serjeant, 1 Jemadar, 8 Hayildars, 8 Naigaes, 100 Priyates, and 1 
Paokally. The oompany was generally commanded by a Lientenant* 


specified^ slioald be made over to the Company for eyer^ CHAP. XVI. 
with the following modification^ viz., that with' the view 
of establishing a strong and well-defined boundary, the 
district of Adoni on the sonth of the Toombuddra, which 
belonged to the Nizam, should be given to the Company 
in lieu of certain districts north of that river, which had 
belonged to Mysore. 

Occupation ov the Ceded Teeritoey. 

Early in November the following measures, under 
the direction of Colonel Wellesley, were taken for the 
occupation of the ceded territory. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Mackay, with the 2nd battalion 5th regiment, entered 
Harponelly on the 9th, accompanied by Major Thomas 
Munro, who had been appointed to conduct the civil 
administration of the country. Lieutenant-Colonel 
Monypenny, with the 25th dragoons, the Ist and 4th 
cavalry, the 73rd foot, the 2nd battalion 4th, and the 1st 
battalion 12th, crossed the Toombuddra near Anagoondy, 
and proceeded to ta;ke possession of Bellary, Adoni, and 
Gooty. Lieutenant-Colonel Cuppage, commanding at 
Nundidroog, sent a detachment of the 2nd battalion 
18th to occupy the fort at Gurrumcondah. 

On the 15th November Major-General Dugald Camp- General 
bell was appointed to command in the Ceded Districts, ^^^dg. 
and was ordered to join immediately. 

The principal places were occupied without difficulty, DistribnHon 
but the settlement introduced by Major Munro was isoi.^ ^' 
resisted by many of the Jagheerdars and Polygar Chiefs. 
Serious disturbances ensued^ and the troops were 
actively employed until September 1801, when General 
Campbell reported that tranquillity had been established 
throughout the provinces under his authority, and he 
therefore recommended that the force should be with* 

VOL. in. 4 


CHAP. XYI. drawn from the fields and be distribnted in the following^ 
"""^ manner^ via. : — 

Cantonment at Bellary. 
H.M/s 25th dragoons^ and the 4th regiment cavalry. 

Fort at Bellary, 
Detachment of artillery. 

Six companies H.M/s 73rd^ and 1st battalion 12th 

Fort at OooUf, 
Detachment of artillery. 

Four companies H.M.'s 73rd^ and four companies 2nd 
battalion 4th regiment. 

Head-qnarters and six companies 2nd battalion 4th 

Ca/ntonment at Cumlapoor, 
Sixth regiment cavalry. 

Fort at Rachouty. 

Head-quarters and five companies 2nd battalion 5th 

Fort at Ourrumeondah. 

Two companies 2nd battalion 5th regiment. 

Two companies 2nd battalion 5th regiment. 

Fort at Sidhout, 
One company 2nd battalion 5th regiment. 


Head-quarters and six companies 2nd battalion 15th 


Ootta Gotta. CHAP. XYI. 

Two companies 2zid battalion 15th regiment. ""** 

Two companies 2nd battalion IStli regiment. 

These recommendations were approved of , and Greneral THanks to 
Campbell and the troops received the thanks of Govern- 
ment in a General Order dated 7th October, bat this had 
scarcely been pnblished, when the Polygar of Temaknl, E«volt oft!» 
a fort abont 17 miles east of Adoni, broke oat into Ternakui. 

A detachment.^ under the command of Major Strachan. ]!f^P^^^ *^ 


6th cavalry, attacked the place on the 14th December, 
but was repulsed with the loss of 60 * men killed and 

A few days afterwards General Campbell arrived with 
H.M.'s 73rd foot, and a second attack was made on the 
20th, but with a similar result, which was attributed to 
the want of artillery of sufficient calibre ; the light field- 
pieces in camp having been unequal to effect a practica- 
ble breach. The loss on this occasion was 173 officers 
and men killed and wounded. 

Breaching guns were afterwards brought up, and the Gapture ol 
fort was carried on the 30th December with the trifling 
loss of four men wounded, one horse killed, and two 
horses wounded. 

* H.M.'8 26th dngocms, 4th and 6th regiments of oaTaby. 
Detaohment of artilleiy : 2nd battalion ith, let battalion 12th, and 

2nd battalion 16th regiment. 

* Captain Maitland, 2nd battalion 4th, was killed on the 14th ; Cap. 
tain Cxane, lat battalion 12th, and Lientenant Dade, 4th cayabry, were 

Major Strachan, 6th oavalry, Lientenant-Oolonel Monypenny, Major 
Maodonald, and Lientenants Qawler and Thompson, 78rd, were wounded 
on the 20th. 


3HAP. XYI. Opibations AQAnrsT THB Ptcht Bajah. 1801. 

^J^"j^ The Government of Bombay, on acquiring the pro- 

1792-07/ vinoe of Malabar in 1792, reinstated most of the chiefs 

in their possessions, fixing, at the same time, a moderate 

assessment on their lands ; bat the reyenues were not 

paid, and frequent petty insurrections took place. The 

principal offender, generally known as the Pychy Rajah, 

was a junior member of the family of the Bajah of 

Cotiote near Tellicherry. During the early part of 1797 

he was at open war&re with Government, but during 

the rainy season of that year he agreed to resign his 

pretensions to authority in Cotiote, in consideration of 

an annual stipend of 8,000 rupees. 

The Tyohy Shortly afterwards he retired above the ghauts into 

theWynaad, the Wynaad, which at that time was so difficult to 

penetrate that Tippoo never attempted to occupy it, but 
contented himself with sending occasional detachments 
from his frontier posts at Elakencottah and Edatora to 
destroy the crops, and to plunder the inhabitants. 
He olaima The Bajah, immediately on his arrival in the Wynaad, 

that distriotf _,, 

1799. made friendly overtures to Tippoo, by whom they were 

favorably received, and who permitted him to remain in 
quiet possession o£ the greater part of the district with- 
out paying tribute. Matters continued on this footing 
until the conquest of Mysore, when the Bajah preferred 
a claim to the sovereignty of the Wynaad on the ground 
that it had been granted to him by Tippoo. 

Colonel Close, and others, nominated to inquire, were 
of opinion that no such grant had been made, and that 
the Bajah's residence in the Wynaad had been permitted 
in the hope that he would make use of his position there 
to create disturbances in Malabar, and thus embarrass 
the British Government. 


The GoYemor-General^ in a letter to the Government CHAP. XYI. 
of Madras^ dated 15th January 1800, thus expressed Opinion of 
himseK with reference to the Rajah's claim :— ^^""isw! 

" With respect to Wynaad, my decided opinion is, that 
any consideration of the pretensions of the Pychy Rajah 
previonsly to onr taking possession of the district under the 
treaty of Mysore, wonld be fatal to the anthority of the 
Company. No oompromise mnst therefore be admitted on 
this subject. The authority of the Company must be estab- 
lished in Wynaad as soon as possible, and if the Pychy Rajah 
should presume to resist the measure, his contumacy must be 
punished with the most signal severity." 

Early in March Colonel Wellesley was invested with Bombay 
the general command in Malabar and Canara in addition Malabi^ 
to that of Mysore, and he was about to march into the P^^*^^, 

"^ , ' under the 

Wynaad when it was found necessary to postpone opera- Govemment 
tions in consequence of the inability of the Bombay 
authorities to spare troops to take part in the service. 

On the 9th September an order was issued by the 
Ctovemor-General to the effect that the Bombay troops 
serving in Malabar and Canara, as well as those at Goa, 
should be placed under the Gt)vemment of Madras, and 
put on the same footing as the Madras troops in reelect 
of pay and allowances. 

Shortly afterwards preparations were made for taking. Colonel 
possession of the Wynaad by a force under Colonel gnoorodsto 
Wellesley, aided by the Bombay troops in Malabar under the command. 
Colonel Sartorius ; but Colonel Wellesley having been 
ordered to Ceylon on special duty, the command in 
Mysore^ Malabar, and Canara devolved upon Colonel 
Stevenson, who entered the Wynaad in January 1801. 

The Pychy Rajah's adherents were speedily dispersed, Ooonpation 
he himself became a fugitive, and before the commence- ^qx J'^'^' 
ment of the rains every post of any consequence in the 
Wynaad was in our hands. The Rajah, however, eluded 



Thanks to 
the iroopf. 

CHAP. XYI. all attempts to secure his person and escaped into the 

hill country of Travancore. 

The troops were sent into cantonments 09 the approadi 
of the rains in May, and on the 16th of that month, a 
General Order was published, in which Colonel Ste7enson» 
Colonel Sartorios the second in command, and the 
troops were thanked for their serrices. 

Colonel Wellesley, having landed at Cannanore on the 
28th April, was reappointed to the Mysore Division 
immediately afterwards. Colonel Stevenson, as a reward 
for his services, was at the same time nominated to the 
command of Malabar and Canara under the orders of the 
Officer commanding in Mysore. 



Opibatioks aqainst the Poltoabs of DiNDiaUL, 1801. 

The Polygar chiefs in the hill tracts of Dindigul had 
withheld payment of their kists since 1798, and set the 
orders of the Collector at defiance. Gk>vemment, howeyer, 
were not in a position to c6erce them until 1801, when 
Lieutenant-Colonel Innes, commanding at Dindigul, was 
directed to equip a small field force for that purpose. 
This was immediately done, but the destination of the 
detachment ^ was altered, and Colonel Infles was sent 
into Malabar to support Colonel Stevenson, then employed 
against the Pychy Rajah. Colonel Innes arrived at Arria- 
code, about 25 miles from Calicut, on the 27th February, 
but his services not being required, he returned towards 
Dindigul accompanied by a detachment of the 5th cavalry 
under Major Leonard. He arrived at Pylney about the 

1 Flank oompanies 2iid battalion 18th regiment, 88(^ 
Detachment Malay corps, 400. 
Pioneers under Gaptain Bagshaw, KXK 
Detachment of artillecy. 


middle of March, and having received reinforcements/ ghap. xVh 
he commenced operations against Gopal Naigne, Polygar 
of Yeerapatchy^ the principal of the refractory chiefs. 

Veerapatchy/ and two adjacent strongholds belong- Capture of 
ing to the same chief, were taken on the 21st without ^^^'^P* ^' 
loBs ; other places in the vicinity were occupied without, 
opposition, and on the 27th, most of the Polygar's 
haggage, horses and elephants were taken at his resi- 
dence at Woodacaud. The Polygar himself having taken 
ref age with Yedul Naigue, the chief of DhuUeecottah, 
a fort about 40 miles west of Veerapatchy, and at which 
several of the minor insurgent chiefs had assembled. 
Colonel Innes sent a summons to Yedul Naigue desiring 
him to give up Gopal Naigue and all the other chiefs on 
pain of being himself considered a rebel. An evasive 
reply having been returned, preparations were made to 
attack the place. 

Detachments were sent to occupy certain posts to the Capture of 
westward of Dhullee so as to cut off any attempted retreat ^' 

towards Travancore or Cochin, and a garrison having been 
left at Yeerapatchy, Colonel Innes advanced to Dhullee 
on the 12th April, and took the place on the 18th with 
trifling loss, dispersing the Polygars and their adherents. 
Those who escaped fled to Jelliputty, where they made a 
last stand on the 22nd, after which no further opposition 
was attempted. The Polygar of Yeerapatchy was taken 
on the 4th May, and on the 15th Colonel Innes reported to 
Government that the authority of the Civil power had 
been completely re-established in the province. Colonel 
Innes and the troops were thanked by Government in 

* Detaohment H.M.'b 12th foot under Major Pioton. 

Do. 2nd battalion let regiment under Major Innes. 
> About 25 miles north-west of the fort of Dindigul. 


CHAP. XVI. an order dated 22Dd May, from wliich the following is an 
extract : — 

Twi 8t George, 22nd May 1801. 

Thanks to ^* The operations of Lien tenant- Colonel Innes' detachment 

the troopi. h^ye been eqnallj distingnished by the jndicions arrangements 
with which they were planned, and by the great energy and 
ability which signalised their execntion, and the GK)Temor 
in Council has viewed with the highest satisfaction, the 
nndi^nnted and persevering ardour with which the difficulties 
opposed by the united force of the rebels, the seyerity of a 
fatiguing service, and of an unfkvorable climate have been 
surmounted. The force of the rebels has been subdued, their 
strongholds attacked and taken, and the civil government 
restored in the rebellious pollams, with a degree of rapidity, 
judgment, and success, which merits his Lordship's warmest 


Expeditions aqaikst Tbrnatk^ 1801. 

Early in 1801, at the instance of Mr. Farqnhar, Resident 
at Amboyna, Colonel Burr, commanding the troops in 
the Moluccas, organised an expedition against Temate, 
one of the spice islands belonging to the Dutch. 
Although the detachment^ was small, yet it was considered 
sufficient, as Captain Astl^, the senior Naval officer on the 

' Madras artillery : 22 Europeans and 28 gnn-lascars. Captain Boss. 
Madras European regiment t 88 non-oomnuBsioned rank and file. 
Captain Walker, 4th M.N.I. 

Bombay Marine : 40 Europeans. Lieutenant Hayes, Indian Navy. 
Wirtemberg Company : 86 Europeans. Captain Gaupp. 
Madras Pioneers t 20 men. Lieutenant Wissett, 9th M.N.I. 
Bengal Marine Battalion : 80 men. Lieutenant GiU. 
First Bengal N.I. : 1 Havildar, 8 Bepoys. 
Volunteer Corpe : 68 men. Captain Boles, 8rd M.N.I. 
Europeans 178) Natives 170, total 348. 


station^ Iiad promised Ids co-operation^ and the force of CHAP. XYI. 
the Dntqh was supposed not to exceed 60 Europeans 
and 2,000 trained natives. 

The detachment left Amboyna on the 22nd January Detaobment 
under the escort of H.M/s frigate "La Virginie" and the ^jjoyna. 
sloop " Hobart/' accompanied by the Company's armed 
vessels " Temate '^ and '* Splinter/' The fleet anchored 
oft Temate on the 10th* February, an<BL the Governor 
having refused to surrender, arrangements were made 
to attack Fort Orange the next day ; but Captain Astl^ 
having insisted that a detached work should be taken 
before any attempt was made on the principal fort, Colo- 
nel Burr waS obliged to give way. 

The boats containing the troops left the ships about 11 Failure of th^ 

_ expedition. 

A.M. on the 11th, and got to the shore about 1 p.m., the 
frigate and sloop keeping up a Ere all the time, but from 
such a distance that a great part of the shot fell into the 
sea. The jungle at the landing-place was so dense, that 
the detachment was obliged to make a considerable detour, 
and after having been led by guides for about an hour 
along a path so narrow that the men were obliged to 
march in single file, it came in sight of the fort standing 
in an open clearing. The troops, after a short halt^ 
advanced to the assault, but were received with so heavy 
a fire of grape and musketry, aided by that of two field- 
pieces which opened upon their right flank, that they 
were obliged to retreat with considerable ^ loss. Lieute- 
nants Scott, and Bawlings of the Indian Navy stood in 
with the " Temate " and " Splinter ^' and engaged the 
sea-face of the fort in a very spirited manner, but their 

^ The return is not f orthooming. Several wounded men were left 
beliind who were weU treated by the Dutch. When the detachment 
reached the beach the snrf was to high that the two field^pleces which 
bad been Uuided were spiked and abandoned. 

VOL. m. 5 




CHAP. XYI. gami^ being only six and four pounders^ did not make 
any impression on the works. 

Colonel Burr addressed Captain Astl6 on the 12th^ 
urging him to co-operate in an effectnal manner by 
anchoring within a proper distance of the fort, bat as he 
declined to comply, the expedition retorned to Amboyna, 
where it arrived upon the 19th. Colonel Bnrr ascribed 
the failure to the want of co-operation on the part of the 
Naval force, and in his report to the Madras Government, 
he mentioned that although Captain Astl^ had promised 
assistance in the shape of seamen and marines, he did 
not furnish any, and that not a single man belonging to 
the fleet was wounded. 

The ''Albion'' transport, which had sailed from 
Amboynafor Madras with 150 sepoys/ was obliged to put 
back early in March owing to stress of weather. Colonel 
Burr and Mr. Farquhar, being anxious to retrieve the 
failure, took advantage of this occurrence to make^'another 
attempt, and on the 2nd April, a detachment of Europeans 
and natives, amounting to 829 fighting men, sailed for 
Temate under the escort of the Company's squadron, com- 
posed of the ''Swift" commanded by Lieutenant Hayes, 
the "Star," the "Splinter/' and the brig " Resource." 

Captain Astl^ declined to join the expedition. The 
passage having been tedious, the ships did not anchor until 
the 23rd April. The troops were landed, and operations 
were commenced a few days afterwards. The strong 
redoubt of Koya-meira surrendered on the 8th May^ 
but being commanded by the hill of Talangnamy, the 
acquisition was of little use for the time. A few days 

Oapfcnie of 

1 These men Tolnnteered in a body for the second expedition. It has 
not been ascertained whether they belonged to the Snd battalion Ist 
regiment, or to the *' Kadras Yolvnteer Battalion," or to both. 


later, a party detached from camp near the oaptared OHAF. XTI. 
redoubt oonstmcted a battery from which fire was opened '*"^ 
on Talangnamy on the 1 7th. The enemy immediately 
made a vigorous sortie^ which was repulsed^ bat they 
renewed the attack on the 18th, and were not driven 
back nntil after a sharp straggle^ in which twelve of our 
men were killed, and many wonnded. Oar fire was kept 
np nntil the 22ndj on the night of which the enemy 
abandoned the hill, carrying off their guns. 

Lieutenant Hayes cannonaded Fort Orange on two Attacks by% 
occasions during the month without producing much "^ 
effect, whereas he lost several men killed and wounded, 
and the '' Swift " was a good deal damaged in her hull, 
as well as in her masts and rigging. 

The progress made during the early part of June was Sunenderof 
very slow owing to the smallness of the force, the obsti<k uumd. ^ 
Bate resistance of the enemy, and the number of detached 
works to be reduced before Fort Orange oould be closely 
ihvested. This was at last effected, and several small 
craft and boats laden with provisions having been inter* 
oepted by the squadron, the garrison became distressed, 
and unwilling to continue the defence. On the ev^aing of 
the 20th four Oommissioners, vested with full powers, 
came into camp to discuss the terms of capitulation. 
These were settled during the night, and on the morning 
of the 2lst, Fort Orange, with its dependencies, was 
given up. The place was found to be so strong that it 
could not have been taken by the weak force before it, 
had it not been destitute of provisions. 

Captain Joseph Walker of the Madras Army, with a The forae 
Hmall garrison, was left in command of the island pend- Amb^na, 
ing instructions from the Resident at the Moluccas, and 
Colonel Burr returned to Amboyna in July. 






CHAP. XVI. On the 11th March. 1801^ the appointment of the 
Marquis of WeUeslej to be Captain-Generalj and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of all the Boyal and Company^s troops 
in India> was pablished at Madras. 

On the 28th July Lieatenani-Gbneral James Staart/ 
recently Commander-in-Chief at Bombay, assomed com- 
mand of the Madras Army. 

AcQinsiTioN ov THi Cabnatic, 1801. 

* On the 31st of the same month, the following order, 
announcing the transfer of the Camatic to the East 
India Company, was published to the Army : — 

FaH 8t. Oeorge, Slai JtOy 1801. 

** In conformity to a treaty ' this day concluded between 
the Eight Honorable the Governor in Council, and His High- 
ness the Nawaub Azeem ool Dowlah Bahader, Nabob of the 
Camatic, by which the entire Civil and Military GoTemment 
of the Camatic has been transferred for ever to ihe hands of 
the Honorable Company ; orders have been transmitted to the 
civil ofloers appointed by the Governor in Councii to receive 
chai^ of the provinces of the Camatic from the officers of 
the late Government. His Lordship is therefore pleased to 
order and direct %I1 Officers commandiag Divisions, Stations, 
Garrisons, and Forts, to afford to the Civil Officers of 
Government whatever military aid may be necessary to the 

^ Thii officer came to Madnui in April 1782 with theTSUi (72nd) regi- 
ment, and served in the Frefiideno/ for many years. He commanded 
the expedition to Ceylon in 1796» and became Commander-in-Chief at 
Bombay in 1797. 

* The Company charged itself with the maintenance and support of 
the force required for the defence of the Carnatic, and with the protec- 
tion of the rights, person, and property of the Nawanb. One-fifth of the 
reyennes were to be set aside for his maintenance, and to be paid to 
him by monthly instalments of 12,000 star pagodas, and never less, 
whatever might be the state of the revennes. 


eBtablkbme&t of ihe anihority of the GompaBy throughoat OHAP. XTL 
the proviaoes of the Ottrnatia" ""^ 

Insubbiotion in Tihnitbllt and Maduba^ 1801-2. 

The Polygar prisoners, oonfined in the fort at Palam- - 

cottah after the suppression of the disturbances in Tinne- 
yelly by the force onder Major Bannerman in 1799, made 
their escape ^ on the night of the 2nd February 1801, and 
immediately repured to the Wahiaad hill near Panjalam- 
coorchy, where they were joined by nearly 4,000 armed 
men, who had been prepared for the attempt to escape, 
which, as subsequently ascertained, had been concerted 
for some time previously. 

Major Colin Macaulay, commanding in the province Major 
of Tinnevelly, assembled all the available troops^ at adyai^e/to 
Kytar, about 19 miles north of Palamcottah, and 17 miles 2^^" 
direct west from Panjalamcoorchy, against which place he 
inarched on the 6th February. On the 8th he arrived at 
Eolanelloor, and while coming on his encamping gpround, 
he was attacked at several points by considerable bodies 
of Polygars. The sepoys behaved steadily, and repulsed 
these assaults, killing 40 or 60 of the insurgents. On the 
9th the detachment encamped close to Panjalamcoorchy, 
when Major Macaulay was astonished to find that the 

^ The degree of resirauit in which fcheae prieonen were kept was 
eeid to hftve been detormined from timerto time by the OoUeotor, and it 
appears, that in oonaeqnenoe of an outbreak of snuJl-pox shortly 
before tiie eeoape, their fetters had been removed. 

The GoUeotor, on his part, laid the responsihility on the subaltern oom- 
mandin^ at Palamcottah. The resnlt was a general order in which it 
was directed that aU State prisoners should, in fntnre, be made orer to 
the officer oommaading the district. 

* 1st battation 8rd, regiment onder Major Sheppard i 100 men of the 
Tinner^y Prorineial battalion ; Nawanb's irregular horse 28 men ; two 
6 and two S pounders. 



Retreats to 

CHAP. xyi. fort, whioh had been reported as having been completely ^ 
destroyed by the pioneers in 1799, had been rebuilt, 
and that the insurgents were in considerable force, both 
within and without the walls. In these circumstances 
the Major determined to retreat to Palamoottah^ and he 
marched accordingly about 8 a.m. on the 10th. The 
insurgents followed and attacked the column, but having 
been repulsed with loss by Captain Yesey, who com* 
manded the rear guard, they desisted from any further 
attempt. • 

Owing to the unsettled state of affairs in Ifalabar, in 
Dindigul, and in the Ceded Districts, some difficulty was 
experienced in organising a force for service in Tinnevelly, 
but G-ovemment lost no time in despatching such troops 
as could be spared. 

On arriving at Palamoottah Major Macaulay informed 
Government of his intention to defer offensive operations 
until the arrival of reinforcements, but on the 22nd 
February he directed Captain Hazard, then on the inarch 
from Madura with a detachment 1st battalion 9th 
regiment, to attack the fort at Cadulgoody, which he 
described as being without gates, and defended by 800 
common peons, only 100 of whom were armed. 


of Major 

^ " The woUb were lerelled with the gromd ; this waa not the ease 
with the bastioDB, whioh were large inaMef of solid and rery flzm olay, 
f aoed with unbnmt briok. These were dug down considerably from the 
centre till the earth formed a gradual slope, leaving considerable 
monnds. By scarping the earth from the remainder of their exterior 
faces, and raising It ronnd the centres which remained from 7 to 10 
feet high, the rebels, in the short space of six days from their escape, 
completed the bastions in a defensible manner, and connected them 
with a waU of 5 or 6 feet high, in whioh state Major Macailay saw 
the fort on the 9th February. AXL the laborers of the sorronnding 
country had been summoned and compelled to perform this work, which, 
before the end of that month, placed the fort of Panjalamcoorchy in a 
better state than it had been before its dem<^tion."— Lieutenant^Colonel 
Agnew, to the Commander-in-Chief, Falamcottah, Sth March 1808, 


►r^Macaolay also took the step of sending a party OHAP. XYI. 
of 60 men nnder a native officer to occapy the pagoda 
at Streevyg^ndnm, about 15 miles south-east of Palam- 
cottah, which was accomplished on the night of the 25th 

Captain Hasard cam<9 before Oadulgoody on the 27th Fulnre at 
February, and found it surrounded by a dense hedge of ^^ ^' 
thorns, and defended by at least 1,500 men. Finding 
himself not sufficiently strong to attack the place, he 
proceeded towards Nagulpoor, a fort distant only a few 
miles, which was held by a detachment of the Bamnad 

Captain Hazard was attacked on the march, and lost 
22 men killed and wounded, but he repulsed the enemy, 
whose loss was not ascertained. 

The party at Streevygoondum remained unmolested Withdrawal 
nnta about the* 12th March, when the pagoda was sur- ^^^^. 
rounded by large bodies of Polygars, and it was found goondun. 
necessary to send a strong detachment imder Major Shep- 
pard of the 3rd to relieve and withdraw the garrison. This 
was effected on, the 16th after some sxnart skirmishes. 

These proceedings elicited the disapproval of Qovem-' Bemarks 
ment, which was thus expressed in a letter to l^jor 2^^^^^™* 
Macaulay : — 

" His Lordship regrets that the same motives of prudence 
which induced you to reliuquiBh the intention of attacking 
the rebels in Psnjalamooorohy were not considered applicable 
to your projected attack on Oadulgoody, or any other offensive 
operation of the troops under your command ; for il the 
whole disposable force of the province, collected under 'your 
own command, was insufficient to make any impression on 
the body of rebels at Pan jalamooorchy, it was presumable 
that a detachment fh>myoiir force would be equally incapable 
of attacking the rebels with advantage at any other post 
of importance to them. The cfystem of detachments, at all 



liOSB of 


CHAP. XVI. timeB excepfcionable, the Qovemor in Oounoil considers to be 
*~^ peculiarly hasftrdoos in the face of an enemy so avowedly 
superior to your own force." 

On the 2nd March the fort at Tutioorin was taken by 
the insurgents in consequence of the misconduct of the 
garrison, which consisted of a party of the 2nd battalion 
6th regiment nnder Lieutenant Ormsby. This officer, 
not having been longer than eight months iiL the country, 
had no control over the men, who paid no attention to 
his orders, and gave up the fort without resistance, on 
being assured of their own personal safety. The Poly- 
gars behaved remarkably well on this occasion, as they 
put Lieutenant Ormsby on board a native craft with all 
his effects, and landed him at the adjacent port of 
Manapur, from whence he made his way to Palamcottah 

Mr. Bagot, the Postmaster, who was taken at the same 
time, was released a few days afterwards, without having 
been ill-treated in any way. 

The expected reinforcements having arrived, the- whole, 
amounting to about 2,800 men,^ assembled at Kytar on 
the 27th, and marched for Panjalamcoorchy on the 29th. 
On the morning of the 30th, while on the march to Pashen- 
thelly^ a body of about 200 Polygar pikemen appeared 

The troops 
assemble at 

SkirmiBh on 
the maroli. 


1 Body Guaid 
Ist oavaliy ' ••• ..< 
H.M.'8 74th regiment ... 
let battalion 8rd regiment 

• • . 

• • • 













. tt 

00 men and 2 galloper gnus. 

One troop. 

Two oompanies. 

The whole. 

Five companies. 

Three do. 

Three do. 

Bix do. 

One company. 

Detachments Bengal and Madras artillery, with one 18 and two 12 
pounders, two 6| inch howitzers, two 6 and two 4 ponnders. 
Detachment of pioneers. 


on the right flank. This was immediately charged by the CHAP. XYL 

cavalry under Lieutenant Grant of the Body Guards and 

almoBt entirely destroyed. Our loss was numerically small^ 

viz., 4 men IdUed and 12 wounded; 3 horses killed and 18 

wounded ; but Lieutenant Grant was severely woundedj 

and Shaik Ibrahim^ the Subadar of the Body Guards a 

very gallant soldier^ was killed. The services of this 

valuable officer were recognised in a General Order dated 

15th Aprils and a pension equal to the pay of his rank, viz., 

30 pagodas per mensem, was granted to his family* 

The detachment- came before Panjalamooorchy on the RepniBeai 
morning of the 31st March. It was an irregular oblong ooonjhy. ' 
about 500 feet in length and 300 feet broad, and had 
been considerably strengthened since Major Macaulay's 
retreat, the walls and bastions having been raised to the 
height of about 12 and 15 feet respectively. The whole 
was surrounded by a thick hedge of thorns. Major 
Macaulay having determined to attack the bastion at the 
north-western angle, the guns were placed in position 
accordingly, and what appeared to be a practicable breach 
having been m&de by about 3 p.m., the storming party, 
composed of the two companies 74th, the grenadiers of 
the several native battalions, and one battalion company 
1st battalion 3rd regiment, advanced to the assault, 
covered by the fire of the rest of the force which had 
been disposed on the flanks. The hedge was passed 
under a heavy fire, and the men reached the top of the 
breach, but they were unable to make any further 
progress, being either killed or disabled the moment they 
showed themselves. 

Major Macaulay, in his report, expressed himself as Behayionr 
having been well satisfied with the conduct of the troops. ^ ^^ 

*^ Notwithstanding the intrepid firmness of the assaulting 
party, the daring and desperate resistasce of the enemy 

VOL. III. 6 



Canie oi the 


CHAP. XYI. made it utterly impossible to enter the place, all those wlio 

attempted it being instantly piked or shot. 

*' Peroeiying at length the impossibility of succeeding, I 
was reduced to the painfiil necessity of ordering the troops to 
retire. Our loss is very severe. The whole behaved with 
the greatest animation and ardour/' 

On the capture of the place in May it was found that 
the bastions were hollow^ and that there was no footing 
on the top for the assailants. The defenders, standing 
closely packed in the bastions, armed with sharp pikes 
from 18 to 20 feet in length, were enabled to get at any 
man who showed himself above them without being 
themselves in the least exposed. Moreover^ the breach 
having been narrow^ the front of the assailants was neces- 
sarily contracted. The repulse sustained by Colonel 
Fnllarton at this place in 1 788, was attributed by him to 
similar difficulties. • 

The casualties ^ were numerous, our loss having 
amounted to 317 killed and wounded of all ranks. 


Killed. Wounded. Total. 


• • • 

^ Cavalry ... •.. ... ••• 

^Ll'lilll6x'y .•• ... ••• •.. •>. 

Detachment H.M.'b 74(th regiment 
Ist battalion 8rd regiment (Srd L.I.) 
Detachment Istbatt. 4th regt. (4th N.I). 

Do. Ist do. 9th do. (9th N.I). 

Do. 1st do. 18th do. (26th N.I.). 

Do. Ist do. 14th do. (27th N.I.). 

Do. SSnd do. 16th do. (82nd N.I.). 



• . . 

















a .* 









Qfieers included ahove» 
Killed. — Lieutenant Shank, 74th, Lieutenant Egan, 1st battalion Srd, 
and Lieutenant Mangnall, Ist battalion 4th regiment. 

Wounded. — Captain John Campbell, Lieutenants Fletcher and Camp- 
bell,* 74th, Lieutenant Greaves and Surgeon Barter Ist battalion Srd, 
Lieutenant Clapham Ist battalion 4th, Captain Hazard and Lieutenant 
Toriano Ist battalion 9th, Lieutenant Norris Ist battalion 18th, Lieute- 
nants Wright and KQiot 1st battalion 14th. 



jor Macanlay retired to a &yorable position aboat CHAP. Tfh 
1^600 yards from the fort^ and encamped there pending Lieutenftnt- 
the arrival of reinforcements. The Goremorin ConndL OoIohbI 


immediately on hearing of the disaster, appointed Lieate- oommaads. 
nant-Golonel Agnew, then Adjatant-Gteneral, to com- 
mand the troops in the field, and inrested him with full 
powers, such as had been exercised by Major Banner- 
man in 1799. 

H.M/s 77th regiment was sent from Malabar by Beinforor- 
Colonel Stevenson, the 2nd battalion 6th regiment MJ^.I. '^''^' 
was ordered from Ceylon, and such troops in the Oamatio 
as were available, were ordered to march forthwith for 
the scene of action. 

Lieutenant- Colonel Agnew arrived in camp on the 21st Oaptnn of 
May and the troops came up the next day. Batteries oomhTT' 
were constructed on the night of the 22nd, and on the 
23rd fire was opened on the south-^west bastion and the 
adjoining curtains. A practicable breach having been 
made in the bastion, the curtains having been nearly 
levelled, and the flanking defences ruined, the troops 
moved forward to the assault about I o'clock on the 
afternoon of the !^th. Their advance was impeded for 
some time l>y the hedge, and when they reached the 
summit of the breach, they met with such an obstinate 
resistance that an entrance was not effected until after a 
contest of above twenty minutes, when nearly the whole 
of the defenders of the bastion had been killed by hand 
grenades, and shot thrown over the walls. 

Immediately on the capture of the bastion, the Poly- 
gars, to the number of about 3,000, who ha3 assembled on 
the opposite side of the fort, rushed rapidly, but in close 
order, out of the place. 

They were pursued and charged by the cavalry under 
Captain Doveton and Lieutenant Orant. The loss of the 



OperatioBfl in 

OHAP. XYI. insiu]gf6nt8 in the fort^ and during the pnrsnit, was 
""* estimated by Colonel Agnew at about 1,000 men. Oar 
loss amounted to 186^ of all ranks killed and wounded. 

On the capture of the fort the rebels fled into Sheva- 
gunga, then ruled by Vella Murdoo and Ohinna Murdoo, 
generally known as ''The Murdoos/' who, from having 
been the principal officers of the Zemindar, had usurped 
his authority, and exercised supreme control over the 
district. They were called upon by Colonel Agnew to 
give up the Chief of Panjalamcoorchy, and other princi- 
pal leaders, on pain of being themselves treated as rebels, 
and as they failed to comply, operations were commenced 
against them. 

The detachment of the 9th was left at Panjalamcoor- 
ohy, together with the sick and wounded. The company 
of the 2nd battalion 16th was sent to occupy Tuticorin, 
which had been abandoned by the rebels, and the rest 

xnarolieB to 

Killed. Woanded. Total. 

l^aVIku V ••• ••• ••. ••• 

Artillery ••• ••• ••« ••• 

Detaohment H.M.'s 74th regiment 

H.M.'fl 77th regiment 

lot battalion 8rd regiment 
let do. 4th do. 
let do. 7th do. 
Ist do. 9th do. ... 

let do. 13th do. 
iBt do. 14th do. 
Malay corps ••• ... ••• 

Pioneers ••• •>• ••• •!• 


•• • 



Total ... 84 
















• QgicerB indnded abovi* 

Killed. — Lientenant Gilchrist 74th ; Lieutenants Campbell and 
Spalding, 77th. 

Wonnded. — ^Lientenant Oampbell 74th ; Lientenant Blacker 1st 
oaralry ; Lieutenants Birch and Fraser* 1st battalion 4th ; and Oaptain 
Whitlie Malay corps. 

• Died on the 86th. 


of the force matched towards Bamnad on the 26th. By GHAP. XTI. 

tiiis moyement Colonel Agnew expected to be famished 

with supplies from the friendly district in his rear while * 

he shonld be engaged ?nth the Polygars of Sheragunga, 

whoin he intended to attack from the eastern side of the 

foreat between Sermyial and Galiarcoil. On the 29th 

the fort at Oomery, then invested by the insurgents from Belief of 

Sbevagonga, was relieyed by the 1st battalion 8rd, and a ^^^^'y* 

detachment 2nd battalion 6th under Major Gray of the 

latter. The garrison of revenue peons having been 

replaced by a company of the 3rd under Lieutenant 

Greaves^ the force proceeded towards Bamnad. 

Colonel Agnew halted at Trippawanum^ from whence he Colonel 
sent his heavy guns to Madura, and then resumed his ^^^^j 
march. The rebels, taking advantage of the many <»tbem«roh. 
facilities for attack^ with little risk to themselves^ which 
were afforded by the nature of the country on the line 


of march, harassed the detachment a good deal, more 
especially near Tripulchetty on the 7th, and between 
Manamadura and Patinoor on the 10th June. 

Our loss on the 7th, which amounted to 14 killed ^ and Casualties. 
81 wounded, was owing either to over-forwardness or 
misapprehension of orders on the part of Major Gray, who 
formed his men in front of a bank, instead of behind it 
as had been directed. 

The loss' on the 10th was caused by want of precau- 
tion on the part of the .officer commanding the rear 
guard, who neglected to take up a proper position to 
cover the passage of the river Vigay, 

1 Q/ieen hilled and wrnnded, 7ih J«m ISOl.^lst battalion Srtl» 
Lieatenaiit Stewart wounded i 2&d battalion Cth, Major Qray kilted i 
itenants Parminter and Oole wounded. 
* Killed 6, wounded 70, miMing 8. 









Innea afc 

Joins Colonel 

Colonel Agnew^ on amving at Bamnad about the 
middle of June, found the northern part of the district 
in revolt, and that he could not hope to be supplied with 
proyisions. In these circumstances he was compelled 
to change his plan of operations, and therefore marched 
to Madura, which he reached on the 4th July. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Innes,^ commanding in Dindigul, 
having been directed to co-c^erate with the troops in 
Shevagunga, arrived at Nuttum early in June, and on 
the 18th he surprised and cut up a party of the rebels 
at Sing^umpadaree, about three miles south of the fort at 
Perah Mally. He then encamped at Manapacherry, 
between Nuttum and Perah Mally, for the purpose of 
covering the advance of certain reinforcements expected 
from Trichinopoly. On the 8th he was attacked by the 
rebels in force, who drove in his outposts, but they were 
soon repulsed, and having been charged by the detach- 
ment of the 5th cavalry supported by the infantry, they 
dispersed, losing a number of men. The casualties in 
the cavalry '.were serious considering the small number 

Colonel Innes returned to Nuttum on the 9th, and 
was joined at that place a few days afterwards by the 
flank companies of the regiment DeMeuron, the 2nd 
battalion 12th regiment native infantry, and a strong 
detachment of pioneers. 

Colonel Agnew marched from Madura on the 22nd 
July, and reached Tricatoor on the 24th without opposi- 
tion. Colonel Innes left Nuttum on. the 23rd, and after 
having reconnoitered the fort at Perah Mally, he proceeded 
to join Colonel Agnew. On the 25th he encamped at 

^ Detachment 5tli oayaliy, detadiment 12th foot, detachment JBnd 
battalion 18th natire infantry, detachments artillery and pioneen. 
' 14 men killed, 3 men wounded, 8 horaea kiUed, 8 hones wounded. 


Suttasingaraooitah^ about 6 miles from Tricatoor, and CHAP. ZYI. 
resumed his march on the 26th. The country was close "~*~ 
and difficult, and the Colonel was attacked ^ by the rebels^ 
who hi(d occupied some strong positions in his fronts 
and when driven from these they turned upon his rear. 
Colonel Agnew, hearing the firings moved out in support^ 
and on his approach the insurgents retired. On the 28th 
the united detachments ^ marched to Ookoor^ and from 
thence to the neighbourhood of Serruvial/ where they 
encamped on the 29th after having been fired upon 
during nearly the whole day. On the 30th the place was 
abandoned by the Polygars after firing a few shots. 

From the 31st July until the 1st September^ the force Failnre to 
was employed in endeavouring to penetrate the dense ooUfrom 
forest between the camp and the fort at Caliarcoil, the S®"^'^**** 
principal stronghold of the rebels^ situated about five 
miles direct south of Serruvial ; but the difficulties were 
found insurmountable^ and the attempt was given up 
after the completion of a road about four miles in length, 
which had been effected by the labor of the pioneers^ 

' Oasnalties in the detaohment under Colonel Innes, 26th June 1801 : 

Killed. Wounded. Missing. 

Cavalry ... ... ... 1 ... 4 horses wounded. 

Bnropean jnfuitry 4 10 

Native do. ... 2 18 1 

6 24 1 

Captain Heitland, pioneers, and Lieutenant Firth, H.H.'8 12th foot, 

'It appears incidentally from the correspondenoe, that a detaohment 
of the Bootoh Brigade was present during the operations in the forest 
between Semmal and Caliarcoil, but no particulars regarding it hare 
been found. 

* Sherewele in the old maps. An extensive village, which contained 
the palace of the Murdoos. Colonel Agnew's return of the loss on the 
894h has not. been found. Colonel Welsh, in his reminiscences, gives 
it as 10 Bnropeans and 26 natives killed and wounded. 


CHAP. XVI. assiflted by a large number of woodcutters from Dindi- 

gul and Poodoocottab. 

The communications having been cut o£F^ only three ^ 
letters from Colonel Agnew between the end of July^ and 
the 6th September are forthcomings so that there is little 
information to be found regarding his proceedings during 
that time, beyond the &ct of the failure. On the night 
of the 5th August the rebels threw up an entrenchment 
across the road^ and in driving them out on the Gth, 
37 Europeans ' and 25 natives were killed and wounded. 

The following extracts from a letter written from 
Serruvial by Colonel Agnew on the 21st August will give 
some idea of the nature of the service : — 

** Daily attempts have since been made to cut roads to the 
flank of the enemy's position, but, I am sorry to add, without 
success. Covered by banks and entreuchments against which 
the troops cannot advance from the thickness of the jungle, 
the enemy has baffled every attempt which has been made to 
penetrate further : the pioneers being tmable to work under 
the fire brought against them by the rebels from situations 
of perfect security. Repeated failures have dispirited the 
troops, although they have not suffered any considerable loss, 
and I do not entertain an expectation of success on this line 
of attack." 

'' Constant exposure to the sun, and considerable &tigue, 
has produced much sickness in the detachment. A great 
proportion of the officers are at present unfit for duty." 

1 Of these, two are on slips of paper about 8 inches long and 1 inch 
broad, supposed to have been conveyed in quills. 

* Oaptain Macintosh, 77th, and Lieutenant B. Campbell, 74th, were 
wounded on this occasion. A general roll of casualties during the 
operations in the forest was forwarded by Colonel Agnew, but is not 
to be found. 


Colonel Agnew left Serruyial on the 2nd September CHAP. xn. 
for Ookoor, where he arrived the same day without coiond" 
opposition, and established his head-quarters. The ^®^** 
detachment under Colonel Innes was located at Shola- 
poomm^ about three miles south of Ookoor. 

Government having determined to reinstate one of the inangoraUon 
Shevagunga family in possession of that zemindary, they ZemindAr of 
fixed upon Moottoo Vadaganadha Taver, and on the 12th ^^^^e^'^e^ 
September he was duly inaugurated by Colonel Agnew 
in camp at Sholapoorum. 

On the 18th the fort at Perah Mally was taken posses- Oapinre of 
sion of by a small detachment^ under Colonel Agnew, who ^' 

then returned to Ookoor, leaving a detachment of the 1st 
battaUon 7th in the fort. 

The fort at Comery was invested by the rebels on the inveBtment 
21st July. They did all in their power to induce the 
sepoys to desert, and having enticed Lieutenant G-reaves 
to the walls by a flag of truce, they fired at him, but 
without doing any mischief. No assistance was received 
firom Colonel Agnew, as the communications had been cut 
ofE, but on the 13th August the place was relieved by Belief of 
Lieutenant Millar, with a detachment of the Ranmad ^^^^^' 
loca] corps, who, although greatly out-numbered by the 
rebels, attacked them without hesitation, and Lieutenant 
Greaves sallying from the lort at the same time, the 
enemy were defeated. Lieutenants Greaves and Millar 
received the thanks of Government for their conduct. 

About the end of the xhonth Colonel Agnew, having Capture of 
received information which led him to believe he might ^*"""^ 
surprise the rebels at Caliarcoil, made the following 
arrangements for a combined movement upon that place. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Spry with H.M.'s 77th, and the 2nd 

' A party of the Ist oayalry under Majoir Doveton, and detaohments 
of the let battalion 3rd, and Ist battaUon 7th N.I. 

VOL. HI. 7 


OHAP. XVI. battalion 6th regiment, amounting to abont 1^000 men^ 
with 50 pioneers, marched from Ookoor abont 10 p.m. 
on the SOth September in order to reach Galiarcoil 
by the road which liad been cnt through the forest 
from Serruviali and afterwards by a path^ the existence 
of which had been communicated by a Mahomedan ^ who 
had formerly been an officer in our cavalry. 

Colonel Agnew, with the centre party^ set out before 
daylight on the Ist October by the main road leading to 
Galiarcoil through Moottoor. 

Colonel Innes marched from Sholapo6rum about the 
same time by Kerranoor and Calangoody. 

ThiA operation was completely successful. The fort at 
CaUarcoil* was in Colonel Spry's possession by 8 a.m. on 
the Ist^ and Colonel Agnew occupied Moottoor after a 
trifling resistance. The march of Colonel Innes was 
opposed at several barriers^ but the rebels were quickly 
driven from them^ and the detachment reached Calan- 
goody without loss« At one barrier alone^ and at an 
adjacent tank, the enemy left 100 men killed. 
Insiirreotion This was the death-blow to the insurrection^ and the 
^"* rebels dispersed in every direction immediately after- 

wards. One body under the Polygars of Panjalamcoorchy, 
estimated at about 600 men, entered Dindignl and 
endeavoured to collect adherents in the hills near Veera- 
patchy, but being pressed by a detachment under Colonel 
Innes, they separated, and the leaders were captured 
soon afterwards by the peons of the Collector. By the 

1 Mahomed Khaleel. He was taken at Brathwaite's defeat in 1782, 
effected his esoape, and afterwards served nntil the close of the war in 
1784. He was rewaxded for his services on this occasion by a pension 
of 20 pagodas a month. 

' Twenty-eight gxms and swivels, 14^000 cartridges and a few 
military stores were found in the fort. A quantity of gunpowder was 
subsequently discovered in different parts of the forest. 


end of ihe months the two Mardoos» their sons, .and CHAP. xvi. 
principal followers^ aa well as the Chiefs of Panjalam- 
coorchy, had all been taken^ and ezecatedj with the 
exception of afew^ who were deported to Prince of Wales 

Early in November Colonel Agnew marched for Palam- Breaking np 
cottah by Panjalamcoorchy to make arrangements for ^^ *^* '®"** 
the destmction of the forts, and the disarming of the 
population. H.M/s 77th, the detachment H.M.'s 74th, 
and the 1st cavalry were sent to Trichinopoly, and the 
Feat of the force to the stations from whence they had 
come. The 2nd cavalry recently from Trichinopoly, 
together with the 2nd battalion 6th, and the 1st battalion 
8rd, were to remain in Tinnevelly nnder Major Sheppard, 
appointed to command in that district. The 2nd batta- 
lion 12th, the detachment 1st of 7th, and the five com- 
panies of the Malay corps, were left in Shevagunga and 
Bamnad nnder Major Lindsay of the 7th. 

The destmction of the forts was completed early in Destmcfcion 
March 1802, and the officers commanding were directed ^2.^ ^'^ 
to cause the sites to be visited at certain regular intervals* 
by European officers. The general disarming ^ of the 
population was completed about the same time, and 
Colonel Agnew left P^lamcottah on the 7th March on his 
return to Madras. The following is an extract from tha 
General Order issued by Government on the suppression 
of the rebellion r-— 

' Vide List ol Arma, Appendix A. ThiB list, one item of wbioh Is 
85,978 piket, was signed at Palamoottah bj Colonel Agnew on the 7th 
Msroh 1808. It is enoneonsly stated by Welsh that Agnew left the 
force in Oetober 1801, making oyer the oommand to Major Maoanlay. 
In liay 1818, the Oonrt of Directors, at the instanoe of the Secretary 
of State for the War Department, wrote to the Goyemment of Madras 
/lor 80,000 Folygar pikes of the best qnaUty ior the use of His Majesty 's 


OHAP. XVI. " P<^ Si. Oeorge, 22fu2 February 1802. 

Thanks to " ^® whole coorae of operations connected with that ser- 

tha troopa. yice lu^g {^een distinguished by a spirit of animated bravery, 
and persevering exertion, which has merited the warmest 
approbation of the Governor in Oonncil, and His Lordship in 
Ck)Qnoil on bestowing npon the officers and troops the applause 
due to their conduct, reflects with the greatest satiafoction on 
the advantages which have been derived to the public inter- 
ests by the suppression of a confederacy which threatened the 
most injurious consequences to the tranquillity of the British 

ExPSDiTiON TO Egtpt^ 1801-2. 

A detachment of the 2nd battalion artillery, and one 
of pioneers, accompanied the expedition to Egypt under 
Major-General Baird in 1801. 

The force arrived at Bosetta on the 31st August, and 
reached General Hutchinson's camp in time to witness 
fhe surrender of Alexandria on the 2nd September. It 
left Alexandria on tjie 7th May 1802 on its return to 
'India, and in July of that year it was thanked by the 
Gt>vemor-General in Council, who, at the same time, 
was pleased to order that medals should be conferred on 
all the native troops which had been employed upon 
the expedition. The Boyal troops having been granted 
the privilege of bearing the '' Sphinx'' with the word 
'' Egypt " on their colors and appointments, the Com- 
pany's troops were subsequently allowed to participate 
in that honor. 

Tbsaty of Amisns, 1802. 

Intelligence of the Treaty of Peace between Great 
Britain and France, Spaing and the Batavian Bepublio, 
which was signed at Amiens on the 27th March 1802, 


having been received at Madras^ it was pnblislied to the CHAP. XTI. 
Army on the 4th September. 


The Bajah of Ballum re-occupied his position at Arra- 
kaira immediately after the departore of Colonel Mon- 
tresor's detachment in Jnne 1800, and recommenced his 
predatory incursions. The operations against Dhoondiah^ 
those in Malabar and Wynaadj and in the Ceded Districts, 
prevented Government from taking any notice of his 
conduct until January 1802, when Colonel Wellesley 
marched against him from Seringapatam. On arriving 
in the neighbourhood of Arrakaira he divided his own 
infantry into three parties for the attack of the stockaded 
posts in the forest, and placed that of the Mysore Bajah so 
as to cut off the retreat of the enemy towards the ghauts. 

The cavalry, under Lieutenant-Colonel Macalister, 
occupied all the open ground. 

The attack was made at 10 a.m. on the 16th by the Xlbptnre of 
three * divisions, via., one under Lieutenant-Colonel A. ^''**^**^ 
Cuppage, 1st 'battalion 6th regiment; one under Major 
English, 2nd battalion 10th regiment; and one under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Spry, H.M.'s 77th foot. Each 
party was successful, and all the posts in the forest 
were carried with trifling loss. Colonel Wellesley, and 

^ Bigfat attack under Lieutenant-Colonel Spry. — ^H.M.'8 19th 
dragoons, detachment of artillery, detaohmentd H.M.'8 77th, and 
regiment De Mesron, let battalion let regiment, let battation S^d 
regiment, and a party of pioneera. 

Centre attaok nnder Lieutenant-Colonel Cuppage. — Oetaohments 5th 
cavalry, artillery, H.M.'8 77th and regiment De Menron, the let 
battalion 5th regiment, and a party of pioneers. 

Left attack under liajor Bnglislu^DetadhmentB H.H.'s 77th, and 
regiment De Meuron, 2nd battalion 10th regiment, and a pctfty of 


CHAP. XTT. the officers and men employed on this service received the 
thanks of Government^ conveyed in an order dated 16th 

A detaehment was left at Arrakaira while Colonel 
Wellesley proceeded towards the Bissli Ghaut to destroy 
other strongholds which the Rajah was reported to possess 
in that direction, and also to open roads down the several 
passes leading into Canara. 

ExecaUon of The Bajah was captured on the 9th Febmary, and 
^ ' ezecnted the next day, together with six of his followers, 
after which Colonel Wellesley broke up his detachment, 
and marched on his return to Seringapatam, having first 
made the following arrangements for the occupation of 
Bullum, and certain adjoining districts of the Mysore 

Arrttiigemeiita Five companies. 1st battalion 5th, three companies 2nd 

^e ^r^. battalion 10th, two guns, and a detachment of pioneers 

were left at Arrakaira, under Captain Macf arlane of the 
^ 5th, for the purpose of making a road down the Sissul 
Ghaut, constructing defensible posts at the heads of the 
Sissuly^ Bissli, and Sampaji Ghauts, clearing the jungle, 
and destroying the stockades, and filling up the ditches 
by which the villages were surrounded. 

Major English, with seven companies 2nd battalion 
10th, and five companies 1st battalion 5th, with two guns, 
and a party of pioneers, was to encamp at Belloor ' in 
order to support the authority of the Mysore Bajah in 
that district, and in those of Oostara and Maharajdroog. 

.The inhabitants were to be disarmed, roads were to be 
made, and the fortified villages dismantled as in Bullum. 

* These ghantg lead down into Ganftn, the BUusul or Oioiny being 
the northernmost. 

* Ooatara, Belloor, and llaharajdroog bound Ballom on the east. 


Insurrkctiok in Wynaad, 1802. CHAP, xvi. 

On iihe llth October 1802 the post at Panamnrtha^ Surprise of 
Cottah in Wynaad was surprised by a body of Nairs^ Cottah. • 
about 400 in number^ divided into three parties, one of 
which seissed the barrack in which the arms were kept, and 
another attacked the sepoys, while the third surrounded 
the houses of the officers. 

The detachment consisted of about 70 men of the 1st 
battalion 4th Bombay regiment, with two European 
officers. Both of these, viz.. Captain Dickinson and 
Lieutenant Maxwell, were killed. Twenty-four sepoys 
shared the same fate, and twenty-one were wounded* All 
the buildings were set on Bre and destroyed. The head- 
quarters, and about 360 men of this battalion were at 
Poolingall, about nine miles west of Panamurtha Cottah, inactivity of 
but the Major in command neither moyed from his post ^^[^^fa * 
nor took any steps for the security of the district. This t^® Wynaad. 
was not the only instance of such inactivity, for Colonel 
Welledey, when writing on the 20th to the officer com- 
manding the Bombay troops in Malabar, animadverted 
upon the general want of energy on the part of the 
officers, and went on as follows :— 

" I beg that you will urge the officers to active measures. 
Let them put their troops in camp forthwith, excepting the 
number of men that may be absolutely necessary for the 
defence of the small posts against surprise- If the rebels are 
really in force, let a junction be formed, and then not a 
moment lost in dashing at them, whatever may be their 

At this time there were no Madras troops either in Madifs 
Wynaad or Malabar, but the Ist-battalion 8th regiment, ^J^SIX**' 
under Captain Oumell, with a party of pioneers, and 

^ In North Wynaad, about 7 miles aonth-eaat of Manantoddy. 





battalion 8tk 


200 Mysore horse, was ordered from Seringapatam 
immediately the disaster became known. Captain 
Ghimell was directed to enter Wynaad from Kakencottah 
for the relief of Manantawaddy, and the general support 
of the Bombay troops in the district. The battalion 
marched from Elakencottah on the 27th^ and on reaching 
the frontier at Snngaloo on the Bawally nnllah, it was 
opposed •by a body of Nairs who had occupied an old 
stockade. Captain Gumell passed the nullah on both 
flanks of the stockade under cover of the fire of a third 
party, and carried it without loss ; the Nairs suffered 

The next day he marched 17 miles to Manantawaddy, 
and reached that place with trifling^ loss, although opposed 
nearly the whole way. On the 30th, fiye companies of 
the 8th returned to Snngaloo as an escort to the Mysore 
horse, which were sent back as being useless in so wet a 
country. A few days later. Captain Gnmell was ordered 
to construct a stockade for one company at Snngaloo, and 
two similar stockades between that place and Mananta- 
waddy. The main body of the battalion was to keep 
moving in the neighbourhood of Snngaloo, and to attack 
the insurgents wherever they could be found. These 
arrangements produced so much effect ' that Colonel 
Wellesley halted a detachment of H.M.'s 33rd, and the 
1st battalion 14rth N.I., which were moving towards the 
Wynaad as a further support. 

About the 12th November a smart skirmish took place 
between a detachment of the 8th and the Nairs near 

^ Fiye of the Mjsore oayaliy were killed, and seventeen honee 

* " Bj the bye, I hear that sinoe Major Dmmmond has been released 
from Kyde (t.6., from being shut np in his post at Pnllingal) he says that 
the insurrection is nothing at all/'— Colonel Wellesley, to Major McLeod, 
8rd Noyember 1802. 


Simgaloo, thxLB described by Colonel Wellesley in a CHAP, 
report to the Gommander-in- Chief : — 

*' Since I wrote to you on the 9tli instant, a detachment of 
the 1st battalion 8th regiment has had a smart action with 
the Nairs in Wynaad, in which they sustained a considerable 
loss. They had marched to Manantawaddy with a despatch 
to Lientenant-Golonel Lawrence, and on their return . were 
attacked near a* swamp at which the battalion had been hard 
pressed heretofore. The Nairs took advantage of a nullah 
which was impassable, across which tbey fired at them, and 
killed nine and wounded eighteen. The officer in command 
of the battaEon, however, at Sungaloo, sent out three com- 
panies to the support of the other detachment, and the Nairs 
were driven off with considerable loss. Many of those on this 
side of the nullah were put to death in the road. By all 
accounts the troops behaved remarkably well on this occa* 

Intelligence having been receiyed about this time of Uadraa 
the defeat of the armies of the Peshwah and of Scindiah^ wioSIrawn 
by that of Holkar at Poonah, it became necessary to ^f^^^ 
assemble a strong force on the Toombuddra^ in con- 
aeqnenoe of which orders were issued for the withdrawal 
of the Madras troops in the Wynaad. . 

Affairs in Malabar, 1802-3. 

On the 30th October 1802, Colonel John Montresor, 
H.M/s 80th regiment, was appointed to the command in 
Malabar and Canara, which had been temporarily held 
by Lieutenant-Colonel Boles of the Bombay Army since 
the departure of Colonel Stevenson, who had been nomi« 
nated in February to the command of the Subsidiary Force 
at Hyderabad in enccession to Colonel Urban Vigors. 

The disturbances in the Wynaad spread into Malabar 
early in 1803, and as Colonel Montresor made a special 
application for a Madras battalion, the 2nd of the 1st was 

VOL. III. 8 



Can8« of the 
rebellion in 

CHAP. XTI. ordered into the Wynaad from Erode in Febmary to 
supply the place of the Ist of the 8th, which had been 
selected ^ by Major-G^eral ^ Wellesley for field service in 
the Mahratta country. 

General Wellesley, when writing to Colonel Montresor 
on the 27th December 1802, expressed the following 
opinion regarding the disturbances in the, Wynaad :— 

" I don*t belieye that the disturbances in the Wynaad are to 
be attributed to extortion on the part of the revenue officers. 
They appear to have commenced by an accidental murder, 
and riot, after which the party proceeded to surprise the 
poflt at Panamurta Oottah, and murder the officers, and then 
finding that the troops did nothing to defend themselves, or 
to revenge the murder of their comrades, Goongan Nair, who 
was at the head of the insurrection, issued a proclamation 
calling upon the inhabitants to meet him on a certain day at 
a pagoda not far firom Mauantawaddy, another of our posts. 
They met there to the unmber of 5,000, and have been in 
rebellion ever since." 

** Upon the whole I am indnc^d to believe that accident 
alone was the original cause of an insurrection which has 
grown to be a rebellion from the subsequent inactivity of the 

> ** It is neoessary that I shoold apprise you that the Ist of the 8th, 
one of the oorpe wluch I haye pitched upon for field serFioe, is remark- 
ably sickly at present, having brought nearly 800 sick from the Wynaad 
and I don't believe they will leave less than 200 siok at this place at the 
time we shall march. I have pre f erred to take this corps to the field 
to either of the others abovementioned, first, because I know it is a 
good corps, which has seen much service, and, secondly, because it has 
been in the Hahratta territory before, which you may find an advan- 
tage.'* — Major-General Wellesley to the Commander-in-Chief, dated 
8eringapatam, 13th January 1803. 

' Promoted 27th November 1802. 



The dominions formerly constituting the Mahratta 
Empire had^ for many years previons to this period^ been 
divided into five separate independent states, which^ in 
1802, were governed by the undermentioned chiefs, 
viz. : — 

Bajee Row, the Peshwah, who resided at Poonah, and The PeahwaJi. 
ruled over the Southern Mahratta couutry, Sattarah, and 
the Goncan, in the name of the Rajah of Sattarah, the 
nominal sovereign of the Mahrattas, who lived at Sattarah 
under surveillance, if not in a state of actual imprison- 

Ragojee Bhonslah, Rajah of Berar, residing at Nag- Bajah of 
pore m Gondwana. 

Dowlut Rov7 Scindiah, residing at Oojein in Malwah» Sdndiah. 
and possessing Gandeish and half of Malwah. 

Jeswunt Row Holkar, residing at Indore, possessing HoUar. 
half of BCalwah. This chief ruled ostensibly in behalf of 
his nephew Khundah Row. 

The Gnickwar ruling in Ouzerat. Gkdckwar. 

Scindiah, who was ambitious of becoming the head of Defeat of the 
the Mahratta Empire, had, with a view towards that end, q^^^^ ^ 
succeeded in obtaimng complete ascendancy over the Holkar, 
councils of the Peshwah, and on the 14th October 1801, he 
advanced his prospects by inflicting a severe defeat 
upon Holkar, his principal rival; but having neglected to 
follow up this victory, Holkar reassembled an army, 
laid waste Gandeish, and defeated the combined armies 
of Scindiah and the Peshwah under the walls of Poonah 
on the 25th October 1802. The Peshwah fled into the 
Concan, and shortly afterwards embarked for Bassein, 
where he landed on the 6th December, and immediately 
made overtures* to the British.. 


OHAP. ZVL The resalt was the treaty of Bassein concloded on the 
Xrett^^ 31st Deoember^ the principal stipulations of which were 
BaflMin. as follows, via.:— That a permanent subsidiary force of 

not less than 6,000 regular native infantry^ with the 
usual proportion of field pieces and European artillery- 
men, and a proper equipment of warlike stores and 
ammunition, should be stationed in His Highness' domi- 
nions ; and that for the regular payment of this force, 
territory, the annual revenue of which was estimated at 
26 lakhs of rupees, should be ceded to the Company in 
perpetuity. All the forts in the ceded territory were 
to be made over, together with their equipment of 
ordnance, stores, and provisions. It was subsequently 
agreed that a regiment of native cavalry should be added 
to the force, and paid for by a further cession of territory. 


In the meantime, an army, amounting to 19,798 regular * 
troops, was being assembled at Hurryhur on the north- 
west frontier of Mysore, for the protection of the Com- 
pany's territories, and the eventual establishment of 
the subsidiary force at Poonah;but in conformity with 
instructions subsequently received from the Qovemor- 
Oeneral, the troops destined to advance into the Mahratta 
country were limited to 10,617^ men under the command of 

1 Cavalry BrigaiiB, — OoUmel ThomoB DoUos, 4tfc etuvaUy, 

H.M.'i 19th dragoons 412, 4th oavalry 438, 6th oanUrj 481, 7th 
oaTalrj 488. 

First Infan:try Brigade,— Lieut,- Colonel HoimesB, H.M,*s BOtXfoot 

Scotch brigade 1«018, let battalion 8nd rogimeat 1,006^ 2nd battalion 
8rd regiment 998, 2nd battatioii 12th regiment 1,000. 

Second Infantry Brigade,^IA9%U,'Colonel Wattaee,H,M:t lHh, 

H.M.'8 74th regiment 754, Ist battalion 8rd regiment 1,109, Iflt 
battalion 8th regiment 997, 2nd battalion 18th regiment 1,014< 

Artillery 108» gnn lasoars 206, pioneers 704. 

Eoropeana 2,287, natives 8^880, total 10,617« 


Major-General ^ WeUesley, to be supported by the Hyder- CHAP. XYL 
abad Subsidiary Force under Colonel Stevenson, which was 
ordered to Ferindah on the western frontier of the Nizam's 
dominions, there to remain pending instructions from the 
The General marched from Hurryhnr on the 9th March Belief of 


1808, and crossed the Toombuddra into the Mahratta 
territory on the ISth. On the Slst he crossed the Eistna 
at Eroor, and halted there for two days. On the 13th 
April he reached Akloos on the river Neera, and, while 
halted there on the 15th, he detached the ** Scotch 
Brigade'' ' to join Colonel Stevenson's division,' which 
had moved from Perindah, and ?^as encamped near Nur* 
Bingpoor at the junction of the rivers Beemah and Neera, 
about two ordinary marches from General Wellesley's 
camp. On the 16th the General resumed his march 
towards Poonah, having directed Colonel Stevenson to 
move up the left bank of the Beemah, and to take up a 

1 Od the 4ih April 1803 the Goyeraor>6eneral dixeoted that the 
command of Myeore should be retained hy General Wellealej daring hie 
fkhsenoe on eervioe. This was in oonseqnenoe of a representation made 
bj the General to the elTeot that he ooold not otherwise make oertain of 
reoeiving the necessary snppUee for his army. 

* The '* Sootoh Brigade** was numbered the 94ith regiment of fbot early 
in 1808» bat the order was not published in Madras until September. 

* Cavalry Brigad$.'^L%&iU,'Oolon$l the Hon*hU A. Smitleg^r, 6th eamatry* 
Srd regiment eaTslry 610, Sth regiment oaralry 602. 

Firtt Infantry Br%0Qde.^Lient'Col»nat MacUan, 2nd hattn, ith r^t N.L 

Snd battalion Snd re^pment 1^6^ 1st battalion fith regunent 1,288, 
2nd battalion 9th reghnent 1,286. \. 

fSeotmd It^mUry Brigada.^LUitl..Ool, BaUhurUmy 2nd haUn. 7ih rigi. N. L 

2nd battalion 7th regiment 1,280, 1st battalion 11th regiment 1,008; 
2nd battaUoD 11th regiment 1,086. 

Artillery 168, gun lasears 810, two companies of pioneers 206. 

Europeans (inolndang Sootoh Brigade) 1»181, natives 8»716. total 9,897. 
Au»iiUafy tro9p$ aUaehtd und^r Cclon$l SUvenaof^B eemmand, 

Nizam's hone 7,000, Nisam's infantry 6,000, Kisam's artillery 40 




The Peshwah 
retnriiB to 

marohes to 
the north- 

Galls njx>n 
the oonfeder* 
ate chiefs 
to retire. 

position on that river between Poonah and Qardoon. On 
the 18th, when in camp near Baramatty^ the General 
reoeived intelligence that it was the intention of Amrot 
Row, the brother of Holkar, who had been left in charge 
of Poonah since the battle of the 25th October 1802, to 
set fire to the town as soon as the British troops should 
arrive in the neighbourhood. In order to prevent this, 
Oeneral Wellesley set out on the night of the 19th with 
the cavalry, and the 2nd battalion 12th regiment N.I., 
and reached Poonah at 2 p.k. on the 20th, after a forced 
march of above 40 miles, in time to save it from the 
flames. The road down the little Bhore Ghaut was so bad 
that six hours were occupied in getting through, and 
several of the tumbrils attached to the cavalry had to be left 
behind. Colonel McLeod, with the 2nd battalion 12th 
regiment, was ordered to halt at Loonee near the foot of 
the ghaut, and to rejoin the General the next day. The 
remainder of the force did not reach Poonah until the 

On the 13th May the Peshwah returned to his capital, 
escorted by the 78th foot, five companies of the 84th, and 
a battalion of Bombay sepoys, all under Colonel Murray 
of the 84th regiment. 

On the 4th June General Wellesley marched towards 
the Godavery in order to watch the armies of Scindiah, and 
the Rajah of Berar, which had been assembled near 
Boorhanpoor ^ with the supposed intention of invading 
the territory of the Nizam. He took with him the 78th 
foot in exchange for the 2nd battalion 8rd regiment which 
was left at Poonah. 

On the 14th July it was ascertained that the two 
confederate chiefs were advancing towards the Adjuntah 

' The ancient oapital of Candeish, on the northern bank of the river 
Tap tee, about 70 miles from Adjuntah on the Nizam'i northern frontier. 


Ghaut^ in consequence of which (General Wellesley wrote OHAP. XVI. 
to the effect that unless the Bajah of Berar should 
immediately return to his capital at Nagpoor, and Scindiah 
reoross the Nerbuddah, their want of compliance would be 
treated as a declaration of war. Colonel Stevenson^ then 
encamped near Aurungabad, was directed to be prepared 
to' oppose Scindiah's ascent into the -Nizam's country by 
the Adjuntah Ghaut should he attempt it. 

On the 18th the General receired a despatch from inyested with 
Calcutta^ dated 26th June^ by which he was empowered ^^^^ 
to assume^ and exercise, the general direction and control 
of all the political and military affairs of the British 
Gh>Temment in the territories of the Nizam, of the 
Peshwah, and of the Mahratta states and chiefs. He 
was also invested with the power of negotiating and 
concluding treaties. 

In the meantime he had advanced towards Ahmed- Encamps 
nuggur, and while encamped about six miles from the nnggnr. 
city on the 8rd August, he reeeived replies from the 
confederate chie& to the effect that, provided the 
British troops near Aurungabad, those under theinmae- 
diate command of General Wellesley, and those in the 
Baichoor^ Doab, wovld all return to their respective 
stations at Hyderabad, Seringapatam, and Madras, they, 
Scindiah and Bagojee Bhonslah, would retire towards 

Upon this the General determined to attack Ahmed- 
nuggur at once, and he sent orders to the officer com- 

1 Cbrp« 0/ ob9€rvati<m at Moodgul under Jf<v'or-Gmdroi D, OamphdL 
H.M.'8 26th dragoons, Ist and 2nd cavalry. 
2nd baiialion artillery, one company. 
H.M.'s 88rd regiment ftye oompanies, H.M.'8 80th rogiment seTon 

Ist battalion ISth, and Ist battalion 17th regiments. 
Pioneers, one company* 


CHAP. XYI. manding in Qazerat, desiring him to commence operations 
against Baroach and other possessions of Scindiah in 
that provinoe- To Scindiah^ and to the Bajah of Berar^ 
he wrote as follows on the 6th Angost : — 

DeoUntion ** Yon will recollect that the British Oovermnent did not 

^''^' threaten to commence hostilities against yon, hnt you threat- 

ened to commence hostilities against the British Oovemment» 
and its allies ; and when called upon to explain yonr inten- 
tional yon declared that it was donbtfnl whether there would 
be peace or war ; and in conformity mth your threats, and 
your declared doubts, you assembled a large army in a station 
contiguouB to the Nisam's frontier. On this ground I called 
upon you to withdraw that army to its usual stations if your 
s&bsequent pacific declarations were sincere ; but instead of 
complying with this reasonable requisition, you hare proposed 
that I should withdraw the troops which are intended to defend 
the territories of the allies against your designs, and that 
you and the Bajah of Berar should be suffered to remain 
with your troops assembled, in readiness to take adyantage of 
their absence. 

" This proposition is unreasonable and inadmissible, and you 
must stand the consequences of the measures which I find 
myself obliged to adopt in order to repel your aggressions. 
I offered you peace on terms of equality, and honorable to 
all parties : you have chosen war, and are responsible for all 

Foreign Ssttliuhts^ 1800-3. 

Ooonpatian of Shortly after intelligence of the coalition of the north« 

a^uebap, ^ powers against Great Britain in December 1800 had 

reached India^ the fort and town of Tranquebar, which 

belonged to Denmark, were taken possession of^ and 

attached to the southern division of the army. 

^ ,. ^ Soon after the ratification of the Treaty of Amiens in 


1809. March 1802^ troops were despatched to Pondicherry by 


Napoleon with tlie view of endeavouring to restore the CHAP. XYI. 
influence of France in Southern India^ and the Boyal 
Warrant from England, directing the restoration of all the . 
settlements taken from the French or Dutch, was received 
in due course, but the Gbvemor-Gteneral, being apprehen- 
sive of the danger likely to ensue from the presence of the 
armament expected at Pondicherry, in addition to the large 
disciplined force under French officers in the service of 
Scindiah, directed the Governor of Madras to postpone 
the actual restitution of any portion of territory until 
express authority to that effect should be received by him 
from Bengal. 

No officer regularly accredited by the French Govern- ArriTftl of 
ment arrived until the 15th June 1803, when the frigate detachment. 
** La Belle Foule " reached Pondicherry, having on board 
Citizen Leger the Colonial Prefect, Monsieur Binot Chief 
of the Staff of the Expedition to the East Indian Islands, 
several other officers, and about 150 men. 

Lord CUve, in conformity with his instructions, declined 
to make over possession, bufc he permitted the officers 
and men to land, and ordered arrangements to be made 
for their reception. 

On the 11th July, a French squadron, consisting of Arrival* of 
the line-of-battle Ship " Marengo'' and several other gq^^S^. 
vessels of war, conveying General De Caen Captain- 
Oeneral and Governor of the Islands of Mauritius and 
Bourbon, several staff officers, and a body of European 
troops, arrived at Pondicherry, from whence a frigate 
was immediately sent off to Madras with a letter for the 
Governor, demanding the immediate restoration of the 
French possessions. 

Lord Clive refused as before, but before his reply Precipitate 
reached Pondicherry, the French squadron set sail and fhH^^SiSlL. 
left the place on the night of the 12th, without having 

VOL. m. 9 



War with 

CHAP. XVI. landed any of the troops. This precipitate departure was 

supposed to have been caused by the receipt of intelli- 
gence from France^ brought by a corvette which arrived 
at Pondicherry about noon on that day. 

Monsieur Binot and his party remained until September, 
when news of the war with France, which had been 
declared in May, having reached Madras, the Officer com- 
manding H Jf/3 73rd foot, then on the march to Pondi- 
cherry, received orders to make prisoners of the detach- 
ment. Monsieur Binot, however, had sufficient address 
to obtain terms ^' infinitely ^ more favorable than he had 
any right to expect,'' and, although the capitulation was 
not approved of, it was confirmed, and the fVench, amount- 
ing to about 80 officers and 150 soldiers, were sent back 
to France in a cartel hired for that purpose by the British 

Surrender of 
Binot and 

' Lientenant-General Stuart, to General Lake, 28th October 1808. 



Cavalry, 1799-1803. 

Daring June and July 1799, a troop of cavalry for the Governor, 
body guard of the Governor-General was formed bj j^y'JiJJ^, 
drafts of picked men from each of the four regiments of ^799. 
Madras cavalry, and was sent to Bengal shortly after- 
wards under the command of Lieutenant H. C. Mont- 
gomery. The families of the men were permitted to 
accompany them. 

Two additional regiments of cavalry were raised in Sep- Aofpnen- 
tember, one in consequence of the increase of territory, *****^°* 
the other for the purpose of serving with the Hyderabad 
subsidiary force. The 5th was formed at Trichinopoly 
and the 6th at Arcot. The nucleus of both regiments, to 
the extent of about 100 men in each, was composed of 
" Montgomery's Troop," the supernumerary troop of tho 
body guard which had been raised during the war, and of 
drafts from the old corps. 

The six regiments were then formed into two brigades. Brigades of 
the first to consist of the 1st, 3rd, and 5th regiments under ^^^- 
Colonel Dugald Campbell Commandant of Cavalry, and 
the second of the 2nd, 4th, and 6th regiments under 
Colonel James Stevenson, This arrangement, however, 
appears to have been merely nominal, for in the distribu** 
tion of the army ordered in November, the undermen- 
tioned stations were assigned to the cavalry, viss. :— - 

Aroot ... 1 regiment. Chittledroog ... 1 regiment. Distribution 
Bangalore... 1 do. ' Serah ... 1 do. ofr^ments. 

Coimbatore. 1 do. Hyderabad ... I do. 

During November a Surgeon, and an Assistant Surgeon Medioal 
were posted to each regiment of cavalry, in conformity ^^^'^^^ 
with orders to that effect from the Court of Directors. 




to PettiA. 





tion, 1800. 

Pay of 

Aboat the end of the year a detachment of volanteerB 
from the body gugixd, consisting of 1 Sabadar, 1 Jemadar, 
2 Havildars, 2 Naignes, and 20 troopers^ proceeded 
to Persia as pcurt of the escort of Captain Malcohn^ 
appointed Ambassador to that Oonrt. 
' Lieutenant Evans of the in&ntry having urged the 
advantages to be gained by the establishment of a breed « 
ing study he was permitted to make an experiment on 
his own account in 1795^ assistance being granted by 
G-ovemment in the shape of grazing land in the neigh- 
bourhood of Ganjam. This experiment having been 
&vorably reported upon, Government took over the stud 
in 1800, fixed the number of mares at 500, that of stallions 
at 26, and instructed the Bevenue Board to purchase 
the tract of land lying between Munsoorcottah and the 
Ganjam river for grazing purposes. The purchase of 
stallions was restricted to that of Arabs'of the best blood 
and figure. 

About this time the question of mounting the cavalry 
on geldings was taken into consideration, and referred 
for the opinion of the Military Board, and of officers 
commanding regiments, but the general opinion having 
been against the change, the matter dropped, and does 
not appear to have been revived until 1848, when geldings 
were tried in the 4th regiment with such success that the 
use of entire horses was discontinued shortly afterwards 
throughout the service. 

A seventh regiment of cavalry was raised at Arcot in 
July 1800. Drafts to the extent of 88 officers, non- 
commissioned officers, and men, with horses complete^ 
were received from the existing regiments. 

During July an order ^ Was published granting an 
addition to the pay of subadars of cavalry, specifying 

^ Tiie partioalftn will be found in the notioe of native infantry. 


the pay and batta of recruit boys, and directing that OHAP. XVL 
in fntnre no men belonging to the cavalry should be "'""' 
admitted into the invalid establishment. 

In May 1802 it was resolved that the detail of 120 BeiaSin 
troopers serving in Bengal with the Gk)vemor-Oenerars ]^^^ ^ 
body goard^ shoald be borne on the strength pf the Madras ^®^- 
cavalry^ which was carried into effect accordingly. 

Each regiment of cavalry was reduced at this time to Bednotioii. 
890 private troopers^ exclusive of the 12 men detached 
to do duty at the breeding stud. 

The following order of the Oovemor-Oeneral in Coun- Oovonior. 
oil on the return to Europe of Captain Montgomery was j^^^^a. 
published at Fort St. Qeorge on the 5th October : — 

**The public service on this establishment has derived 
important advantages from the experience, skill, and abilities 
of Captain Montgomery in various branches of establishments 
oomiected with the cavalry. The state of discipline And 
subordination which the new body guard at Fort William 
has already attained, and the alacrity and military spirit 
which have been manifested on several occasions of foreign 
service by the native officers and troopers of that corps, are 
to be ascribed to the abilities, skiU, and activity of Captain 

Oaptain Montgomery was succeeded in the command 
by Captain F. A. Daniel of the 4th regiment, who appears 
to have retained it until 1805, when it devolved upon . 
Captain Dovetou of the 7th regiment. 

During November the number of gun lascars allowed Ghm la'soam. 
for the galloper guns attached to cavalry was reduced to 
1 first tindal and 10 men for each European regiment, 
and to 1 second tindal and 8 men for each native regiment. 

On the 2Qth March 1803 a detail from the body guard, Detaohment 
consisting of 1 Subadar, 1 Jemadar, 2 Havildars, and laos. ^' 
12 Naigues, was sent to Bombay for the purpose of being 
employed as instructors during the formation of a body 



CHAP. XYI. of regalar caValry proposed to be raised in that Presi- 

Another detail from the body guards composed of 20 
men nnder a native officer^ was detached in Jnne as an 
escort to the Resident at Nagpore. 

Daring May and Jane regiments of caralry were com- 
pleted to their fall complement of 70 privates per troop 
in conseqaence of the expected war with the Mahrattaa. 


oompleted to 
fall starength. 



Abtillbrt, 1799-1803. 

On the 18th December 1799, a Native Adjatant was Gun luoan» 
appointed to the companies of gun lascars attached to '•^^' 
each battalion of artillery, and four recruit boys were at 
the same time allowed for each company of lascars, on 
the same pay as that given in the native infantry. 

About the end of the year models of field and garrison Models 
gun-carriages, and of tumbrils, were supplied to Bombay ^jj^,*** 
on the requisition of General Stuart, the Commander-in- 
Chief at that Presidency. 

During January 1800, a draft of 200 selected men was Dnffc from 
sent to the artillery from the 2nd European regiment, 1^)^^'^' 
which was then being reduced in conformity with the 
new formation. 

On the 26th February two companies were added to Angmen- 
each battalion of artillery, and eight matrosses to each 
company. A further draf[>*of 300 men was sent from the 
European regiment to meet this augmentation* 

The establishment of a company was fixed at — 

1 Captain. 

1 Captain-Lieutenant- 

2 Lieutenants. 

1 Lieutenant-Fire- 

5 Serjeants. 

5 Corporals. 
10 Ounuers. 

2 Drummers. 
70 MatroBses. 

On the 31st December it was ordered that the artillery Increase 
should receive an addition to their pay equal to that ^ ^^' 
which had been made to the European infantry under 
the provisions of the Boyal Warrant of 1797. 

The company of native artillery, which had been Bednctionof 
raised at Madras shortly before the commencement of oompany, 
the wftr of 1799, was reduced on the 17th March 1802, ^^^' 



tioQ of the 

1 Oaptain. 

1 Captain-Lientenaiit. 

2 LientenantB. 

2 Lieutenant-Fire- 

OHAF. XVI. and on the same day an order was published directing 

that each battalion of artillery should consist of seyen 
companies instead of five^ and that the establishment of 
each company should consist of ^- 

5 Serjeants. 

5 Oorporals. 
10 Gunners. 

2 Drummers and Tif ers- 
80 Matrosses. 

During April of the same year the number of gun 
lascars was reduced from 56 to 45 per company. 

On the 21st March 1803, the Commander-in-Chief 
found it necessary to address Government regarding the 
condition of the corps^ which he did in the following 
words : — 

** That yaluable corps, from a want of recruits, has become 
weak and inefficient; and should the supply of recruits con- 
tinue to be so inadequate to its demands, the army, in a very 
short period of time, will be destitute of artillery. I trust 
that your Lordship will represent this droumstance, and its 
consequences to the Houorable the Court of Directors* It 
must have hitherto escaped their notice ; for I cannot sup- 
pose that the Honorable Court would otherwise allow a corpSi 
which has always done credit to their army, and. whose 
services are essential to its success, to be reduced to a half 
of its proper establishment.'' 

Bodiiotiofi of 

state of the 



EuBOPXAN Ikvantbt^ 1799-1803. ; 

During September 1799, tlie office of Military Secre- MiUtary 
tary to the Governor was created, and Captain Mark f^ Oovmor^ 
Wilks was appointed thereto. The salary was that of an ^^^' 
Aide-de-Camp, with an allowance of 40 pagodas per 
mensem for clerks. 

Daring the same month Lientenant-Colonel Close was Adjutant* 
appointed Resident in Mysore, and was succeeded as ^°^^- 
Adjutant-General by Lieutenant-Colonel P. A. Agnew. 

On the 5th Noyember orders were issued for organis- Beorganisa- 
ing the European infantry in conformity with instruc- suzopean 
tions contained in a letter from the Court of Directors, in<^<!r7« 
dated 25th July 1799, from which the following are 
extracts : — 

** We have been apprised of His Majesty's intention to new 
model his regiments of infantry serving in the East Indies, 
by forming them into twelve companies of 100 rank and file 
each, and in order to preserve a proper oniformity between 
His Majesty's, and the Company's European infantry, we 
have resolved that our present establishment shall be formed 
also into regiments of the same strength* Each regiment is 
therefore to consist of — 

1 Colonel, "j Each to 

2 Lt.-Colonel8, I have a 
2 Majors, [ com- 
7 Captains, J pany. 
1 Captain-Lieutenant, 

25 Lieutenants, 

10 Ensigns, Bstablish- 

48 Serjeants, "**^*' 

60 Corporals, 
26 Drums and Fifes, 
1,140 Privates, 
24 Puckallies, 

with staff as at present. The establishment, which on a 
due consideration of all the circumstances connected with 
this arrangement, we have resolved on for your Presidency, 
is one regiment of European infantry of the foregoing 

• • • • 

VOL. in. 10 



Promotion by 
rise, 1800. 

CHAP. XVL '< The corps is in fbtoie to be denominated the * Madras 

European Begiment.* " 

At the time of the reorganisation in 1796, the' Conrt 
of Directors wished to introduce the principle of selection 
in the higher ranks, and also the system of regimental 
rise, bat neither of these measures was then carried oat. 
The Court, in their letter of July 1799, quoted above, 
cancelled their order so far as regarded selection, but 
they adhered to their decision respecting regimental 
promotion, and expressed themselves as follows : — 

'* Having considered that part of our orders of the 8th 
January 1796, which relates to the passing over such Lieute- 
nant-Colonels as may be considered unfit for the command 
of regiments or battalions in the several corps, or to be 
Chief Engineer, as also the application of the same principle 
to the promotion of Colonels to be Major- Cenerals ; we have 
thought proper to direct that the same be rescinded. 

*' On the most mature and deliberate attention to all that 
has been urged in objection to the principle laid down in 
our orders of the date above mentioned, of promotion by 
regimental succession, we have seen nothing to induce us 
to depart from this rule, which is therefore to be abided 
by, with the following modification, viz., that the officers 
of infantry be promoted by seniority in their respective 
regiments to the rank of Major, and afberwards to the 
higher ranks by seniority in the whole corps." 

On the 5th November 1799, the following order was 
issued, prescribing the principle upon which ofiScers were 
to be posted to regiments :^ 

*' The Bight Honorable the G-ovemor in Council has been 
pleased to resolve that the fifteen senior officers of each rank 
shall be successively posted to the fifteen regiments^ of 
infantry now on the establishment, that the next in seniority 
shall be posted in a similar manner, and that this operation 

Posting of 
officers to 

^ One regiment of European, and fonrteen of native infantry. 


shall be lepeaied until all the corps may be complete with CHAP. XYI. 

The postings were made accordingly, but the distribu- 
tion was cancelled almost immediately in consequence of 
the contemplated addition to the establishment of three 
regiments of native infantry^ which took place in Decem- 
ber. The officers were then posted ^ on the principle laid 
down in the order^ and regimental rank in the infantry 
commenced on the 1st January 1800. 

Certain other orders, of which the following is an 
abstract, were received from the Court of Directors in 
November 1799, and published to the Army. 

The order of the Supreme Government, granting an AdditioDAi 
addition of one rupee per diem . to the pay of Captain* Jo^Captoia- 
Lientenants, was confirmed. Lfeutenante 

ftnd Breyet 

The order of the same Government, by which the batta Captams, 
of Captain was granted to Brevet-Captains, was cancelled, 
and an addition of one rupee per diem to their pay was 
sanctioned instead. 

Officers who had attained the rank of Lieutenant- Betiring 
Colonel, Major, Captain, or Captain-Lieutenant, and ^ offloerT 
whose health rendered it impossible for them to serve ^u^^^® ^ 

Benre in 

longer in India, were permitted to retire on half pay. India. 

The same privilege, under similar circumstances, was 
granted to Lieutenants of 13 years' standing, and Ensigns 
of 9 years, including a furlough of 3 years. Lieutenants 
of shorter standing, if unable to serve in Lidia, were 
allowed to retire on the half pay of Ensign. 

The sale of commissions, or the acceptance, directly Sale of 
or indirectly, of any compensation, pecuniary or other, p^hibltS!^' 
on retirement, was prohibited on pain of forfeiture of 

^ Althongh offioen were not permanently posted before this timoi 
they were Beldom remoyed from one regiment to another. 





bntion of 
the troope. 



Subalterns leaying India on sick certificate were 
allowed Bs. 1,000 as passage-money, and Commanders of 
Indiamen were prohibited from charging more than that 
snm for the passage of any Subaltern, Assistant Surgeon, 
or Cadet. 

During the same month the following re-distribution of 
the Army, which had become necessary in consequence 
of the accession of territory, was directed to be carried 

Centre Division, 

A brigade of European and native troops at each of 
the undermentioned stations, viz.. Fort St. George, Walla* 
jahbad, and Yellore. 
. A brigade of European and native cavalry at Arcot. 

One regiment of European infantry, and a detachment 
of native infantry at Amee. 

One battalion of native infantry at Sankerrydroog, 
famishing detachments to Salem, Namcul, and Ahtoor. 

One battalion of native infantry at Chandergherry, 
furnishing detachments to Bampore, Ongole, and Nellore. 

One battalion pf native in&ntry, divided between 
Kistnagherry and Byacottah. 

Three companies native infantry at Amboor. 

One company oi Enropeans^ and two companies of 
native invalids at Cuddalore. 

One company of native infantry at Pondicherry. 

Five companies of artillery at the Mount. 

Invalids, recruits, and time*ezpired men at Poona- 

Northern Divieion. 

Six companies European in&ntry, one company 
artillery, and two battalions of native infantry in the 
district of Masulipatanu 


Four oompanies Baropean infantry, a detachment of CHAP. ZVI. 
artillery, and a battalion of native in&ntry in the district 
of Yizagapatam. Head-Quarters at Chicacole.^ 

One battalion native infantry, two companies European 
invalids, and one company native invalids in the district 
of Ghmjam. Head-quarters at Aska. 


Two regiments of European infantry, three battalions Mysore, 
of native infantry, and two companies of artillery at 

One regiment European infantry, two battalions native 
infantry, one regiment native cavahy, and one company 
of artillery at Chittledroog. 

Two battalions of native infantry in Bednore and 
Soonda, one battalion native infantry at Nundidroog and 

One regiment native cavalry at Bangalore. 

One regiment native cavalry at Serah. 

SotUhem DivMon. 
One regiment of European cavalry, and one of infantry, Soathem 


one battalion of native incftntry, and one company of 
artillery at Trichinopoly. 
One battalion native infantry in the district of Tan- 



One battalion native infantry at Madura. 

One battalion native infantry at Palamcottah. 

One battalion native infantry, and a detachment of 
invalid artillery at Dindigul, furnishing detachments to 
Caroor and other posts. 

One regiment of native cavalry, and one battalion of 
native in&ntry at Coimbatore. 

' Chioaoole was at that time inolnded in the dietriot of Visagapatam. 







CHAP. XVI. Hyderahad. 

Hyderabad. Two companies artillery, one regiment native cavalry, 
and six battalions native infantry. 

Foreign Service. 

One company artillery, and two battalions native infem- 
try in Ceylon. 

One company artillery, one regiment European infantry, 
and one battalion native infantry divided between Malacca, 
Amboyna, and Banda. 

In July 1800 the following orders were issued for the 
formation and discipline of a company of Cadets : — 

" 0.0.0., Fort St. George, \Uh Julg 1800. 

** The Bight Honorable the Governor in Council has been 
pleased to resolve that for the present the above-mentioned ^ 
Cadets of Infantry shall be formed into a company, placed 
under the command of Captain Charles Armstrong, and 
stationed at Chingleput,* where the unoccupied barracks and 
quarters will be allotted for their accommodation. 

^* Major-Oeneral Brathwaite will be pleased to fix upon an 
uniform for the company of Cadets ; he will also appoint such 
Non-Commissioned Officers to assist Captain Armstrong as 
he may deem necessary for this purpose ; he will cause the 
company to be supplied with the requisite arms and accoutre- 
ments, and furnish Captain Armstrong with such instructions 
for his guidance as he may judge neqassary with respect to 
the discipline of the company. 

'' As it is the intention of the Bight Honorable the Gt>vemor 
in Council to promote the Cadets on this establishment to 
the vacant commissions in the corps for which they are 

' 68 in nnmber. 


* The Cadet company was remoyed to TripasBoor in Norember 1802, 
and to Cnddalore about the middle of 1806. 


respeoiiyely destined, when Captain Armstrong shall report CHAP. XVI. 
them qualified to aot as officers ; they are permitted to draw 
the pay and allowances of Lieutenants from this date. 

*' Oaptain A.rm8tTong is permitted to draw, so long as he 
shall oontinae to command the company of Oadets, the pay 
and allowances of a M%jor of Infantry, instead of those of his 
own rank." 

*' Head'Quartera, Choultry Plain, 2Uh My 1800. 

^ 0.0. by MajoT'Oeneral BraihwaUe. 

^' As directed hy the Gbvernment orders of the 15th instant, 
the Cadets of Infantry lately arrived are formed into a 
company to he denominated the * Cadet Company/ which is 
to he mustered, paid, and returned as such, and to be 
commanded by Oaptain Armstrong of the 16th regiment 
native infantry. 

** The Cadet Company is to be prepared as expeditiously as 
possible to march from the Presidency to Chingleput, and the 
necessary indents are to be made upon the arsenal of Fort St. 
Oeoige for such articles as cannot be supplied at Chingleput, 
towards completing the company with Europe accoutremetitB, 
arms, either muskets or fusils, and ammunition both balled 
and blank, in the proportion allowed by the regulations to a 
corps t>f infantry for annual practice. 

*' When reported ready to move, Oaptain Armstrong will 
be instructed in regi&rd to its camp-equipage." 

** The dress of the Cadet Company is established as fol- Umfomi. 


" A scarlet jacket made to fit close and to button down the 
front, with yellow cuffs and collar; three rows of small 
white metal huttons with twist, the colour of the jacket, 
down the forepart ; twist also to be substituted for shoulder 
straps; a round black bat with cockade and red feather; 
white linen waist-coats and pantaloons, and half-boots ; side 




latioDB, 1801. 

for the Gadet 




On the 7th July 1801, regulations on the snbjeot of 
dress were issued by the Commander-in-Chief, prescribing 
the color and pattern of the clothing to be worn by each 
branch of the army. Standards^ colors, and equipments, 
were all minutely described. 

On the 11th August rules and regulations for the 
management of the company of gentlemen Cadets, of 
which the following is an abstract, were published to the 
army :— 

1. The company to be formed into two sab-divisions, each 
to be commanded by a European Officer. 

2. The Ensigns, Seijeants, and Corporals required for the 
company to be selected from amongst the cadets. 

3. The company to attend drill or parade twice a day. 

4. Oenend orders, and the orders of the Cadet Company 
to be read daily to each sub-division. 

5. The articles of war to be read to each cadet on his 
joining, and to the whole company at evening parade on the 
first Sunday in each month. 

6. '* The instruction at drill will comprehend every part of 
the rules and regulations for the formations, movements, and 
field exercise established for His Majesty's forces ; and in 
addition thereto, the form of mounting and relieving g^nards, 
pickets, aentinels, &c., as also the modes of performing all 
other military duties of parade and otherwise.'^ 

7. '' A suitable proportion of the Cadet Company shall 
always compose a part of the detail of the main guard at 
Chengleput, and from retreat beating till 8 o'clock of the 
following morning shall famish a certain number of sentinels, 
viz., at the Commanding Officer's quarters, over the arms, or 
prisoners of the guard, and at the main gate of ^e fort." 

8. '* The cadets shall rise at daybreak, breakfiust at 7 or 8 
o'clock according to the season, dine at 2, sup at 8, and retire 
to rest immediately after. All lights shall be put out at 9 
o'clock, and the T>fficer of the day shall be held responsible for 


an exact and panctnal obfiervance of this order. No cadet, OHAP. XVI. 
between 9 o'clock at night, and daybreak of the following 
morning, shall go out of the fort.'' 

9. '* A General Mess shall be established for the breakfast, Mess, 
dinner, and snpper of the Cadet Company. The Captain of 

the company shall be considered as the President of the 
Mess, and a Commissioned Officer in tnm as Vice-President. 
Every individual of the company shall belong to the Mess, 
and no one shall be absent from it on any other account than 
sickness. Each person shall appear in the prescribed uniform 
on all occasipns at the Mess. The utmost decornm in every 
respect shall be observed, and no meal shall be of longer 
continuance than an hour, or an hour and a half." 

10. " No spirituous liquor, wine, or beer, shall be admit- Liquor, 
ted into the fort or pettah of Chengleput without the express 
sanction of the Commanding Officer, nor shall emjk issue of 
either of these articles be allowed from the Mess between 
meals, but under the permission of the Commanding Officer, 

and any native butler, or other person, convicted of selling 
spirituous liquors, wine, or beer, at Chenglepat, or in its 
neighbourhood without the license of the Commanding Officer, 
shall be punished in the most exemplary manner, and turned 
out of the place." 

11. *' Every cadet shall study the Hindustanee language, studies, 
and for that purpose, as well as of being instructed in the- 
manner of making out returns, reports, Ac., and of acquiring 

a knowledge of the rules and regulations of the service by 
copying the general orders in force ; the port liberty of the 
Cadet Company shall be stopped daily between the hours of 
10 and 12 ; during which time no individual of the company 
shall be permitted to go out of the fort." 

12. ** Divine service shall be performed every Sunday Divine 
forenoon by the Captain, or other person under his nomination, 8®''^^*'®- 
at which the company shall attend." 

13* *' Except on occasions of taking some manly exercise, Dieas. 
such as playing at cricket, fives, or other game, no cadet shall 

VOL. III. 11 





CHAP. XYI. appear out of his quarters, otherwise than dressed in the nni- 
form established for the Cadet Company in the General Order 
of the 24th April 1800 : the habit of lonnging from quarter to 
quarter in a white waistcoat is expressly forbid." 

14. *^ No leave of absence from Chengleput, even for a day^ 
shall be granted to any individual belonging to the Cadet 
Company but by application to head-quartern.*' 

15. " Inattention to orders, Delect of duty, and other 
irregularities will be punished by private, or public, reproof, 
extra drills, and duties in the first instance : by a privation 
of port liberty, and seclusion from society by temporary 
confinement in the second, and by arrest or confinement in 
the last." 

" Upon the receipt of this order at Chengleput, it is to be 
read at three successive evening parades to the Cadet Com- 

On the 20th of the same month a new code of general 
regalations and orders, framed upon one recently issued 
for the guidance of the Boyal troops, was published to the 
army. Every officer serving in the Presidency was 
directed to furnish himself with a copy of these regula- 
tions which consisted of ten separate sections or chapters, 
viz.: — 

1. Rotation of duties. 

2. Field. 

3. Garrison. 

4. Sentries. 

5. Mounting of guards. 


6. Orderly men. 

7. Sick officers. 

8. Leave of absence. 

9. Orders. 
10. Casualties. 

bazars, 1802. 

On the 22nd September 1802 an order wa9 issued for 
the regulation of military bazars with the view of pre- 
venting the abuses and oppression which had existed 
under the old system. The following is an abstract of 
the order :— 

I. All officers commanding forts, stations, or cantonments 
are prohibited, from and after the 1st January 1803, from 


being engaged, directly or indirectly, in levying, receiving, CHAP. XYI. 

or being concerned in any tax, impost, or receipt from the 

bazar, or from any article of supply ; or receiving, in any 
manner whatever, any perqoisite, or emolument of command 
not expressly authorised by Government. 

II. .The anthority of officers commanding forts or canton- 
m^iis, over military basars, or dealers of any description, 
is hereby expressly limited to the necessary means of preserv- 
ing peace and order, to the prohibition, within the limits of 
their command, of the sale of intoxicating drugs and liquors, 
to the extent that the health and discipline of the troops, 
may, in their judgment require, and to the punishment of 
crimes, strictly military, which may be committed by fol- 
lowers of the army. 

III. All disputes relative to property, all cases of civil 
injury, or matters relating to the general police of the coun- 
try, belong exclusively to the jurisdiction of the civil magis- 
trate, and military officers shall not interfere therein, 

ly . Bice, butcher's meat, and all articles of food for the use 
of the troops, shall be exempt from duties or imposts of any 
description, except such as may be levied by the authority of 
the Collector of the district, on the principle which regulates 
the ordinary collection of the revenue. 

V. The forcible seizure of sheep is expressly prohibited. 

VI. Annually, in the month of July, when a statement shall 
have been received of the amount collected from military 
bazars under the direction of the Board of Revenue, a com- 
mittee of officei'S will be appointed to report upon the distri- 
bution of the funds in conformity with the following rules : — 

Officers entitled to share shall be divided into three ' Shares of 
cla«e«. vi.. :- ;«-^„^ *» 

First Class — Officers commanding Divisions. bazars. 

Second do* do. Districts. 

Third do. do. • Garrisons or Canton- 


* This classifioation was modified by an Order dated 16th October 1804. 


CHAP. XYI. The portion allowed io-offioers of the first class shall be 
doable the amount allotted to officers of the second, and the 
portion of officers of the second shall be double the amount 
allotted to those of the third class. 

The distribution being approved by the Governor in Coun- 
cil, shall be published in General Orders to the army, and the 
payment provided for in the same manner as in a distribution 
of off-reckonings. 



Native Infaotry, 1799-1808. 

Daring Angast 1799 a representation regarding the Protracted 
condition of the Native troops serving at Amboyna and on*fore^ 
Banda was received by Government from Lieatenant- fl«rvioo, 1799. 
Colonel HcNeile^ commanding in the Eastern islands. 

He stated that the 17th battalion had been fonr years 
on foreign service, and the volunteers from the 11th 
battalion nearly three years, although at the time of 
their embarkation the men did not expect to be absent 
for more than a year. He pointed out their sufferings 
from the climate, and from want of pay; arrears for 
13 months having been due at the date of his report, and 
he concluded by saying that bad health had " prevailed 
to so distressing an excess as to have occasioned more 
instances of insaniiy and suicide than I have before 
known in the whole course of my service.'' 

Major-General Brathwaite, then in command at Madras 
during the absence of General Harris in the field, when 
forwarding Colonel McNeile's letter to Government, 
proposed to raise two or more corps of 500 men each for 
the special purpose of foreign service. 

This proposal was not adopted, but the Supreme Measuros 
Government were requested to order the Bengal Marine ^ '^ ^ * 
battalion to relieve the Madras Native troops, as the acces- 
sion of territory from the conquest of Mysore rendered it 
impossible for the Madras Government to spare men for 
that purpose. 

Government about the same time' issued the following Family 

•I j.» X • x-L J- * xi • o©rtifioat68. 

order as some compensation to the troops for their pro- 
longed detention on foreign service : — 

" Q,0,Q,, Fort St George, hth November 1799. 

'* Until an opportunity sball occur, which the Right Honor- 
able the Governor in Council now trusts will not be long 





CHAP. XYI. protracted, for relieving the Native troops now serying at 
Malacca, Amboyna, and Banda ; ' his Lordship in Goancil is 
pleased to order and direct, that no dedaction shall be made 

V from the fiunily certificates of those corps, on account of the 

casualties which may have happened since their embarkation 
on that service." 

" It being the farther intention of the Governor in Council 
to manifest his sense of the zeal and gallantry of these troops, 
and to reward their attachment to the Honorable Company, 
by granting to the families of those who may have died in 
battle, or otherwise, a pension equal to the regulated pension 
of the different ranks ; the Commander-in-Chief is requested 
to order lists to be prepared of the persons constituting the 
immediate families of the deceased, for the purpose of 
regulating the payment of the pensions." 

The troops on the Madras establishment having been 
found unequal to the duties entailed by the increase of 
territory on the conquest of Mysore^ an order was issued 
on the 14th December authorising an augmentation to 
the extent of three regiments of Native infantry, to be 
numbered the 15th, 16th and 17th. 

The 1st battalion 15th regiment was formed from the 
3rd extra battalion, and placed under the command of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Oeorge Ure. 

The 2nd battalion was formed from the ACasulipatam 
battalion, supplemented by drafts from the Native corps 
at Amboyna^ the 2nd of the 7kh, the 2nd of the 9th^ and 
the 1st of the 12th. Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Coke 
was appointed to command. Colonel Robert Croker 
became Colonel of the regiment. 

The 1st battalion 16th regiment was raised at Trichi- 
nopoly on the 1st January 1800^ the nucleus, to the 
extent of 860 men of all ranks^ having been furnished 
from the lat Ist^ 1st 2nd, Ist and 2nd 5th, 1st 6th, 1st 
7th, 1st 8th, and 1st 13th. Lieutenant-Colonel Jenne« 

16th regi- 

29th M.N.I. 

iSth regi- 
aOth M.N.I. 

16th regi- 

8l8t T.L.I. 


rett^ by whose name the battalion ia still known^ was CHAP xy.I. 
appointed to command, *"^ 

The 2nd battalion was raised at Madnra on the Isi l^th regi- 
January 1800^ the nuoleas being furnished by drafts to 82Dd K.N.I. 
the extent of 850 men from the 2nd Srd^ Ist and 2nd 
4th, 2nd 6th, 1st 7th, 1st 9th, and 2nd 1 8th. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Dyce was appointed to this battalion, and Colonel 
Gteorge Fotheringham to command the regiment. 

The 1st battalion 17th regiment was raised at Guntoor 17th regi- 
on the same date as the other new battalions, and was (Wahab) 
formed of drafts from the 2nd 1st, 2ad 2nd, 2nd 5th, 1st ^"^ ^-^-I- 
8th, 1st 9th, 1st 10th, 1st and 2nd 11th, and 2nd 12th. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Kinsey was appointed to command. 

The 2nd battalion was raised at Chicaoole and formed I7th xegi- 
of drafts from the 2nd 5th, 2nd 8th, 2nd lOth, and 1st (Durand) 
and2nd 11th. Lieutenant-Colonel Darand was appointed ^*^ ^'^•^* 
to command. Colonel George Wahab became Colonel 
of the regiment and gave his name to the Ist battalion 
haying been in command of the district of Guntoor when 
it was raised. 

The officers and men of the regiments which had 
misbehaved at Panjalamcoorchy on the 5th September 
1799 were excluded from any share in the promotion 
created by this augmentation. 

The corps of Malays was struck off the strength of the Malay corps. 
Madras establishment during the month of December^ 
and transferred to the Gbvemment of Ceylon. 

On the 17th June 1800 orders were issued for the Angmen- 
formation of two additional regiments of Native infantry, ***^®"» i®^- 
to be numbered the 18th and 19th respectively. 

The 1st battalion 18th regiment was raised at Banga- isth regi- 
lore in July from a nucleus of drafts from the 1st 2nd, (p^^kiBon) 
1st Srd, 2nd 5th, 2nd 6th, 1st 7th, 2nd 12th, 2nd 18th, ^^"^ M.N.I. 




18th regi- 
86th M.N.I. 

19th regi- 

(Forbes) 87th 

19th regi- 

88th M.N.I. 


Increase to 
the pay and 
of Native 

and let 9Ui. Major Parkison was placed in oommandj 
tlie Lientenant-Colonel being on ihe staff. 

The 2nd battalion was raised at Nandidroog daring 
the same months receiving drafts from the 1st and 2nd 
Ist, 2nd 3rd, 2nd 4th, 1st 8thj 1st 12th, 1st 13th, and 1st 
14th. lieutenant-Colonel J. Cappage was appointed to 
command. . 

The 1st battalion 19th regiment was raised at Itcha- 
poor, receiving drafts from the 2nd 7th, 2nd 8th, 2nd 
9th, 2nd 10th, 1st and 2nd 11th, 2nd 14th, and 1st 7th. 
This battalion appears to have been named after an 
officer who originally belonged to the 2nd battalion. 

The 2nd battalion was raised at Ellore, receiving drafts 
from the 2nd 1st, 2nd 2nd, 1st 4th, 1st 5th, 1st 6th, 1st 
9th, and 1st lOth, and was placed nnder Major Maogre- 
gor, the Lieutenant-Colonel being in England. 

Colonels Francis Torreus and Carey Lelande were 
appointed to the 18th and 19th regiments respectively. 

As a European Adjutant was allowed to each battalion 
of Native in&mtry, and the 'duties connected with the 
stores were performed by a serjeant, the appointment of 
Adjutant and Quartermaster to a regiment was considered 
to be unnecessary, and was abolished on the 25th June. 

Shortly after the increase to the pay of the European 
troops in 1798, the propriety of taking similar steps in the 
case of the Native Army was urged upon the Supreme 
Government on the ground that the increased price of 
provisions in the Camatic rendered it almost impossible 
for a sepoy to subsist upon the established rate of pay. 
It was also pointed out that — 

^' The sepoy in Bengal, where rice is, at an average compu- 
tation, procurable at the rate of from 30 to 40 seers for the 
rupee, receives in addition to his pay a constant allowance 
of half batta. His situation is infinitely superior to that of an 
ordinary laborer, and consequently an object of attainment. 


" On the Coast, where rice is seldom cheaper in any station CHAP. XYI. 
than 18 seers per rapee, and where it is frequently served to 
the troops from the public stores at 13 seers per rupee as a 
necessary indolgence from Oovemment, this allowance is 

The Supreme Government eventually consented to 
revise the scale of pay and allowances to the Madras 
Native troops, and on the llth July 1800 the following 
General Order was issued on the subject : — 

" The Bight Honorable the Governor in Council reflecting 
on the series of important services rendered by the sepoys 
on the establishment of Fort St. George, has been impressed 
with a deep sense of the gallantry and fidelity so generally 
displayed by them. He has therefore been studious to 
avail himself of every opportunity to ijianifest his Lordship's 
attention to their interests and comforts, and his Lordship 
reflects with pride and satisfaction on the frequent instances 
in which he has been enabled to reward the distinguished 
merit of individuals. 

'' Under the impression of these sentiments, the Governor in 
Council has extended his enquiries with the assistance of 
Major-General Brathwaite into the actual situation of the 
Native soldiers, and has in consequence satisfied himself from 
the reports of General Brathwaite, as well as from other 
sources of information, that the rate of pay at present allowed 
to the Native infantry does not bear a just proportion to the 
expense of maintaining themselves and their families, nor to 
the duties attached to the profession of arms. The GK)ver- 
nor in Council has therefore represented the result of his 
Lordship's enquiries to the Most Noble the Governor-General 
of Bengal. 

^ The Most Noble the Governor-General in Council having 
considered this representation, and being convinced from 
personal observation during his Lordship's residence at this 
Presidency, of the necessity of extending the bounty of the 
Company to the Native troops, the Governor in Council has 

VOL. in. 12 


OBAP. XYI. therefore sincere pleasure in announcing his Lordship*s 
~~~' resolution to bestow on them a more adequate portion of the 
advantages derived to the State from those successes to which 
their bravery and attachment have materially contributed. 

" The Bight Honorable the Governor in Council has accord- 
ingly been pleased to establish, under the authority of the 
Most Noble the Oovernor-General in Council of Bengal, the 
following increase of pay and advantages to the Native 
troops on the establishment of Fort St. Oeorge according to 
the annexed tables of pay and batta : — 

Commissioned Officers, 

Pay of Native "The pay of all subadars of infantry who shall have 
offioen. actually served ten years in that rank shall be twenty star 

pagodas per month. 

''The pay of all subadars of infantry who shall have 
actually served six years in that rank shall be fifteen star 
pagodas per month. 

"The pay of all subadars of infantry who shall not 
actually have served six years in that rank shall continne as 
at present to be twelve star pagodas per month. 

" Subadars of cavalry who shall actually have served ten 
years in that rank shall receive an addition, to their present 
pay, of eight star pagodas per month. 

'' Subadars of cavalry who shall have actually served six 
years in that rank shall receive an addition of three star 
pagodas per month to their present pay. 

*' The pay of subttdars of cavalry who may not actually 
have served six years in that rank shall continue to be, as at 
present, twenty-six star pagodas per month. 

''The pay of syrangs of gun lascars, and jemadars of 
pioneers (having the command of companies) who shall 
actually have served ten years in that rank shall be twelve 
star pagodas per month. 

« The pay of syrangs of gun lascars, and jemadars of 
pioneers (having the command of companies) who shall 


actually have served six years in that rank shall be nine star OHAP. XYI. 
pagodas per month. 

"The pay of syrangs of gun lascars, and jemadars of 
pioneers (having the command of companies) who shall not 
actually have served six years in that rank shall continue as 
ai present to be seven star pagodas per month. 

" The Commander of the Army in Chief will direct the 

Adjutant-G^neral of the Army to famish the Native officers 

who may attaiii the gradations of ran^ above specified with 

certificates from his office, and to transmit duplicates of them 

to the Office of audit. 
" The pay of jemadars of infantry shall be seven star 

pagodas per month. 

" The Native adjutants of corps of cavalry as weU as of Natdve 
infantry shaU inrariably be chosen from among the jemadars, ^^^ 
and Major-General Brathwaite will direct that if the appoint- from fcbe 
ment of Native adjutant should now be held in any regi- f^j^dar. 
ment or battalion by officers of the rank of subadar, it shall 
be immediately vacated, and filled up according to the tenor 
of this order. 

"Thebatta of commissioned Native officers, of whatever Batta of 
corps or rank, shall continue to be the same as is at present ^^11 
fixed by the existing regulations. 

A^on- Cotnmissioned and Privates. 

'* The pay of havildars of infantry shall be three star pay aod batta 

pagodas per month. of non-oom. 

'^ ° ^ miasioned 

" The pay of naigues of infantry shall be two star pagodas officers and 

and twenty-one fanams per monUi. pnvatea. 

'* The pay of sepoys and Native doctors of infantry shall 
be two star pagodas per month. 

" The pay of sepoy boys of whatever corps shall be one 
star pagoda per month. 

'*The pay of first tindals of gun lascars, and of havil* 
dars of pioneers shall each be three star pagodas per 


CHAP. XYI. '' The pay of Bocond tindals of gnn lascars and naigaes 
of pioneers shall be two star pagodas and twentj-one fanams 
per month. 

'* The pay of gnn lascars, of pioneers, and of Native 
doctors shall be two star pagodas and ten fiemams per 

''The batta of first and second tindals of gnn lascars, 
and of havildars and naigaes of pioneers, shall be one fanam 
and forty cash per day^ 

" The batta of havildars, naignes, and sepoys of infantry, 
of gon lascars, pioneers, and of Native doctors, shall be one 
fanam per day, or in lien thereof one seer of rice in cases 
when rice may be issned from the public stores. 

*^ The pay and batta of drammers, fifers, pnckallies, and 
of bhesties shall continue to be the same as are at preseilt 
fixed by the existing regulations. 
No stoppages *' The rates of pay and batta above specified for all corps 
for olothinff. ^^^ ranks shall be clear and exclusive of all stoppages for 
clothing, which will continue to be provided for, as at present, 
by issues of cash from the public treasury. 

** The rates of pay above specified for all corps and ranks 
shall be the same in all months without reference to the 
number of days in each month." 


Pay and " The pay and batta of invalids of Native infantry, of gun 

invalidB l&scars, and of pioneers, shall continue to be the same as at 


*' Subadars of infantry, syrangs of gun lascars, and jema- 
dars of pioneers, who may have attained the gradations of 
rank before specified, shall receive invalid pay or pensions 
according to the scale of their actual pay at the time of their 
being admitted on the non-effective list. 

" No class of Native cavalry shall in future be invalided, 
but officers and men, of whatever class or rank, shall, when 



judged unfit for the service by the proper committees, be 
penBioned on half the net pay which they respectively enjoyed 
at the time of being transferred to the non-effective list. 

''The Governor in Council has been pleased further to 
resolve that the Native officers and men, of whatever corps or 
ranks, who may lose a limb by wounds on actual service, shall 
be pensioned on the full pay of their respective ranks. 

'* The Governor in Council is pleased to order and direct 
that the foregoing regulations for the payment of the Native 
troops on this establishment shall commence from the 1st 
day of July 1800. 

" The Governor in Council takes this occasion to publish 
bis Lordship's intention of disbanding the revenue corps as 
soon as circumstances may render that measure convenient. 
The pay and batta of those corps are not to be affected by 
this order. 

" Such parts of all orders or regulations as may be con- 
trary to the tenor of this order are to cease to have effect 
from the 1st July 1800." 

The following were the tables of pay and batta accord- 
ing to the new rates : — 


Fensions for 
the loBs of 

of order. 



NcUive Infantry, 

Net Pay per month 
exclosive of Stop- 
pages for Clothing. 

Batta per day when 
in the field, &o. 



Subeilar ... ... •*• 



Jemadar ... ... ... 






Naig^e ... ... ... 

2 21 


Sepoy and Native Doctor. 


J 1 

Drommer and Fifer 

2 21 

1 80 

Sepoy Boys ••• ••• 


Piiokally with Bollock ... 

8 2 72 



* Or in lien thereof, one seer of rice per day when rice may be 
issued from the public stores. 




Oun Lascars and Piansers. 

Beoroit boyt. 

Belief of the 
troops at 


Gan Lascars. 


per day 
when in 
the field. 

Net Pay per 
month exclu- 
sive of Stop- 
pages for 

Net Pay per month exclu- 
sive of Stoppages for 


First Tindal ... 

Second Tindal. 


Lasoar and Na- 
tive Doctor. 


Lascar Boys ... 

PAO. f'. c. 




2 21 
2 10 


Havildar ... 
Naigue ... 
Pioneer ... 

PAO. F. C. 


2 21 
2 10 



• a . 

F. c. 

*1 40 

•1 40 




. . • 

* Or in lieu thereof one seer of rice per day when rice is issued. 

'^ It is to be understood that the pay of the boys under the 
description of sepoy, &c, reomits, is to be the same, whether 
belonging to the corps of cavalry, or in&utry, or gun 
lascars, that is to say, one pagoda per month ; but they are 
not to receive batta in any situation until they are of ietge to 
be put on the effective strength of such corps respectively.** 

On the 11th August 1800* the Bengal Marine battalion^ 
about 747 strongs with 289 followers^ including women 
and children^ embarked at Madras under Captain Thomas 
Brougham for the relief of the Madras Native troops 
serving at Malacca and Amboyna. About two-thirds of 
this corps were Mahomedans. 

The 2nd battalion 1st regiment (formerly the 17th 
battalion) and the Madras Volunteer battalion returned 
to the coast in May 1801. The following is an extract, 
from a General Order issued ob the occasion :— 


'' 29ih May 1801. GHAP. XVI. 

" Major-Q^neral Brath waitehas much satisfiEiction in ayailing Thanln to 

himself of this opportnnitj to express his entire approba- ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

tion of Lieutenant-Colonel McNeile's conduct during a long Volanteer 

course of arduous and important command, as well as of the 

exemplary zeal and spirit which have so eminently distin- 
guished the 2nd battalion 1st regiment, and the Volunteer 
corps, throughout a very trying ^ service, and an uncommonly 
tedious passage by sea. 

^' The General derives particular pleasure also in announ- Honorary 
cing to these corps the- resolution of the Oovernor in Council "*^fif®"' 
to testify his sense of their faithful attachment to the British 
Oovemment daring a period of more than five years on 
foreign service, by bestowing on them individually a badge to 
be worn as an honorary mark of distinction ; and which the 
General hopes may be in readiness for delivery previous to 
the departure of the corps from the Presidency." 

On the 20th August a new code of general regula- GenenJ 
tions and orders, for the conduct of the forces serving '^fl^**^*""' 
under tha Presidency of Fort St. George, was published 
to the Army. 

The following is an extract from that part of the 
regulations which relates to orderlies : — 

" Orderly men.— Para. 1st. '* The attachment of orderly EmploTmeEit 
soldiers to officers being solely for the performance of duties <rf<wd«'l"*' 
purely military, the disgraceful practice of employing Native 
soldiers in carrying articles of table consumption ! in running 

1 CasnaltieB when On servioe in the Eastern Islands, as pnblished 
in Q.O., Maroh and Aognst 1802 :— 

2nd battalion 1st regiment 283 

Volnnteer battalion 9B 

Onnlasoars 49 ^ 

jnMneers «•• ••• .•. ••• ••. ••• so 




hM respects 
recruit boTS, 


CHAP. XVI. bj the sides of palankins ! in sapplying the place of domestics, 
and horae-keepers behind carriages and bandies !. and in 
following close at the heels of mounted horses, is to be dis- 
continued, and no orderly soldier, except on urgent occasion, 
is to exceed the regulated military pace in the execution 
of his duty." 

Shortly after the mutiny at Yellore in 1806^ when the 
causes of that outbreak, and of the successful mainte- 
nance of the secrecy of the design, were under 
discussion, the expediency of the order quoted above, as 
well as that of another of a similar character regarding 
recruit boys, was called in question as tending to 
destroy the intimate association formerly existing 
between the sepoys and their officers ; it was also con- 
tended that the performance of the services specified in 
the orders was considered more as a privilege than as a 

This view appears to have been adopted by the then 
Commander-in-Chief, who, in an order dated 22nd Aug. 
1806, in which he called the attention of all officers to the 
imperative necessity of becoming thoroughly conversant 
with Hindostanee, went on to rescind the orders by 
which the attachment of the boys of the sepoy recruit 
establishment to the European officers of corps as order- 
lies was prohibited, and concluded with these words : — 

*' His Excellency has been induced to adopt this decision 
from the conviction that the advantage gained by the 
restriction of the boys to duties purely military has not 
balanced the injury the service has sustained by the loss of 
the facility to the acquirement of a common language and 
knowledge of native customs, which their former attachment 
to the junior officers produced." 

On the 22nd September it was resolved to raise a new 
Volunteer corps to serve in the Moluccas for three years. 



The strengtli was fixed at 500^ non-commissioned officers^ ohap. XYI. 
rank and file> with the ordinary proportion of Native 
commissioned officers^ drmnmers^ pnckallies, &c. The 
European staff consisted of a Captain Commandant^ 
an Adjntsmt^ a Serjeant-Major^ and a Quartermaster 
Serjeant. The Native staffs of a Jemadar Adjutant, a 
Drill Havildar^ a Drill Naigue, a Drum-Major, and a Fife- 
Major. Captain Macpherson of the 14th regiment was 
appointed to command. 

The following order setting forth the conditions of Conditions 
service was issued by the Commander-in-Chief on the ® 8®^^*^* 
23rd September :— 

" For the purpose of carrying into effect the resolution of 
the Bight Honorable the Governor in Council as published 
in the Oovemment General Order of the 22nd instant, the 
Commander-in-Chief is pleased to direct that such men of the 
undermentioned corps as may make a voluntary offer to 
serve in the Madras Volunteer battalion during a period of 
three years at the Molucca Islands, shall be permitted to do 
so on the following terms, viz.^ jemadars to enter the Madras 
Volunteer battalion as subadars, havildars as jemadars, 
naigues as havildars, and the requisite proportion of privates 
as naigues, according to seniority. 

" During the time the Madras Volunteer battalion may 
remain embodied, the promotion shall be confined to it ; the 
Native commissioned, non-commissioned, and rank and file^ 
will for the present be struck off the strength of their respec- 
tive corps, but on their return to the coast, be re-admitted in 
the several ranks which they may have then attained on the 
establishment of such corps as may best suit the conveni- 
ence of the public service, and they will be permitted to 
leave family certificates/* 

'* Corps from which men are permitted to volunteer for the Corps from 
Madras Volunteer battalion, viz. :— ^^^' 

VOL. III. IS aUowed. 




Bargeon, and 
reomit boys. 




and hatting. 

Deiaohment let battalion 4ih regiment at Fort St. George. 
The 2nd battalion 14th regiment at Fort St. Qeorge. 
The let do. 17th do. do. 

The Ist do. 18th do. do. 

The Ist and 2nd Madras battalions. 

On the 13th October an order was issued by which an 
Assistant Surgeon was posted to the battalion^ and three 
recruit boys allowed to each company. 

This battalion embarked at Madras on the 16th Octo- 
ber 1801. 

The Muggletoor Revenue battalion having shown, 
symptoms of insubordination in November, was broken 
up during the month. 

The Tinnevelly Provincial battalion, the Nair, Tier, 
and Mopla battalions in the province of Malabar, and 
the 1st and 2nd Madras battalions, were reduced early 
in 1802, the four first on the 31st March, and the others 
on the 29th April. 

Two companies, viz., the 19th and 20th, were added to 
the Native Invalid establishment on the 2nd April, and 
ordered to be stationed at Fort St. Qeorge. 

On the 22nd May an order, from which the following 
is an extract, was published regarding camp equipage and 
hutting : — 

** Hospitals, and buildings for the reception of the arms, 
stores, and gpram of regiments of cavalry, and for the arms 
and stores of battalions of infantry, will be provided at fixed 
stations at the expense of Government, but the men, when 
not encamped, must be hutted without any additional expense 
to the public, as it is to be clearly understood that the allow- 
ance for the provision and carriage of camp equipage is to 
defray a]l expenses for cover to the Native troops in the 
field, in cantonment, or in garriBon, in peace or in war." 

The allowance in question for each branch of the 
Native Arlny is shown below : — 


A regiment of Native 
mTslrj witli utUlery 

A compamjof artillerj... 

A. bstbtlion of ITatiTe 

Thooorpe of pioneer* ... 

The nomber of tents, cattle, and followers specified. The allow. 
were to be maintained, mastered, and kept in constant S^wyr" 
readiness for serrice bj officers commanding corps, 
who were also to provide hatting accommodation for 
their men, and carriage for the regimental stores, ont of 
the sums allotted to them respeotirely as set forth in the 

In January 1803 it was ordered that the cnmmerbnnds CDminer- 
ahonld be discontinned as part of the clothing isened to ^^"^ 1B08. 
the Native soldiery. 

On the 38th of the same month the existing estab- Bftttaiiona 
lishment of 14 companies of pioneers ' was angmented to rfpwn^w. 

* As the ■errioea of the pioneers hare been inoladed in the " H iatorj 
of the Hadraa Bngineen," pnbliihed in 1881, it maj be well to explain 
whj thej' have been entered here under the hMd of Native in&mtiT. 
The pioneeiB wece not attached to the oorpa of Engineei* nntil Maf 
1881, when the lat battalion wae made over to it, and Inatmoted En 
•apping and mining. The 2nd battalion wat made over, in like 
manner, in December 18U. From the time of the fint rormatlan of 
pioneei* in ITSO np to their tnuutfer in 1831 and 18U, the; wen 
offloeied exolniivelj from the infantry, empliiyed'aa pioneers, and placed 
Hnd«r tlie general direction of the Qnariernwater.Qeneral. 






April 1808. 

Ist Extra 
89th M^J.) 

Snd Extra 
4lBt M.N.L) 

batt. SSnd, 

16^ to be formed into two separate battalions of eight 
companies each. The strength of a company was to 
remain as before, viz., 1 jemadar, 8 havildars, 3 naigaes, 
1 pnckallj, and 100 privates. Captain W. P. Heitland 
of the 6th regiment was appointed to command the 1st 
battalion, with Captains Brown of the 7th and Davis of 
the 4th, and Lieutenant Barclay of the 5th to do duty. 

Captain Fitzpatrick, 9th regiment, was appointed to 
the 2nd battalion, with Captain Bagshaw of the 10th, and 
Lientenant Grant of the 12th to do duty. 

The new formation was completed in March, at which 
time the companies were distributed in the following 
manner, viz. : — 

1st battalion. — ^The 6th company at Hyderabad ; the 
remaining companies in camp. 

2nd battalion. — ^The 1st company at Hyderabad; the 
3rd company in the Moluccas; the remaining 6 com- 
panies in camp. 

On the 16th April orders were issued for the form- 
ation of three battalions of Native in&ntry, to be returned 
as ''Extra Battalions.'' Each was to consist of ten 
companies, and the establishment was fixed at one 
Captain Commandant with a subaltern, and 900 privates, 
with the ordinary proportion of Native officers, havil- 
dars, and naigues. 

The 1st Extra battalion was raised at Trichinopoly^ 
and placed under the command of Captain Martin of 
the 5th regiment, with Lieutenant Trewman as adjutant. 

The 2nd Extra was raised at Chicacole, and placed 
under the command of Captain Crane of the 12th regi- 
ment, with Lieutenant Shaw as adjutant. 

The 3rd Extra was raised at Nellore, and placed under 
the command of Captain Whitlie of the 19th regiment, 
with Lieutenant Porter as adjutant. 


Eaoli of these battalions received drafts from the old CHAP. XYI. 
regiments to the following extent^ viz., 10 jemadars as ooni^^on, 
snbadars, 10 havildars as jemadars, 50 naigaes as havil- 
dars, and SO privates as naigaes. 

On the 22Dd July orders were issued directing that ^^^. 
all the additional privates which had been raised under July 1808. 
recent instructions by corps of Native infantry serving 
in the Carnatic, in Mysore, and in the Ceded Districts, 
should be formed into four extra battalions of the same 
strength as those raised in April. 

The 4th Extra was raised at EUore, and placed under 4th Extra 
Captain Macfarlane of the 5th regiment, with Lieutenant 2i8t, 42iid 
Hughes as adjutant. M.N.I.) 

The 5th Extra was raised at Wallajahbad, and placed 6th Extra (let 
under Captain Shaw of the 10th regiment, with Ineute- 45th ^n.i.) 
uant Bird as adjutant. 

The 6th Extra was raised at Trichinopoly, and placed 6th Extra 
under Captain Buchan of the 12th regiment, with Lieute- 22Dd, 44,th 
nant P. Le Couteur as adjutant. u.^.i,) 

The 7th Extra was raised at Sankemacoil in the 7th Extra 
District of Tinnevelly, and placed under Captain Farran ^^^ ^^ 
of the 14th, with Lieutenant Kent as adjutant. M.N.I.) 

These battalions were brought on the permanent Sndbattsoth 
strength of the army in October 1804, as was also the <^^' ^•^•^•) 
Volunteer battalion on its return from the Moluccas, when 
it became the 2nd battalion 20th (40th M.N.L) 




CHAP.XYII. Majob-ObnebalWslleslxt arrived before Ahmednnggar 
7T~ on the 8th Angnst 1803^ and found the pettah occupied 

nuggar, 1808. by a body of Arabs^ supported by one of Scindiah's 
regular battalions^ and a number of horse encamped 
between the pettah and the fort. The Killadar having 
refused to surrender, the pettah was immediately attacked 
by escalade in three columns. The curtains were about 
eighteen feet in height^ connected at every hundred yards 
by towers or bastions held by Arabs. The first column, 
composed of the pickets, and the flank companies 
H.M.'s 78th regiment under liieutenant-Colonel Harness, 
planted the ladders on one of the curtains, but as these 
had no ramparts, the men on getting to the top found 
nothing on which to stand, and were consequently obliged 
to desist. The 78th alone had 55 killed and wounded, of 
whom 4 were officers. 

Storm of the The right column, composed of the flank companies 

pettah. H.M.'s 74th, and the 1st battalion 8rd regiment, all under 

Captain Yesey of the latter, was more fortunate, as it 
escaladed at a re-entering angle touching one of the bas- 
tions. The Arabs made an obstinate defence, but after 
a sharp struggle, during which 18 of the 74th, and 18 of 
the 3rd were killed or wounded, the men made good 
their footing, and getting down into the pettah, they 
opened the gate to the third party under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Wallace, composed of the battalion companies of 


the 74tli, and the 1 st battalion 8th regiment. The two CHAP. XVIU 
colamna uniting, the place was speedily cleared of its 

Our total loss ^ daring the storm amounted to 27 killed 
and 92 wounded. 

On the morning of the 9th, a position within 400 yards 
of the forty was seized by Colonel Wallace with five 
companies of the 74thy and the 2nd battalion 12th regi- 
ment. During the night a battery for four guns was 
constructed at this post, and opened at daylight with 
such effect that the Elilladar surrendered, and gave up 
the place on condition that the garrison should be allowed 
to depart with their private property. 

He marched out accordingly on the morning of the Sorrender of 
12th, with about 1,400 men, many of whom were Arabs. 
The fort was found to contain a large quantity of military 
stores. The gunpowder was of such good quality that 
the General made use of it to replace that which had been 
expended during the siege. 

The troops engaged in this service received the thanks 
of the Governor-General in Council conveyed in an order 
dated at Fort William on the 8th September 1803. 

After having made arranffements for the settlement of General 

. , Wellesley 

the districts dependent upon Ahmednugg^, and having crosses the 
placed a garrison ' in the fort, General Wellesley marched ^^^^^^^T- 
to the northward, and crossed the Godavery on the 21st 
and 22nd August at Toka, where he was joined on the 
25th by Major Dallas with the 1st battalion 10th regi- 

1 Appendix B. 

' Detaclpnent of artfllerj. 

H.M/s 84th regiment, 30 men i 

2nd battalion 8rd regiment nnder Captftin Lnoas. 




The oonfed- ] 
eratee elude 

Capture of 


return to the 



and Colonel 



separately on 


Daring these operations Colonel Stevenson bad moved 
to the northern frontier of the Nizam's dominions in 
order to watch the passes ; and on the 26th Angast he 
encamped near the Dewul ghant^ in consequence of a 
demonstration made in that direction by Scindiah and 
the Bajah of Berar with part of their army, but the main 
body of their cavalry had been sent to the westward^ and 
on the 24th it had entered the Nizam's country by the 
Adjnnta ghaut. Colonel Stevenson followed, and on the 
2nd September he attacked and carried by storm the small 
fort of Jaulna ^ at that time belonging to Bcindiah. On 
the 6th^ and again on the 9th, he surprised and dispersed 
the camps of two parties of the enemy's horse, after 
which he halted at Budnapoor near Jaulna for some days. 

In the meantime the confederates, who had arrived in 
the neighbourhood of Partoor with the apparent inten- 
tion of marching upon Hyderabad, suddenly broke up 
their camp on the night of the 6th September, and returned 
to the Adjunta ghaut, where they effected a junction with 
their artillery and infantry. 

General Wellesley, who had been watching their move- 
ments, was delayed on the Godavery until the 18th 
September, when the arrival of a large convoy, escorted by 
the 1st battalion 4th regiment under Major Hill, enabled 
him to prepare to bring the enemy to action. On the 19th 
he detached the 1st battalion ^ 3rd, and the 2nd battalion 

1 40 miles east of Anmngabad, Lat. 19^ 62* N. Long. 76° S' B. 
Long the head^narten of the light field division, Hyderabad snbsidi- 
aiy force. 

* This was a very good battalion. It had marched from Hadnra to 
the Taptee» a distance of about 1,000 miles, without a single desertion, 
and was the second senior native corps with the force. It was sent 
back to Poonah, beoaose of ill-timed complaints made by the command- 
ing officer regarding the coin in which his men were paid. 

Bnpplementafy despatches, Duke of Wellington, Vol. IV, page 179. 


18th for the better protection of Poonah^ and the next OHAP. XYIL 
day he encamped at Gola Pangiree on the river Doodna. 
On the 21st he made a short march to Jalg^am near 
Badnapoor^ where he reviewed Colonel Stevenson^s divi- 
sion, and concerted the plan of a combined attack on the 
enemy, to be made on the 24th. The two divisions 
separated' on the 22nd, and moved towards Bokerdun, 
where the enemy was reported to be, Colonel Stevenson 
marching nearly due north by Hnssainabad, and General 
Wellesley taking a more easterly route. 

The latter arrived at his ground near the village of General 
Naulniah about 11 a.h. on the 23rd, and hearing that leavM^hiii 
the enemy were within six miles of him, and preparing ^^^ 
to move off, he determined to attack at once without 
waiting for Colonel Stevenson, so leaving his stores and 
I>A?gt^ ft^ Naulniah, protected by the 1st battalion 2nd 
regiment, and the rear guard, all under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Chalmers of the 2nd, he advanced with the rest 
of his division, consisting of four regiments of cavalry, 
six regiments of infantry, and detachments of artillery 
and pioneers. 

About 1 o'clock in the afternoon the British troops Grosses the 
came in sight of the armies ^ of Scindiah and the Rajah of 
Berar, drawn up in order of battle between the rivers 
Kaitna and Juah, having the former parallel with their 
front at a short distance, and the latter nearly parallel 
with their rear. The General resolved to attack their 
left, and making a flank march to the right, he crossed 
the Kaitna at the village of Peepulgaum^ rather more 
than half a mile above its confluence with the Juah. 
The passage was not disputed, and the infantry was 

^' About 20,000 cavalry, 18 battalions of disciplined infantiy, nnder 
Exiropean officers, estimated at about 12,000 men, and upwards of 100 

VOL. III. 14 


CHAP.xyil. formed across the fork between the two riTers in two 
lines, with the cavalry in the rear. The first line was 
composed of H.M/s 78th on the left, the Ist of the 10th, 
and Ist of the 8th in the centre, and the pickets ^ on the 
right. The second fine, which followed the first at the 
distance of aboat three hundred paces, consisted of the 1 st 
of the 4th, and the 2nd of the 12th, with H.M.'8 74th on 
the right immediately in rear of the pickets. 

The enemy The enemy^ in the meantime, had changed fronts throw- 

ge ron . .^^ their left on the Juah at the village of Assaye, and 
resting their right on the Kaitna, being sufficiently strong 
to occupy the whole space between the two rivers, which^ 
at that place, was about a mile broad. Their line was 
defended by upwards of 100 guns, several of which were 
disposed in front of the village of Assaye which was occu- 
pied by a strong body of infantry. 

Battlis or ASSATE. 

The British troops advanced with great steadiness 
under a remarkably heavy fire, but Colonel Orrock of the 
8th^ who commanded the pickets, and who had been 
directed to keep out of the range of shot from Assaye, 
mistook his orders, diverged to the right, and led directly' 

> The pickets were composed of details from each corps, and generally 
formed the advanced guard. Their strength on this occasion, probably 
amonnted to abont 400 rank and file. The detail of the 2nd battalion 
serving with the pickets on the 28rd September consisted of 1 sabal- 
tem and 60 sepoys, besides non-commissioned officers. This, with a 
similar detail from each of the other six regiments of infantry, and from 
the battalion of pioneers, would make 400 rank and file. 

' Major-General Wellesley in a letter to Lientenant-Colonel Thomas 
Hnnro, dated Ist November 1808, expressed himself as foUows regard* 
ing Lientenant-Colonel Orrock : — ^ I do not wish to cast any reflection 
npon the officer who led the pioquets. I lament the conseqnenoes of 
his mistake, but I must acknowledge that it was not possible for a man 
to lead a body into a hotter iire than he did the picqneti on that day 
against Assaye." 


apon that village followed by the 74th regiment. The jOHAP. XVII. 

conseqnence was that not only did the pickets and the 

74th suffer severe ^ loss from the village, bat they were 

charged by the enemy's cavalry on their left flaoksi 

through the break in the line which had been caused by 

the divergence of the pickets. Fortunately, and before 

irretrievable damage could be done, our cavalry came up 

from the rear, defeated the enemy's horse, and pursued 

them to the left of th^ line. The 78th, with the native 

corps in the first line, supported by those in the second 

line, advancing at the same time» drove the enemy from 

their guns with the bayonet. A second position which 

ihey had taken up on the Juah at right angles to their 

first line was then attacked and carried. Several of the 

enemy's battalions gave way entirely and fled, but others 

retired in order until charged and broken by the cavalry. 

It was in one of these charges that Colonel Maxwell ' of 

the 19th dragoons, a most valuable officer, who com- 

manded the whole corps of cavalry, was killed. 

The false movement of the pickets was unfortunate in Effioienoy of 
other respects than the loss of infantry as was explained impaired^ 
by the General in his letter to Colonel Munro dated 1st *£ ?h?"^^, 

1 Almost every man of the half oompanj let battalion 2nd regiment 
■erving with the piokets was either killed or wonnded. 
KUIed. — 1 Uentenant, 1 havUdar, 1 drammer, 17 sepoys, 

1 pnckally ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 21 

Womided.— 2 havildars, 20 sepoys 22 

Missing.— 8 sepoys ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 

The casualties amongst the other details composing the pickets cannot 
be asoortained, as they are merged in the general casualties of the 
■everal regiments. 

* A pension of £300 per annum was granted to his widow by the 
Court of Directors. 


CHAP. xni. '* Another evil which resulted from this mistake was the 
" necessity of introdacing the cavaby into the cannonade, and 
the action, long before it was time ; by which the corps lost 
many men/ and its onity and efficiency that I intended to 
bring forward in a close porsnit at the heel of the day. But 
it was necessary to bring forward the cavalry to saye the 
remains of the 74th and the picqnets, which would otherwise 
have been destroyed. Another evil resolting from it was, that 
we had no reserve left, and a parcel of stragglers cnt up oar 
wounded : and straggling infimtry who had pretended to be 
dead, turned their guns against our backs. 

• • • • • 

" After the action there was no pursuit, because our cavalry 
was not then in a state to pursue. It was near dark when 
the action was over, and we passed the night on the field of 
Camialties. The loss of the enemy was computed at 1^200 killed, 

and 4^800 wounded. Our casualties amounted to 1,584,' 
viz., 198 Europeans and 230 natives killed, 442 Euro^ 
peans, and 696 natives wounded, 4 Europeans, and 14 
natives missing. The 74th, alone had 401 of all ranks 
killed and wounded. The native regiments also suffered 
severely^ more especially those which became on the right 
after the divergence of the pickets and the 74th, viz., 
the 1st of the 8th, and the 2nd of the 12th, the former 
having had 174, and the latter 228, killed and wounded. 

Killed. Wonnded* HorseB killed. Wounded. 

1 H.M.'8 19th dragoons ... 17 40 87 86 

4th, 6th and 7th oavalry. 89 dS 288 76 

' Appendix C. Welsh, in his Reminisoenoes, gives the nnmber as 
2,277, being an excess of 698, and this error has been repeated in 
several works. 

It will be seen oo examining the items in the retnm, that both Enro- 
peans and natives are included in the general totals of killed and 
wounded, viz., 198 + 280 = 428, and 443 <f 696 = 1,188 ; but Welsh 
has counted the Europeans twice, and the European officers three times, 
viz., 198 + 428 + 442 + 1,138, + 28 + 90 = 2,269. This, with the 18 
missing, gives 2,277. 


One hundred and two remarkably fine guns, of. which OHAP.XVII. 
seventy-tiiree were brass, a number of tumbrils, seven captured 
stands of colors, and a quantity of ammunition^ and wdn*"**- 
stores, fell into our hands. 

The General, both in his official and private corre- Condact of 
spondence, spoke most highly of the conduct of the troops. *^ troops. 
In his report to the Governor-General he said : — 

** I cannot write in too strong terms of the conduct of the 
troops. They advanced in the best order, and with the 
gpreatest steadiness under a most destructive fire, against a 
body of infantry far superior in number, who appeared deter« 
mined to contend with them to the last, and who were driven 
from their guns only by the bayonet, and notwithstanding 
the numbers of the enemy's cavalry, and the repeated demon, 
strations they made of an intention to charge, they were kept 
at a distance by our infantry." 

In a letter to Major John Malcolm he gave the follow- 
ing opinion regarding the infantry of the confederates : — 

"Their infiuitry is the best I have ever seen in India, 
excepting our own ; and they and their equipments &r surpass 
Tippoo's. I assure you that their fire was so heavy that I 
much doubted at one time whether I should be able to induce 
our troops to advance, and all agree that the battle was the 
fiercest that has ever been seen in India. Our troops behaved 
admirably. Our sepoys astonished me." 

The troops were thanked by the Govemor-(}eneral in Honorary 
Council in an order, dated 30th October, and honorary ^"* 
colors with an appropriate device ^ were ordered to be 
prepared for presentation to each regiment engaged. 

Sir John Malcolm^ when writing in later years ^ con- Anecdote of 
ceming the management of sepoys, related the following recent. 
anecdote connected with the battle at Assaye : — 

* The word ^ Assaye " with the device of the elephant, is borne on 
the colors and appointments of the sereral regiments engaged. 
' QmBrterly RevieWf January 1818. 


CHAP. xyn. ** Among the many inatances of the effect which pride in 
"""^ themselves, and the notice of their saperiors, inspire in this 
class of troops, we may state the conduct of the Ist battalion 
8th regiment, which became at the commencement of his 
career in India a &yorite corps of the Duke of Wellington. 
Thej were with him on every service, and the men of this 
corps used often to call themselves ' Wellesley ka Pultun,' 
or Wellesley's battalion ; and their conduct on every occasion 
was calculated to support the proud title they had assumed. 
A staff officer, after the battle of Assaye, saw a number of 
the Mahomedaus of this battalion assembled apparently for a 
funeral. He asked whom they were about to inter. They 
mentioned the names of five commissioned and non-commis- 
sioned officers of a very distinguished family in the corps. 
' We are going to pat these brothers into one grave ' said one 
of the party. The officer, who had been well acquainted 
with the individuals who had been slain, expressed his regret, 
and was about to offer some consolation to the survivors, but 
he was stopped by one of the men. There is no occasion, he 
said, for such feelings or expressions : these men (pointing to 
the dead bodies) were sepoys ; they have died in the perform- 
ance of their duty ; the Government they served will protect 
their children, who will soon fill the ranks they lately occu- 

Knmber of The number of troops engaged in the battle at Assaye 

ti^g^ afe ^^® generally been given at about 4,500/ of whom 1,300 


^ " The nambers actoaUy under fire were 4,620, viz. : — 

Infantry.— H.M.'b 74th 670. H.M.'8 78th 600. ) -. i ««« 
Baropeen artniery 160 j "~ *»*^ 

Four sepoy battaUooa about 600 each ... =5 2,000 

Total bayonets ». 8,820 

GaTalx7.~H.K.'B 10th dragoons 860 . . . > , ,^^ 

Three native regiments 860 j ** *»^*^ 

To these mnst be added one sepoy battalion left in oamp, 90O, and 
100 men from each regiment, left as a baggage guard, about 700 ] total 
ont of fixe 1,800." 
Alison's History of Sorope, 10th edition, Vol. YIII, pi^ 06. 



were EnropeaxiB ; bat neither the battalion of pioneers/ CHAP. XYII. 
nor the corps of gun lascars^ both of which suffered in 
the action, have been included in the sereral accounts. 
Moreover, an examination of the returns for August 
and September 1803, will show that the strength of the 
native corps, cavalry, as well as infantry, was consider- 
ably greater than has been generally represented, and 
that it is difficult, after making all reasonable deductions, 
to get the number of effective rank and file alone below 

Number of 
eif eotiye rank 
and file aa 
per retoroa. 


Bank and file present 

for dnty ezolnsive of 



let Sept. 


Ist Oct. 


H>M.'a 19tli dragoona ... ... ••« ••• 

4th cavalry 876, 6tli oavaliy 888, 7th oavalry 

OOff ... *•* •*. •«• •*. ••• 

European artillery ... 

Gnn laacara 

H.M.'b 74th regiment 

H.M.'s78th do 

let battalion 2nd 80a lat of 4th 766, Ist of 

8th 764, iBt of 10th 668, 2nd of 12th 782. 

1st battalion pioneers 

Total ... 

Oednot 1st of 8nd (minus 60 men with the 

pickets^ and 700 men for the baggage 

guaro ... ... •*• *•* ... 

Effective rank and file available for action ... 












It is not clear bow tbe 700 men for the baggage guard 
are to be accounted for. One hundred from each of the 
four native battalions in the battle gives 400. The rest 

' The pioneers had 66, and the gun lasoars 48, men killed and 
wounded ; the latter corps was probably recruited from Colonel Steven- 
son's division, which joined on the 26th September. 



CHAP.XYII. must be supposed to haye been taken from the cavalrj 
and artillery; bat these corps could not possibly have 
spared 300 men. It is extremely improbable that either 
of the weak regiments of European in&ntry would 
detach any considerable party on the eye of a general 
action^ more especially as an experienced field officer^ 
with a strong body of native troops^ had already been 
selected for the duty, A deduction of 700 men, in addi- 
tion to the 750 men of the 1st battalion 2nd, appears, in 
these circumstances, to be excessive ; nevertheless it has 
been accepted in the statement in the text. 

It was stated officially at the time, that the casualties 
somewhAt exceeded a third of the whole British force 
engaged. This calculation, with the addition of the 
pioneers and gun lascars, would give a total of about 
5,680,^ but 6,000 is probably nearer the truth, bearing 
in mind the fact that the non-commissioned officers, 
European and native, have not been included in the 
foregoing table. 

The enemy passed the night about twelve miles from 
the field, and went down the Adjunta ghaut the next 
day in great disorder on their retreat towards Burhan- 
poor. Colonel Stevenson joined General Wellesley near 
Assaye on the 25th, and marched down the ghaut on the 
26th, his pursuit of the enemy having been delayed in 

Btrength of 
the fcroops 

The enemy 

1 1,SS4X 8s 4^762; 4,768 + 006 pioneers -I- S8dganluoar8 = 6,(180. 

H.M.'b 78th regiment having been attached to the Bombay Presi- 
dency, it does not appear in the Madras records, and no return of it 
has been obtained, with the exception of one, dated at Fort William^ 19th 
Jannaiy 1808, when the regiment was abont to embark for Bombay. 
This retom, a copy of which was kindly famished by Brigadier-Qenend 
Annesley, Adjntant-General of the Bombay Army, shows 764 rank and 
file, sick included. The number, 670, given in the table in the text le 
supposed to represent the total effective men in September. With this 
exception all the figures were taken from the Madras retoms for 
August and September. 


order that the surgeons of his division might assist in CHAP.XVII. 
dressing the wounded.* « 

Gteneral Wellesley remained at Assaye for a few days General 
to make arrangements for the security of the captured moves 
guns and stores, after which he proceeded to Ad junta, Aui^abad. ' 
where he established a field hospital in the fort. On the 
8th October he marched towards the south, and on the 
10th he arrived at Binkenhully 80 miles north of 
Aurungabad, where he halted to watch the movements of 
the confederates who had gone to the westward with the 
supposed intention of entering the territories of the 

While at that place he received accounts of the success- DefoDoe of 
f ul defence of the village of Korjet Corygaum by a small ^J^^^u^ 
detachment ' of native infantry which had been attacked 
by about 1,600 men, a third of whom were Arabs. The 
position was steadily maintained against several attacks, 
during which the assailants lost, in killed alone, a number 
exceeding that of the detachment. The place was relieved 
by CSaptain Lucas with four companies 2nd battalion 3rd 
regiment which came up from Ahmednuggur, distant 
about 40 miles. 

The detachment was thanked by General Wellesley in 
division orders, and the conduct of the officers and men 
was brought to the favorable notice of the Commander- 

Intelligence having been received to the effect that Movements 

, >—__ of General 


* The gpreat proportion of the wounded having been stmok by can- 
non shot, it was apprehended that at least 100 woald be permanently 

* One company Ist battalion 12th regiment (23rd L.I.), itnder 
Identeiiant Morgan, accompanied by drafts firom the corps in eamp 
intended for new battalions then being raised in the south. Captain 
O'Donnell and Lieutenant Bryant of the 1st caralry happening to be 
with the detachment, the command, during the action, waa assumed 
by the former as senior officer. 

VOL. III. 15 


CHAP. XYII. Scindiah liad marched to the north for the purpose of 
relieving Burhanpoor, then threatened by Colonel 
Stevenson, General Wellesley retraced his steps, and was 
joined near Adjnnta on the 22nd October by the Isfc 
battalion 3rd regiment which he had recalled from 
Ahmednaggur to replace his loss at Assaye. While at 
Adjnnta he heard of the surrender of Burhanpoor ; and 
also that the Bajah of Berar, separating from Scindiah, 
had gone towards the south. This information led the 
General to march to Aurungabad, where he arrived on 
the 29th^ and, ascertaining that the Bajah was in the 
neighbourhood, he endeavoured to surprise him, but 
without success, although he compelled him to move his 
camp five times between the 29th and 81st. 

Afhur at On the date last mentioned, the Bajah detached a body 


of 5,000 horse to intercept a convoy of 1,500 bullocks, 
carrying grain for the army, which was protected by an 
escort ^ under Captain Baynes. 

The convoy left the Godavery on the morning of tiie 
81st, and was attacked at the village of Umber' the same 
afternoon, but the assailants were repulsed with consider- 
able loss, particularly in horses, and the convoy joined 
the General on the next day. 

Captain Baynes was thanked for the able disposition 
he had made of his small force, and the steadiness of the 
officers and men was favorably noticed in the same order. 

The Bajah, immediately after this failure, retreated 
hastily towards his own territories* 

' 2nd battaUon Srd regiment, 3 companies. 
SSnd do. 10th do. 2 do. 

Hyderabad subsidiary foroe, 1 company (battalion not known). 
Two S-ponnders. 
Mysore horse, 400. 
* About 20 miles north of the Qodavery, and half way between it 
and Janlna. 


About the same time as the action at Umber, an CHAP. XVII. 
attempt was made to take possession of the bridge of chaUant 
boats at Rackisbaam on the Godavery which was in ^^^^^^""^ 
charse of a party of the 1st battalion 6th re^ment under of the eth 

_, . _ . regiment. 

Jemadar Shaik Modeen of that corps. This officer not 
only repulsed the enemy, but followed them up, and 
captured part of their equipments. This affair was 
mentioned in general orders of the 28th November, and 
the Jemadar was promoted. 

Oeneral Wellesley, in reporting the circumstance to 
the Commander-in-Chief, observed : ** This man has 
behaved remarkably well in other instances besides that 
stated in my letter to the Adjutant-General. If the 
Soubah had had a dozen such men in his service, the 
Bajah of Berar would have lost his baggage in his flight 
from me.'* 

The large and opulent city of Bnrhanpoor surrendered Sarrender of 
to Colonel Stevenson on the 15th October without resist- ^'^ ^ ^ 
Since, and on the 17th he marched against the fortress 
of Asseerghur, about 12 miles north of Burhanpoor. On 
the 18th he reconnoitred the fort, attended by a squadron 
of cavalry, and the pickets of native infantry, and on the 
evening of the same day he attacked ^ and carried the 
pettaii. During the 19th, batteries for seven guns were 
established in the pettah, and on the 20th, fire was 
opened on the lower fort. The extraordinary strength 
of the upper, or hill fort, and the great importance 
attached to the possession of the place, induced Colonel 
Stevenson to offer liberal terms of capitulation, viz., that 
the garrison should be paid 20,000 rupees on account of 

^ Casualties during the operations at Asseerghur. 
Ist battalion 6th regiment, 2 killed, 4 wounded. 
Pioneers, 1 killed, 1 wounded. 






of General 




arrears dae to them, and that they should be allowed to 
march oat with their private property^ and to go where 
they pleased. These terms were accepted, and the fort 
was given up on the 2lst. The operations were con- 
sidered to have been very creditable to Colonel Stevenson 
whose division ^ appears to have been in a very efficient 

On the 6th November, General Wellesley, when about 
85 miles south of Jaulna, detached ^ Lieutenant-Colonel 
Chalmers to take possession of the towns of Pokrie, 
Soorengaum, and E[aralla, distant from 10 to 20 miles 
from camp, and to make them over to Appah Dessaye, 
the commandant of the Peshwah's contingent, in behalf 
of his master. 

The General encamped near Patree on the 10th, and 
then proceeding northwards, he crossed the Payeii Gunga 
at Wakud on the 20th, and arrived at Bajoora on the 23rd, 
where he concluded an armistice with Scindiah for ten 
days, tibie principal condition of which was that Scindiah 
should take up a position about 50 miles to the eastward 
of Ellichpoor. On the 25th the General entered Berar, 
on the 27th he reached Akolah,' and on the 29th he 
joined C<^onel Stevenson at Parterly, for the purpose of 

^ ** I cannot omit to taJce this opportunity to expreas to your Kzoel- 
lenoy my sense of the merits of Colonel Stevenson, and of the body of 
troops under his command. 

** Upon every oooasion I haye received from the Colonel the most 
cordial, and zealous assistanoe, and the troops under his command are 
in the highest state of discipline and order, and fit for any service in 
which they can be employed." 

Major-General Wellesley to the Governor-General, 6th November 

' 1st battalion 2nd regiment, 60 pioneers, 100 Mysore horse, and a 
party of artillery. 

* A considerable city in Berar, Lat. 22^ 40' N. Long. 77* 10' E. 


undertaking the siege of QawilgHnr ^ wiUi their united OHAP^XYIL 

Shortly after arriving at Parterly^ bodies of the enemy's Battle of 
cavalry approached^and commenced to skirmish with the -^'8*''"^ 
Mysore horse, in support of which the infantry pickets 
were sent out, and it was then discovered that the enemy 
were drawn up in force on the plains of Argaum^ immedi- 
ately in front of the village of that name, distant about 
six miles from Farterly. 

Their centre and left were composed of the troops of 
the Bajah of Berar consisting of artillery, cavalry, and 
infantry. A very heavy body of Soindiah^s cavalry, with 
a number of Pindarries, composed the right wing. 
Although it was late in the day, an immediate attack was 
determined upon, and both divisions advanced in one 
column in a direction almost parallel to the line of the 
enemy which was about 5 miles in length. On emerging 
from the rear of a village nearly opposite their centre^ 
where it was intended to deploy, the enemy's guns 
opened upon the native pickets, the 1st of the 10th, and 
the 2nd of the 12th,' which led the column, and although 
the cannonade was from a distance, and not to be com- 
pared with that at Assaye, these regiments broke, and 
retreated in confusion. Fortunately, the General, who 
was (dose by, was able to rally them himself, and to bring 
them back into action. 

In the meantime Colonel Stevenson's division had Advanoe of 
deployed and formed on the left, and about half past ^^ ^^' 

> A Btroag fortrees between tlie Bourcea of the Taptee and Pooma, 
about 15 miles north.weet ftrom Blliohpoor, Lai. 2V* 22^ N. Long. 

* A TilUige in Berar, 88 miles weet-Boath-west of IBUiohpoor. 

' This battalion was badly oiffor Boropean ofBoen. Lieutenant* 
Colonel McLeod, Major McCally, and 4 Uentenants bad been wonnded at 
Assays. Neither of the field officers were present at Arganm. 




Defeat and 
pursuit of the 

CHAP. XVII. four o'clock, the whole army advanced in line^ and in 

perfect order. The 74th and 78th were attacked by a 
large body of in&ntry, snppoaed to have been composed 
of Persians and Arabs^ which suddenly made their 
appearance from behind a battery in front of the 74th. 
Nearly all of these men were killed, and several standards 
taken from them. 

ScindiaVs cavalry charged the Ist battalion 6th 
regiment, which was on the left of Colonel Stevenson's 
division, bnt they were repnlsed with loss. The enemy 
made no farther attempt, and gave way immediately 
afterwards, leaving 38 guns, and all their ammunition. 
The cavalry, under the Honorable Lieutenant-Colonel 
Sentleger of the 6th r^ment, pursued them for several 
miles, killed great numbers, and captured a quantity of 
baggage, together with many elephants and camels. The 
pursuit was continued for two days, and with great effect, 
by the irregular horse belonging to the Nizam, the 
Rajah of Mysore, and the Peshwah. 

Our loss was inconsiderable,^ viz., 15 Europeans killed, 
145 wounded, and 3 missing; 31 natives killed, 163 
wounded, and 5 missing ; 19 horses killed, 9 wounded, 
and 11 missing* 

After the battle, the General lost no time in commenc- 
ing the siege of Ghiwilghur, a fortress of g^reat strength, 


Siege of 















Major.(ih>nl. Wellesley's 

Colonel StevenBon's di- 
vision 1.. ... ... 

















For partioiilars see Appendix D. 


standing on a lofby mountain in the range of hills between OHAP. ZYII, 

the sources of the Taptee and the Poorna. Both divisions 

encamped near EUichpoor on the 5th Decemberj and 

halted on the 6th to establish a hospital for the wounded. 

On the same day the 1st battalion 2nd regiment^ under 

Lieutenant-Colonel Chalmers, was sent to drive the 

enemy from their position on the south of the fort, while 

two companies of the 94th, and the 1st battalion 6th 

regiment, all under Captain Maitland of the latter, took 

possession of the fortified village of Damergaum which 

commanded the road by which Colonel Stevenson was to 

advance in order to take up his position on the north of 

the fort, that being the side it was proposed to attack. 

Colonel Stevenson crossed the river Sapun near Jinkerra 

on the 7th, and reached his destination on the 12th, having 

experienced the greatest difficulty in getting his guns 

and stores over the hills and ravines through which his 

route lay. General Wellesley took up his ground at 

Deogaum on the southern side. Practicable breaches in 

the outer fort having been effected by the night of the 

14th, the following dispositions were made for the assault 

on the next day. 

The storming parties, under Lieut. -Colonel William Dispodtioiis 
Kenny, 1st battalion 11th regiment, were composed of— J^^® 

One Serjeant and twelve volunteers 94th regiment in 

First party. — One flank, and two battalion companies 
94th, and the flank companies of the 2nd battalion 
7th, and of the 1st and 2nd battalions 11th regi- 
ment under the immediate command of Colonel 

Second party. — One flank, and two battalion 
companies 94th, and the flank companies 1st 




Attacks by 

Capture of 

battalion 6th^ 2nd battalion 9tli^ and 2nd battalion 
2nd^ nnder Lieutenant*Colonel Desse of the last. 

Third party. — The remainder of the 94th nnder 
Major James Campbell, 

The 2nd brigade nnder Lient.-Colonel Haliburton, 
viz., the battalion companies 2nd of the 7th« and those 
of the 1st and 2nd of the 11th followed in support. 

A detail of artillery accompanied each of the storming 

The first brigade nnder Lieutenant-Colonel Maclean 
formed the reserve. 

The troops were ordered to advance at 10 o'clock a.m. 

Two demonstrations were made from General 
Wellesley's camp at the same hour with the object of 
drawing the attention of the garrison from the real attack 
on the north. One of these, composed of the 74th, five 
companies of the 78th, and the 1st battalion 8th regi- 
ment, was commanded by Colonel Wallace. The other^ 
nnder Colonel Chalmers, was composed of five companies 
of the 78th, and the 1st battalion 10th regiment. 

The assault on the breach was successful, and the 
party under Colonel Chalmers happening to reach the 
north-west gate while the enemy were endeavouring to 
escape by it, he entered without difiiculty. Shortly 
afterwards, Captain Campbell, with the light company 
94th, escaladed the wall of the inner fort, and opened the 
gate for the rest of the stormers. 

The garrison, composed of regular infantry, which had 
escaped from Argaum, and of Rajpoots, was numerous 
and well armed with English muskets and bayonets. 
Great numbers were killed, particularly at the breaches^ 
and at the gateways. 



Our oasnalties were trifling, viz., 126^ killed, wonndecl, chap. xvn. 
and miBsing. 


The following is an extract from the order of the day : — 

" O.A.O. Camp at Deogaum, Thursday^ 16th Dec, 1803. 

^ Major-Qeneral Wellesley has great satisfaction in con- Thanks to the 
gratnlating the troops nnderhis command npon the brilliant ^^* 
success of this day. 

*' In the course of this short bnt laborions siege, Major- 
General Wellesley has, with pleasure, observed in a]l, a 
most anxious and zealous desire to forward the service, the 
most steady perseverance in the performance of laborious 
services which would be thought impracticable by other troops, 
and that gallantry which they have shown so frequently 
during the campaign, and which has carried them with honor 
through so many difficulties. 

" The most laborious and brilliant part of the siege of 
Gawilghur fell to the lot of the subsidiary force serving with 
the Soubahof the Deccan, under the command of Colonel 
Btevenson; and Major-Qeneral Wellesley adopts this mode 
of declaring that he never witnessed such laborious and per-^ 
seyering exertions as were made by this corps to bring their 
ordnance and stores to the point of attack. 










Major-General WelleBlej'B 


OolonelBtevensofn^ division 


• • • 

•  • 







 • • 



Killed.— Lieatenant Young, 2nd battalion 7th N.I. 
Wonaded.— Lieutenant Parlby, 2nd battalion 7th N.I. 

Do. Lieatenant-Colonel Kennj, Ist battalion 11th N.I. 

YOL. m. 16 




Treaty of 
peace with 
the Rajah of 

and Soindiak. 

of the treaties, 



" The gallantry with which the attack was made by the 
detachment under the command of Lieutenant- Colonel Kenny^ 
has never been surpassed." 

Lieutonant-Colonels Desse and Lang» and Captain 
Campbell, H.M.'s 94th, also received the thanks of the 
General for their services on this occasion. 

The capture of this fortress having opened the way to 
Nagpore, the capital of Berar, the Rajah immediately 
sent Vakeels with full powers to conclude a peace. A 
treaty was signed accordingly at Deogaam on the 17th 

As this event enabled the General to prepare to direct 
his whole force against Scindiah, that chieftain also sued 
for peace, and on the 30th December, a treaty with him 
was concluded at Surjee Anjenganm. 

These treaties were ratified by the Governor-General 
in Council, the former on the 9th January, and the latter 
on the 4th February 1804. 

The following account of the troops of the Mahratta 
confederates is taken from a report made by Lieutenant- 
General Stuart to the Bight Honorable Lord Hobart : — 

" Scindiah*s army consisted of a large amount of infantry 
regularly constituted, composed of natives from the north of 
Hindostan, the finest men in India, conducted by European 
officers, and possessing all the advantages of discipline, of 
long experience in war, and of the confidence inspired by 
numerous successes. 

" His artillery had attained a degree of proficiency which 
was scarcely to be surpassed by the skili of European troops, 
and the founderies, which were established in his dominions 
under the direction of European officers, had supplied an 
extensive train of ordnanoe of excellent manufacture. 

' This officer died in April 1804 from the effect of wounds reoeived at 
the storm. 



His cavalry, althongb numerous, was inferior in qnaliiy CHAP.XYII. 
to his infiuitry, and inferior indeed in activity, boldness, ^^^ cavalry. 
and skill, to the former cavalry of the Mahrattas. 

" In all the actions which have been fought, his troops Their skill in 
performed evolutions vnth a &cility and order, which denoted 
a considerable progress in European tactics. 

^* The troops of the Bajah of Berar were constituted upon Troops of the 
the same principles with those of Scindiah, but they possessed -q^^^ 
less experience, and were less respectable than the latter.*' 

Shortly after the conclusion of the treaties^ Major- General 
General Wellesley returned to the southward, leaving the m^hes to 
Hyderabad subsidiary force in Berar under Lieutenant- *^® sonth. 
Colonel Haliburton^ who had succeeded to the command 
on the departure of Colonel Stevenson.^ 

The Nizam's dominions were, at this time, infested by Banditti in 
hordes of banditti, principally composed of men former- ^^ijj^ * 
ly in his own service^ who had been discharged under the 
mistaken idea that the peace of the country could be 
preserved by the subsidiary force, which, howeyer, had 
never been equal to such a task, and when it was with- 

1 The following is an extract from an order published in oamp, 80th 
December 180S t— 

" Major-General Wellesley is maoh oonoemed that Col. Stevenson's 
state of health should oblige him to qnit the field. * * Major- 
General Wellesley has, for some years, had the assistance of Colonel 
Stevenson in the varions services in which both have been employed by 
the Gk>Temment of Fort St. Oeorge, and, in the coarse of that time, he 
has derived the greatest advantage from his great experience, his 
adyioe and opinions, on all occasions, as well as a zealons and active 
discharge of all the dnties of an officer in his situation in the field, 
particularly in this last campaign." 

The Colonel embarked for England in March 1804, upon which 
occasion he received the thanks of Government for the long series of 
important and distinguished services which he had rendered to the 

Colonel Welsh in his Reminiscences, Vol. I, page 192, says that 
Golonel Stevenson died a few days after the battle of Argaum — a 
strange mistake to have been made by an officer who was present at 
the siege of Gawilghur. 



CHAP.XYii. drawn for the pnrpoie of acting againBt the MahraHa 
confederates^ the number of marauders increased, and 
they became so daring as to attack detachments of 
British troops, 
wrh^""* On the 11th December a company of the 1st battalion 

detachment, dth, under Lieutenant Wight of that regiment^ which 
was escorting two lacks of treasure to Hyderabad for the 
use of General Wellesley's diyision, was attacked near 
the town of PaunguP by a body of about 1,200 men, who, 
after an obstinate contest, were repulsed with the loss 
of their leader, and a number of his followers. 

Lieutenant Wight also sustained some loss both in 
killed and wounded, but he made his way with the 
treasure to the village of Jamapooram, where he main- 
tained himself until relieved by Major Bowness, 1st 
battalion 17th regiment, then commanding a detachment 
near Paungul. Lieutenant Wight and the native officers 
and men received the thanks of the Commander-in-Chief 
conveyed in general orders of the 22nd January 1804. 
Defeat of General Wellesley arrived at Jaulna on the 19th Janu- 

Munkai^r * *^ 1804, and while there he received a deputation from 
18^ the town of Bheer,^ soliciting protection against a numer- 

ous and formidable band of freebooters, who, after having 
beaten a body of the Nizam's troops, and taken their gnns^ 
were then plundering the country, and threatening Bheer. 
In compliance with this requisition, the General crossed 
the Godavery on the 24th, and on the 2nd February, while 
in camp at Neemgaum, about 30 miles south-east of 
Ahmednuggur, he received information to the effect that 
the marauders were in the neighbourhood of Perinda^ 
upon which he resolved to attempt to surprise them. He 

^ The Bonthem district of the Hyderabad ooimtiy just north of ih» 
' Nizam's dominionSj about 70 miles east of Ahmednuggur. 


acoordingly left Neemganm on the 8rd with all his 0HA.P.XVII. 
cayalry^^ and a srieot body of infantry, and arriyed at "*^ 
SaUgaon, about 18 niileB north-west of Perinda, on the4th. 
He resnmed his march that night, and came np with the 
eaemy abont 9 a.m. on the 6th, jost as they had moved 
off from their encampment at Monkaisir. They were 
immediately followed and dispersed by the cavalry, who 
killed great numbers. All their guns, ammunition, and 
stores fell into our hands. Our infantry arrived at 
Munkaisir with the cavalry, but from the nature of the 
action, they were unable to co-operate farther than by 
taking possession of the enemy's camp. 

The General in a letter to Major Malcolm, dated on the BzertionB of 
7th, thus described the conduct of the detachment : — m&aC 

^* The exertion made by the troops is the greatest I ever 
witnessed. Eyery thing was over by 12 o'clock on the 5th, 
and, I think that, by that time, the infantry must have marched 
60 miles from 6 in the morning on the 4th. 

'' We halted from 12 in the day till 10 at night on the 4th, 
so that we marched 60 miles with infantry in twenty hours." 

In a letter of the same date to Colonel Murray, he 
observed : — 

^ I think we now begin to beat the Mahrattas in the celerity 
of our movements.'' 

General Wellesley quitted the army near Perinda on rpj^e General 
the 23rd February, and proceeded to Bombay, leaving |?®"*? 
Lieutenant-Colonel Wallace in command. 

About the middle of April Lieutenant-Colonel Lang, Betaohment 
commanding a brigade in Berar, composed of the 1st and ^ ^o>^* 
2nd battalions 11th regiment, with a proportion of 

^ H.X.'8 19ih light dragooDB 1 the 4th, 6th, and 7th oayalxy, and the 
Mysore and Mahratta horse; H.M.'s 74th' regiment $ the Ist battf^ 
lion Sth regiment ; 100 men from each of the other native corps in oamp> 
vis., Ist of 2nd, Ist of Srd, 1st of 46h, 1st of 10th, and 2nd of 12th ; 160 
pioneen ; and a party of artillery with 4 gnns. 



CHAP. XYil. artillery and pioneers, which had been detached from the 
Hyderabad subsidiary force in January^ for the purpose 
of establishing the authority of the Nizam in that province, 
surprised and defeated a body of freebooters under the 
command of Denojee Desmookh, Nayaram Pant, and 
Ismael Khan. 

General Wellesley rejoined the army on the 22nd May, 
when he recalled Lieutenant«Colonel Lang from Berar, 
and made arrangements to collect a force at Aurungabad 
with the view of attacking Holkar's possessions in 
Candeish. He then resigned command of the subsidiary 
forces, and left Poonah on the 24th June for Calcutta in 
compliance with the instructions of the Governor-General. 
The following is an extract from the order of the day : — 

The Ocneral 
goes to 

Order on the 

^' Camp at Poonah, Sunday, 24dh June 1804. 

'^ Upon the occasion of quitting the army in consequence of 
the orders of the Governor-General, M^jor-General Wellesley 
once more returns his thanks to the officers and troops for 
their uniform good conduct since he has had the honor of 
commanding them. In the space of little more than a year, 
those in this quarter in particular, now composing the sub- 
sidiary forces serving with the Peshwah, and the Soubahdar 
of the Deccan, and those which are under orders to march 
to the southward, have been tried in every mode in which 
it is possible to try troops, and have uniformly manifested 
that patience under fatigues, and severity of climate, that 
activity and perseverance in labor, and bravery and discip- 
line in action, which are the characteristic qualities of the 
best soldiers ; their success, and the honor which the 
troops have acquired are proportionate to the good qualities 
which they have displayed : on which qualities Major^General 
Wellesley has always had the fullest reliance in every 
emergency of the service. He now recommends to them an 
adherence to the principles which have brought them with 


honor through so many difficultieSy as the certain pledge of CHAP. XYII. 
fatare snocess.'* 
All ordnance and military stores taken dnrinfi: the PriEe-inonej 

. and batta. 

campaif^ were reserved by Government, but Major- 
Oeneral Wellesley was authorised to distribute to the 
troops, in the usual proportions^ the captured treasure 
and other property^ valued at 11^62,196 Hyderabad 
rupees, and a donation equal to six months' full batta was 
granted to the European ofBcers as compensation for the 
extraordinary expenses to which they had been subjected. 

On the 10th November 1804^ the Resolutions of the Thanks of the 
House of Commons, dated 8rd May^ in which the officers oommong. 
and men were thanked for their services during the war^ 
were republished at Fort St. George, together with those 
of the Coud) of Directors, and the General Gourt of 
Proprietors of the East India Company to the same effect. 
The Governor-General in Council directed that these 
Resolutions should be read at the several stations to the 
troops under arms, and that they should be particularly 
explained to the native ranks. 

Field Force in the Doab, 1803. 
When Major-General Wellesley first advanced into the Army of 
Mahratta country, a strong force was assembled in the ^' 

Baicbore Doab as a reserve under General Stuart, the 
Commander-in-Chief , but the retention of this having been 
considered unnecessary, he returned to Madras in August, 
and the force was disposed of in the following manner, 
viz., two battalions ^ of native infantry were sent to join 
General Wellesley — a division, composed of cavalry, 
artillery, infantry, and pioneers, remained near Moodgul 
in the Doab under Major-General Dugald Campbell com- 
manding the Ceded districts, and the remaining regi- 

1 lat battalion 4th regiment—Major HUl. 
let do. 10th do. — Major PaUai. 


CHAP. XYII. ments were sent back icto the territories of the Company. 
Qmer^ Early in December 1808 Major-(}eneral Campbell 

d*°tro*8^a ^''^ssed the river Malpurba for the purpose of protecting 
body of frM. the conntry of Biddojee Bao Nimbnlkor, Appah Dessaye, 
Dosh. which had been invaded and plundered by the Polygar 

of Jelloor during the absence of the Dessaye, who^ with 
his quota of troops, had joined General Wellesley in the 
field. Gleneral Campbell^ having accomplished this object^ 
received information, on the 27th December, of the 
irruption into the Doab, and advance towards the 
Company's territories, of a body of Mahratta freebooters^ 
consisting of about 10,000 horse, and a number of 
irregular infantry, all under Mahomed Beg Ehan, a leader 
who had assumed the title of Dhoondia. 

Leaving Colonel Urban Vigors, the second in command^ 
to follow by easy stages, General Campbell marched from 
Woodapoory on the 28th, with all his cavalry,^ the flank 
companies of his infantry, and detachments of artillery 
and pioneers. The next morning he recrossed the Hal-* 
purba and reached Jallyhal,^ where he surprised a party of 
horse which had been detached to watch his movements. 
The General left Jallyhal at 7 p.m. on the 29th, and 
after a night-march of 80 miles, he surprised the camp of 
the freebooters, about 6 miles from Hunmunsagor ' at day-- 
break on the 30th, and instantly charged into the centre 
of it with his cavalry. Two thousand of the enemy were 
killed upon the spot, and upwards of one 11ioufiand» 
amongst whom was Mahomed Beg Khan, were wounded 
or taken prisoners. The rest, throwing down their arms,^ 
dispersed in all directions. 

1 H.M.'b 22nd light dragoons} the Ist and 2nd native oavalrj^ 
H.M/8 88rd and 80th foot; Ist battalion 12tb, and Ist battalion I7ih 
regiments N.I. 

s District of Belgaion, Lat. 16** 60^, Long. W 4». 

s Baichoor Doab, Lat. 16** 63', Long. W h\ 


The whole of their baggage and upwards of 20,000 OHAP.XTII. 
carriage-bollocks fell into our hands. The casnaltiea ^ cm 
our Side were trifling. 

Qenanl Oampbell, and the troops, received the thanks Thanks to tha 
of GoTemmenty and the Oommander-in-Ohief, for this ^'^P^ 
brilliant affair, by which the Doab and the Ooinpany's 
coimtry were, in aU probability, saved from a renewal of 
the evils occasioned by Dhoondia. 

The General spoke highly of the conduct of the troops 
of all arms, and especially mentioned the flank companies^ 
of H^.'s 33rd under Lientenant-Golonel Elliot, who were 
up with the cavalry at the commencement of the attack. 

Occupation or the Pbovincb of Cuttack, 1803-05. 

During Augpist and September 1803 an expedition was 
formed at Gtmjam for the purpose of taking possession of 
the province of Cuttack, then belonging to the Bajah of 
Berar^ The force was placed under the command of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Harconrt H.M.'s 12th legiment, in 
consequence of the illness of Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell, 
H.M.'s 74th, commanding in the Northern Division. 

The troops 'left G an jam on the 8th September, and 
occupied Juggernauth on die 18th without opposition. 

^ H.]C.'8 22ud dmgoons— 1 man and 2 horses killed, 12 men and 88 
borses wounded, 34 horses missing. 
Ist oavaliy — 1 man killed, 2 horses missing. 
2nd do. — 8 men and 7 horses woonded, 4 horses missing. 
* The Enropeans did not carry knapsacks, the native troops did. 

» H.M.'s 22nd regiment 200-n 

20th regiment B.N.I SOD C From Calcutta. 

Detachment, Bengal artilleiy So) 

Madras European regiment 800^ 

let battaHon 9th rogiment (9th M.N.I. ... 686 

1st battalion 19th regiment (87th giena- I ^^^ ^® North- 

diers) ... 956 ' em Ciroars. 

Detachment, Madras artillery 80 

Do. do. oayalry ... ... 60^ 

VOL. m. 17 



Storm of 

CHAP. XYn. They were delayed at that place on aoconnt of the inmi* 
dated state of the country^ and did not resume their march 
nntil the 24th9 on which day the advanced gaard had 
several skirmishes with the enemy. The town of Guttack 
was entered on the 10th October without resistance^ and 
the adjoining fort of Barabutty was taken by storm on 
the 14th idem, after which the greater part of the pro- 
yince submitted. The casualties during the operationB 
from the time of leaving Jnggemauth were small^ viz., 6 
killed, and 47 wounded. 

The officers and men were thanked by the Govemor- 
Oeneral in Council in an order dated at Fort William on 
the 22nd October 1803. 

During November 1804 it was found necessary to move 
against the Bajah of Koordah in Jnggemauth. His fort 
was taken after some resistance^ and he came in and 
surrendered soon afterwards. Early in 1805 a force was 
sent against the Rajah of Kunkah in the north of the 
district^ and succeeded in obliging him to submit in 
March. With this event the conquest of the province 
may be said to have been completed. 

against tho 
ohiefs of 
Koordah and 

Qolkar, 1804 

Opbbatioks in Gakdeish, 1804-05. 

During our operations against Scindiah, and the Bajah 
of Berar^ Jeswunt Bao Holkar was engaged in predatory 
incursions in the province of Malwa, in the course of 
which he levied enormous sums of money^ and captured 
booty of every description. With these means^ he was 
enabled to employ a number of soldiers discharged by 
Soindiah at the close of the war^ and early in 1804 he 
was at the head of an army consisting of nearly 80^000 
men. Intoxicated by success he made the most extra- 
vagant demands for the cession of territory^ both in the 


upper provinces, and in the Deccan, and, on these being OHAP. x Vil* 
refused by the GK)vemor«Gteneral, he took np a threaten- 
ing position^ and sent plundering parties into the country 
of the Bajahof Jeypoor, anally of the British GK)yemment. 
All attempts at an accommodation having failed, orders 
were issued about the middle of April for the commence- 
ment of hostile operations against Holkar in Hindostan, 
and also in the Deccan. The force at, and near Agra 
under General Lake, destined for this service, was com- 
posed of Bengal troops, and that which was directed to 
advance into Malwa from Guzerat under Golonel Murray 
belonged to the Presidency of Bombay. The reduction 
of Holkar's possessions in Candeish was entrusted to the 
Madras Army, and with this object part^ of the Poonah 
subsidiary force, under Lieutenant-Colonel Wallace, 
marched on the 22nd August, and formed a junction with 
a detachment * of the Hyderabad subsidiary force under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Haliburton near Aurungabad on the 
27th September. 

Colonel Wallace assumed command of the whole, and Capture of 
on the 8th October he came before the hill fort of Chan- 

^ Detaohment of artillery. 

•^1- J ».*.i- 1 A/w^ ( Lientenant-Oolonel Hndleston 

6th iHid 7th oaraliy ^. 000 ( commanding the 

H.M.'b 74th regiment ... 200 -n Lieatenant.Golonel Coleman, 

lat battalioii Srd regiment. 600 I H.M.'8 84th oommanding the 

1st do. 8th do. ... 600 3 brigade. 

Two oompanies pioneers* 
' Detachment of Artillery. 
Srd and Sth cavalry aboat 700.'s 9ith regiment n 

»^™* 800 1 Lientenant-Oolonel Lang, 1st of 

Ist battalion 11th regi- ( 11th. 
ment about 700' 

Snd battalion Snd regi- . 

ment aboat 900 1 Lientenant-Oolonel Deaw, 2nd 

2nd battalion 7th regi- ( of 2nd. 

mentabont 900/ 


CHAP. xvn. dore.^ The pettah was taken the same evening withont 

resistanoej and early on the morning of the 9th, a colomn 
compoaed of two companies of tiie 94th, 150 details 
serving with the pickets, and 800 of the 1st battalion 
Srd regiment^ attacked and carried the lower fort, and 
took possession of the outworks between it and the 
npper fort. This was accomplished withont loss on onr 
side, but a number of the enemy, principally Arabs, were 
killed. The garrison surrendered on the 12th, and 
were permitted to march oat with their private property. 
The upper fort was found to be remarkably strong, and 
capable of making a g^d defence. 

Capture of When approaching Chandore on the 8th, the 2nd 

battalion 7th regiment under Captain Brown, with a 
couple of 12-pounders, was detached against the fort of 
Lussulgaum, situated about 18 miles to the south of 
Chandore, regarding the strength of which we had no 
information. The gate of the pettah was blown open, and 
the men advanced without much opposition, but on 
getting through the pettah they found themselves in 
. front of a high citadel, from which so heavy a fire was 
opened that the European officers were either killed or 
disabled, and the greater part of the ammunition having 
been expended, the battalion retired into the pettah, 
where it was joined during the night by a reinforcement 
composed of a regiment of native cavalry, two companies 
of the 94th, and five companies 1st battalion 11th regi- 
ment, all under Major Simons of the latter. The assault 
was renewed early on the morning of the 9th, and tlie 
place was carried by the storming party under Captain 
Lindsay of the 11th, after a desperate resistance made 
by the Arab garrison, all of whom, 80 in number, were 

^ Abont 86 miles wett-north-wMi from AtmiDgmbad* 



The caanaltieB^ at both attackB amomited to 9 QHAP.ZVIL 
killed and 37 wounded. 

The fort of Dhoorb. sitnated about 18 mUes weat c£ 8axT«id«r of 
Chandore, haying been included in the capitulation of 
that place^ it was taken poaeeBaion of on the 14th9 by a 
detachment 1 at battalion 8ird regimentj under Captain 
Welsh. . 

On the 2l8t the force arrived at Gabia. a hill fort of Oaptnrd of 
great atrength situated about 87 miles north- weat of 
Aumngabad. The pettah waa occupied on the 22nd 
without oppoaition^ except by the fire frcon the fort which 
did no execution owing to the good coyer afforded by 
the buildings in the pettah. Two breachea were made 
during the 25thj and the Killadar aurrendered the next 
day on condition that he and the garriaon ahould be per- 
mitted to retire with their private property. The aacenta 
to the breaches were extremely difficulty and, aa the 
garrison conaiated of 500 men, chiefly Araba, all well 
armed, it waa fortunate that the place had not to be 
atormed. The loaa in the Hyderabad ' detachment Oasnaltiea. 
amounted to 1 man killed and 9 men wounded. 

The capture of theae f orta having deprived Holkar of all Colonel 
hia poaaeasions to the aouth of the river Taptee^ Lieute- BwuMirik 
nant-Oolonel Wallace proceeded to Bunneira, a central 
poaitionin Gandeiah, where he encamped pending further 

^ Artilleiy — ^Lieatenaiit Purrifl and 2 men killed, 7 men woonded. 
H.M'b. 94th regiment — 1 dmmmer, 6 rank and file wonnded. 
2nd battalion 7th regiment — Oaptain Brown and 6 men killed. 

Do. do. — laentenant Parlby and 19 men woonded* 

let battalion Uth regiment — 2 priyates wonnded* 
Piooeen — 1 Serjeant wonnded. 

* The fflMmaltfiiWf ia the Poonah f oroe are not forthooming. Colonel 
Halibnrton reported them ae fewer than those of the Hyderabad 


CHAP. XVII. The iervices of Lieutenant-Colonel Wallace, and of 
Thanks to the troops, wete daly acknowledged by the Governor- 
the teoopi. General, and the operations were described by General 
Wellesley as haying been of the greatest importance, and 
as haying been performed with a degree of gallantry, 
celerity, and skill, seldom sorpassed. 
Colonel Lientenant-Oolonel Haliborton, haying been promoted 

commandB to the rank of Colonel about this time, assumed command 
inOandeuh. ^{ ^^^ whole force, shortly after which Lieutenant- 
Colonel Wallace was recalled to Poonah, but the brigades 
from that place under Lieutenant-Colonels Coleman and 
Hudleston continued in the field. 
Enters Benur* Early in December, Mr. Jenkins, then acting Resident 
with Scindiah, suspecting that the Rajah of Berar medi- 
tated an incursion into the territories of the Nissam, 
called up the Madras troops from Candeish. In compli- 
ance ¥rith this requisition. Colonel Haliburton arrived at 
Omraoty ^ on the 16th January 1805, but the alarm 
proving to be without foundation, he withdrew and 
EnoampB at encamped at Futtypoor, close to the frontier of West 

Berar, about 30 miles south-west of the town of Mulka- 

poor, where he remained until February, when, in 

Falla bade to conformity with instructions from the Qt) vemor- General, 

he fell back to the northern bank of the Gk>dayery 
near Peepulgaum* 

Attacks on thi Camp or thb Risident wtth Scindiah, 


Wittul Punt, the Minister of Scindiah, having died in 
October 1804, was succeeded by Sirjee Rao Ghatkay, an 
inveterate enemy of the British, who, in the hope of 

^ A large town in Berar, 84 miles sonth-eaBt of EUiohpoor. 


oompromismg his master, induced a body of Pindaries to CHAP.xyn. 
attack the camp of Mr. Jenkins^ the Acting Resident^ on 
the night of the 27th December 1804. The attack was December 
made in large numbers, and baggage valued about ^^^ 
12,000 rupees was carried off, but most of the public 
property was saved by the exertions of the escort, who, 
at last, succeeded in beating off the marauders. In conse- 
quence of this affair, and of Scindiah's refusal to dismiss Ja&n^ 
the Minister, Mr. Jenkins quitted the camp on the 23rd 
January 1805, and marched to a distance of 14 miles. 
He was immediately followed by messengers entreat- 
ing him to return, and promising compliance with his 
demands. Mr. Jenkins accordingly returned on the 
24th, but on the 25th, while in attendance on Scindiah 
accompanied by Lieutenant Josiah Stewart,^ commanding 
the escort, his camp was surrounded by a large body of 
ScindiaVs Pindarries, who succeeded in plundering it in 
spite of the gallant defence made by the escort, composed 
of two companies 2nd battalion 11th regiment, and a 
party of the body guard. Lieutenant Green of the llth^ 
and Mr. Wise, the Besidency Surgeon, were wounded, 
and several men of the detachment killed and wounded. 
Scindiah, who was believed to have been innocent of 
any complicity with the perpetrators of this outrage, 
expressed great horror and regret, and promised full 

Mr. Jenkins, in his report to the Supreme Government, (}ood 
which was republished in General Orders at Madras on the eeoort. 
the 21st May 1806, spoke most highly of the conduct of 
Lieutenants Stewart and Green, and of that of the native 
officers and men of the detachment ; in consideration of 
which he recommended that the &milies of those who 

> Afterwards Besident ftt Hyderabad, 1880. 



CHAP. XVII. heA fallen Bhoald be granted the same indalgences * as 
those enjoyed by tiie heirs of men killed daring the 
Mabratta war. This recommendation was duly complied 
with, and those of the detachment who had been disabled 
by woan& were placed on the pension list. 

(General Wellesley returned to Seringapatam on the 
30th November 1804. 

On the 9th February 1805 he finally left that place for 
Madras on his way to England, and on the 9th March he 
issued his farewell order to the army. 

order, 1805. 

** Oeneral Order hy Majors Oenl. the Ron, Sir A, Wellesley ^ K.B. 
*" Fort Saint George, 9th March 1805. 

^' Major-General Sir Arthur Wellesley informs the troops 
under his command that he has received the permission of 
His Excellency the Govemor-Gteneral to resign the political 
and military powers with which he had lately been intrusted 
in the Deccan, and the leave of His Excellency the Com* 
mander-iu- Chief to proceed to England. 

*' He cannot avoid expressing the regret which he feels 
upon taking leave of o£Scers and troops with whom he has 
served so long. 

*< In the course of the period of time which has elapsed since 
Major-General Wellesley was appointed to the command of a 
division of this army, various services have been performed 
by the troops, and great difficulties have been snrmounted 
with a steadiness and perseverance which have seldom been 
surpassed. Upon every occasion, whether in garrison or in 
the field, the Major-Qeneral has had reason to be satisfied 
with their conduct, and he once more returns them his 
thanks, and assures them that he shall never forget their 

^ The families of the men of the body guard who were kiUed on the 
ocoaslon in question had ahready been admitted on Uie pension eetab- 


•emoeOy or cease to feel a lively intereat in wbatever may CHAP. XVII. 
oasoem them. 

"He earnestly recommends to tlie officers of the army 
Beyer to lose sight of the great principles of the military 
service, to preserve the discipline of the troops, and to enconr- 
age in their respective corps the spirit and sentiments of 
gentlemen, and of soldiers^ as the most certain road to the 
achievement of everything that is gpreat in their profession." 

Conclusion of the War, 1806. 

Early in 1805 the conduct of Scindiah appeared so 
suspicions that it was considered necessary to be pre« 
parecT for a renewal of hostilities, and on the 20th April 
Oolonel Halibnrton^ was ordered to advance to his former 
position at Futtypoor. Affairs were in this state when 
Scindiah, on the approach towards him of the army 
under General Lake, suddenly made a precipitate retreat 
towards the Chumbul, by which the Governor-General 
was relieved from any apprehension of war in the Deccan. 
Neveartheless, it was still thought expedient that the 
Hadras Field force should proceed to Futtypoor as 
directed^ there to await the course of events. 

^ 8rd and 6th regiments of oavalry ; H.M.'s 94th regimeaoLt ; Ist batta^ 
lion Stli, 2nd battalion Snd, 2nd battalion 7th, Ist and 2nd battaHons 11th 
regiment ; detachments of artillery and pioneers. 

The foxoe was Joined shortly afterwards by tlie Ist cavalry from 
Bellary, and the Ist battalion 7th Bombay native infanti^^ from 

JTB. — Flart of the Ifadras troops serving with the Poonah force 
tetnmed towards the south at this time, vis., the 6th and 7th oavaliy 
SN route to the Camatio, the Ist battalion Srd regiment to Poonah, and 
R.H.'b 74th regiment to Madras for embarkation to England. The last 
had, by that time, been rednoed by hard senrioe and oasaalties to about 
220 tank and file. A very complimentary order acknowledging the 
eminent services rendered by this regiment was published at FcMi St. 
George on the S7th August 1805, shortly before the embarkation. 

VOL, III. 18 




Defeat of 
Arabs on 
the Beema. 

np of the 
force, 1806. 

Defeat of 

The 1st cavalry, under Major Neale, which had left 
Bellary aboat the end of March in order to join the 
Poonah Subsidiary force near Ahmednnggar, arrived at 
Baramuttee on the 23rd Aprils and while there Major 
Neale received intelligence that a body of freebooters 
was in the neighbourhood of Inderpoor. On the 24th he 
was joined by a detachment 1st battalion 2nd regiment 
under Lieutenant Peile, and making a night march he 
crossed the Beema at 8 a.m. on the 25th, and two hours 
later he came in sight of the enemy at the village of 
Cowutgaum. The mounted portion went o£f at once, 
but the infantry, consisting of about 850 Arabs, formed 
in front of their encampment. The ground was very 
unfavorable for cavalry, being rocky and much inter- 
sected by ravines, but Major Neale pushed on, and the 
enemy broke on his approach, taking post amongst some 
adjoining rocks from whence they opened a smart fire. 
However, they were soon dislodged and most of them 
killed. The loss of the cavalry was trifling, viz., 8 men, 
and 8 horses killed and wounded. Several standards and 
a quantity of baggage were taken. This service was 
brought to the favorable notice of Government by Colonel 
Wallace, commanding the Poonah force. 

Colonel Haliburton having died in July, was succeeded 
in the command at Futtypoor by Colonel Wallace, who 
retained it until the early part of 1806, when the ratifica- 
tion of a new treaty with Scindiah, and the conclusion 
of peace with Holkar, led to the breaking up of the force 
shortly afterwards. The troops belonging to the Hyder- 
abad Subsidiary force returned to Hyderabad under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Lang, and Colonel Wallace marched 
to Poonah with the rest. 

During the continuance of the force near Futtypoor, 
detachments were sent out from time to time against the 


bands of maraaders by wbicb tbe country was infested. CHAP. XYII. 
One of these detachments, composed of the 2nd cavalry, 
the 2nd battalion 7th regiment^ and a party of artillery, 
nnder Captain Hopeton Scott of the 7th, surprised a body 
of Mahratta plunderers near Mulkapoor on the 22nd 
December- 1805. Their number was computed at 3,000 
horse, 4 guns, and a small party of infantry. They were 
completely defeated, losing their guns and baggage. 

The following is an extract of a letter from the Gover- Thanks 
nor-6eneral in Council to the Madras Grovemment on Governor- 
the conclusion of the war, which was published at Fort General. 
St. George on the 27th May 1806 :— 

" On the occasion of withdrawing the armies of the esta- 
blishments of the several Presidencies from the duties of the 
field, and placing them in cantonments in consequence of 
the late honorable and advantageous peace with Jeswunt Rao 
Holkar, we disdiarge a satisfactory obligation of our public 
duty in conveying to your Lordship in Council the expres- 
sion of the high sense we entertain of the distinguished 
conduct of the officers and men of that portion of His 
Majesty's and the Honorable Company's forces attached to 
the Presidency of Fort St. George which has been employed 
on active service during the late contest. 

*' Under every trial of fatigue and difficulty incident to a 
protracted term of military service in countries recently 
exposed to the injuries of famine and the ravages of war, 
the officers and troops of His Majesty's and the Honorable 
Company's service employed under the Presidency of Fort 
St. George have manifested an exemplary degree of fortitude, 
activity and military discipline ; and in the execution of the 
military operations which required their services, their con- 
duct has been distinguished by every quality of perseverance, 
gallantry, and skill, which can tend to elevate the reputation 
and establish the ascendancy of the British arms. 

** We request that your Lordship in Council will be 
pleased to direct the communication of these sentiments to 


CHAP. XTII. tfae offioera and men of His Majeaty^s and the Honorable 

Oompanj'fl forces of the ProBidenoy of Forb St. George 
engaged in the duties of the field daring the late contest 
with Jeswnnt Bao Holkar." 

Acqnimtion By the saccessful issue of the war with the Mahratta 
^^' confederates^ the East India Company acquired a large 
accession of territory. The Upper Doab between the 
Ganges and Jumna, and the fort of Baroach with the 
country dependent thereon, were ceded by Scindiah. 
The province of Cuttack, including the fort and district 
of Balasore, was ceded by the Bajah of Berar. 

Belief of the Madras Tboops at Poonah, 1804-6. 

When the Madras troops were ordered into Malabar 
and Canara, it was determined that the subsidiary force at 
Foonah should, for the future, be furnished from Bombay, 
with the exception of the regiment of native cavalry, 
which was to be sent from Madras. 

The relief commenced about the middle of 1804, but 
in consequence of the threatening attitude of Scindiah 
and other circumstances, it was not completed before 
March 1806, when the remaining Madras battalions, viz., 
the Ist of the 2nd at Poonah, the 2nd of the 3rd at Ahmed- 
nuggtir, and the 1st of the 8th in the neighbourhood of 
that place, were withdrawn to their own Presidency. 


Madbas Pbbsidenct, 1804-5. 

Ovihreak in Dindigul, 1804. 
On the 19th June 1804, Mr. Parish, Collector and 
Magistrate of Madura, left Dindigul for Yeerapatchy in 
consequence of certain disturbances existing in that part 
of the district, but as these were not believed to be 
serious, his escort was limited to 40 sepoys and about 
200 armed peons. 


On ihe afternoon of the 20tli^ when within a march of CHAP. XVII. 
destination y Mr. Parish was attacked by a body of xhe CoUeotor 

the insurgents, estimated at about 1,000 men. After y^^^^ 
maintaining his ground for some time, during which he 
lost seyeral of his best peons, Mr. Parish retreated to a 
dismantled fort necur the place where he had been 
attacked, and from thence he made his way back to 
Dindignl, where he arrivied the next day. 

On receipt of this intelligence &t Trichinopoly, five Captain 
companies 2nd battalion 13th regiment (26th M.N.I.) sa^reBses 
were immediately dispatched to Dindignl under Captain J^^"*""*^^*^' 
Galbraith Hamilton. On the night of the 4th July a 
party of the rebels under Letchmana Naigue, their 
principal leader, was surprised near Poottoomuttum by 
Captain Hamilton with the flank companies of his detach- 
ment. Several of the rebels were killed, and the rest 
dispersed, leaving 80 pikes and several matchlocks on 
the ground. 

Captain Hamilton again surprised Letchmana Naigue 
about noon on the 7th while resting with his party in 
the bed of a river. A few were killed, the rest fled, 
leaving 86 pikes, 17 matchlocks, 4 jinjals, and a number 
of swords. 

Letchmana Naigue was taken on the 1 1th by the Poly- 
gar of Myawaddy, and pven up to Captain Chambers 
commanding a detachment 2nd battalion 6th regiment 
at Columbum. 

The disturbances ceased after this capture, and the 
troops returned into cantonments. 

Operations in the Chittoer PollamSf 1804-5. 

At the period of the transfer of the Camatic to the Bebeilioa of 
British Government in perpetual sovereignty, under the of %iittS^ 
operation of the treaty c<mcluded with His Highness 


CHAP.XYil. assault. The right attack under Lieutenant- Colonel 
Bepniseat Darley was composed of the grenadiers of the 73rd and 
Mograul, gy^ companies 2nd battalion 4ai regiment. The left 
attack nnder Major Grant was composed of the Light 
company 73rd and five companies Ist battalion 16th 
regiment. Colonel Monypenny remained near the fort 
with the rest of the detachment. The hill being rery 
steep and raggedy the ascent of the troops was slow^ 
and when they came near the summit they found them- 
selves in front of masses of perpendicalar rock surrounded 
by dense jungle. This position had been converted into 
a kind of redoubt by connecting the rocks with high 
walls. The existence of such an obstacle not having been 
suspected^ the men had not been provided with scaling 
ladders, and after several nnsucoesaful endeavours to 
gain an entrance, the attempt was given up. Our loss ^ 
was small, probably owing to the circumstance that the 
Polygars were badly supplied with firearms. The hill 
was deserted a few hours after the assault, and no other 
stand was made i^ainst the troops, small parties of 
which, aided by a detachment 2nd battalion 19ih regi- 
ment sent from the Ceded Districts by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Thomas Munro, scoured the country in search 
of the rebel leaders. The pursuit was so vigorous and 
unremitting that the Polygars of Mograul, PuUoor, 
KuUoor, Poolioherla, Panoal, and Toomba gave them- 
8appreB8ion selves up during January and February 1805, and by 
^^^^^ the end of the month last named the disturbances in 

the Pollams had been entirely suppressed. The only 
capital punishments inflicted were in the cases of tiie 

1 H.M.'b 73rd— KiUed : Gaptftin Gawler (pike tbraat)» I serjesnt) 8 
privates. Wounded : Lieutenant GlenKolme and 1 privats. 
2nd battalion 4th regiment — Killed : 2 privates. 
1st do. 16th do. — Wounded : 8 da 



Cliiefs of Yedergoonda and Cherg^I captured by the CHAP.XYII. 
Mysore horse. These men, having been tried and 
found guilty of haying plundered certain villages in the 
taluk of Amboor, were sentenced to be hung, which 
sentence was carried out. 

Affairs in Travancorey 1804-5. 

A serious mutiny having broken out amongst the TheBesident 
troops in the service of the Rajah of Travancore, attended Coc}^lJ^ 
by general disturbances throughout that province, and ^^^* 
the life of the Resident, Major Colin Macaulay, having 
been supposed to be in danger, he quitted Alleppy 
on the night of the 16th November 1804, and repaired 
to Cochin, then garrisoned by a company of the 2nd 
battalion 1st regiment. 

The Gk)yemment of Madras, apprehepsive that the Madns 
insurgents might enter the territories of the Company, q^i^,** 
directed the Officer commanding the southern division ^^^' 
to make, in communication with the Resident, such dis- 
positions of the troops at his disposal as might appear 
necessary to guard against any such attempt. 

The garrison at Cochin was immediately strengthened, 
and early in 1805, the Ist battalion 7th, and the 2nd 
battalion 6th arrived at Quilon, followed shortly after- 
wards by the 2nd battalion 13th, and a detachment of 
artillery, which demonstrations produced the desired 

Affairs in Malabar, 1802-5« 

The provinces of Malabar and Canara were garrisoned Distnrbanoes 
by Bombay troops from the period of their acquisition in ]^^ wynaad^ 
1792, up to the end of 1804, when most of the Bombay ^®^"^* 
regiments were relieved by those of the Madras establish- 
ment. The province first named was, for years, the 
scene of frequent insurrections. Tranquillity had been 

VOL. III. 19 





PcwtB daring 
the vains. 

Death -of the 
Pyohy Bajah, 
and suppres- 
sion of the 

ing his powers^ and offering pardon, with a lew ezoep- 
tions^ to all who had been oonoemed in the rebellion, on 
condition of their immediate submission. 

He at the same time annonnced his intention to maintain 
in the district, during the rains, a force safficiently strong 
to protect the well-afiected portion of the population. 

After rebuilding the redoubt at the head of the Cotioor 
pass. Colonel Macleod marched to Panamurta Cottah, 
where he stationed four companies to protect the pioneers 
ordered t6 rebuild the fort, and to construct cover for the 
troops during the rains. 

Detachments were sent into every part of the district 
in pursuit of the rebels, and redoubts were constructed 
at Yellaud in tihe north, and at Koiladdy and Kunyote in 
the south. Burin g March and April several captures 
were made, and a number of the inhabitants repaired to 
the different camps and tendered their submission. 

By the end of April tranquillity was restored, and 
Colonel Macleod returned to Cannanore about the middle 
of May, leaving about 2,152 ^ non-commissioned, rank 
and file in Wynaad, who were distributed amongst eleven 
posts. Captain Watson, with 800 of the Malabar Police 
corps, was also left in the district, and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Innes, 2nd battalion 1st regiment, was appointed to 
command the whole. 

Active operations were recommenced at the end of the 
rains, and the disturbances in Wynaad and Gotiote were 
at last terminated by the death of the Pychy Rajah, who 

1 2nd battalion 1st 1,000.— Pitnamurta Cottah, KoUaddj, Kanyote. 

Ist battalion 18th S44. — Velland, Attwaye, Gonincherry, Darraloor. 

1st battalion 12th 808.— Matelette, Pollingal, Manantoddy, Lackery* 

A Havildar's post at Sungaloo on the Mysore frontier, to be relieyed 
every third day from Manantoddy. 


was surprised and killed on the 80th November 1805 GHAP.XYIL 
by a party of the Ist battalion 4th regiment under Cap« 
tain Olapham, supported by 100 armed peons under the 
direction of Mr. Baber, the Sub-Collector^ who had 
accompanied the detachment. 

Emin Nair^ one of the principal rebels^ was taken a 
few days after the death of the Bajah, and deported to 
Prince of Wales Island. 

Congan Nair, who burnt the cantonment at Panamurta- 
cottah in 1802, despairing of being able to evade capture^ 
committed suicide about the end of the year. 

The troops suffered very much during this service DistresBof 
from want of proper shelter, provisions, and medical aid. *«>op«- 

The 2nd battab'on 1st regiment, which had been 
employed during the rains without cover, had upwards 
of 200 men on the sick list in May 1806. 



Lord William Bentinck succeeded Lord Clive as LordW. 
Governor of the Presidency of Fort St. George on the ^»<^««*. 
30th August I808i 

Lieutenant-General Stuart resigned on the 21st Octo- Lientenant* 
ber 1804, and was succeeded, as a temporary measure, by gtwru* 
Major-General Dugald Campbell of the Madras Army. 
General Stuart issued an order on his departure, from 
which the following is an extract : — 

*' Lieutenant-General Stuart retires from the oommand of 
an army, with which it has been his fortune to serve during 
a considerable ^ portion of his life. 

> Landed at Madras, April 1782, in command of UM.'» 78th (preeent 
78nd). Serredat the attaok on Cnddalore, 1788. With Colonel Fal. 
larton'fl army in the loath, 1783-84 Mysore campaign, 1790-98. 
Siege of Pondiohery, 1798. Expedition to Ceylon, 1796-98. Commander- 
in-Chief, Bombay, 1797. Siege of Seringapatam, 1799. Commander-in- 
Chief, Madras, 1801. 



QBAP. xyn. 






"In the several gradations of his oommand over His 
jesty'Sy and the Honorable Ck)mpan7*s troops serving 
nnder the Presidency of Fort St. George, Lieatenant-Gbneral 
Stnart has found his authority supported by a spirit of liberal 
subordination pervading every rank, and by a seal and energy 
for the public interests which have commanded his appro« 
bation and respect." 

• ' • • • 

" The welfare of the Army of Fort St. George will for 
ever hold an everlasting place in his remembrance, and a 
solid claim on his sincere attachment ; his parting good wishes 
for its honor, and prosperity are derived from the most power- 
ful motives of personal affection, and public gratitude." 

Lieutenant-Genend Sir J. F. Cradock, afterwards 
Lord Howden^ assumed oommand on the 13th February 

Lord Wellesley was succeeded by Lord Gomwallis, who 
took his seat as Governor-General on the SOth July 1805. 
He died at Ghazeepoor on the 6th October of the same 
year^ and was succeeded by Sir G. H. Barlow of the 
Civil Service, who was superseded in 1806 by Lord 


OHAP. xvn. 

Oavalst, 1803-1806. 

An additional regiment of cavalry^ numbered the 8th ^ 
was raised at Arcot in May 1804, the nnclens being com- 
posed of drafts of men and horses from the other seven 

The corps of oayalry was then formed into four bri- Brigades, 


gades, the whole to be under the command of Major* 
General Dugald Campbell. 

First brigade, 1st and 5th regimentB ... Major-Oenl. famp- 


Second do. 2nd and 6th do. ... Colonel Stevenson. 

Third do. 8rd and 7th do. ... Colonel Pftter. 

Fourth do. 4th and 8th do. ... Colonel Orr. 

Subadar Oawder Nawaz Khan of the 4th cavalry Sabadar 
having been employed in situations of a confidential and ^^awi^Khaii. 
important nature under Major-General Wellesley during 
the campaign in the Deocan^ his services were brought 
to the special notice of Government in August 1804, 
whereupon he was rewarded by an allowance of 100 
rupees per mensem in addition to a pension equal to the 
full pay and batta of his rankj and the usual allowance 
for the maintenance of a palankin. The additional 
allowance was paid in arrears from the date of the battle 
of Assaye in conformity with a resolution to that effect by 
the Govemor»Qeneral in Council. 

About the middle of 1806 enlistments for the cavalry Bnlistments, 
were limited to men between 17 and 25 years of age. 
No man to be taken under 4 feet 5 inches^ and no recruits 
enlisted except Mahomedans of good sects, Rajpoots, 
Mahrattas, and Bachwars. 

^ The 8th was reduced on the 9th Deoember 1867, and the 6th, Gth, 
and 7th on the Slat December 1860. 


CHAP. xvn. In December of the same year detachments from each 
Depdt for regiment were ordered to Arcot for the purpose ot being 
inBtraotion. inatmcted in one uniform system by Lieutenant Neville, 
H.M/s 19th light dragoons, under the general superin- 
tendence of the Officer commanding the cantonment. 
Detaohmeiifc The officers and men of the Madras cavalry serving with 
Bengal, 1806. the Oovemor-General's body g^ard in Bengal, returned 
to Madras in January 1806 under Captain Doveton of the 
7th regiment. 

Those still fit for service were distributed amongst the 
several regiments, and the rest transferred to the pension 
Mess On the 30th June an allowance of thirty-five pagodas 

per mensem when marching, or in the field, or of eighteen 
pagodas per mensem when in garrison or cantonment, 
was granted to each regiment of cavalry in which an 
Officers' mess was maintained. 



Abtillibt, 1803-1806. CHAP^VIL 

In April 1805 orders were issned for the formation of a Hone 
small body of Horse Artillery, to be composed of drafts ^^**^' 
of selected men from the two battalions of artillery, and 
the regiments of native cavalry. 

The establishment of the European portion was fixed Bnropraa 
as follows : — 

1 Captain. 

2 Lieutenants. 
2 Lieutenant- Fireworkers. 
1 Assistant Surgeon. 
5 Serjeants. 

5 Corporals. 
10 Gunners. 
82 Matrosses. * 

1 Native Trumpeter. 

2 Native Farriers. 

Non-EffecHve Staff. 

I Adjutant and Quarter- 
1 Serjeant- Major. 
1 Quartermaster^ Serjeant. 
179 horses, viz., 57 for saddle and 122 for draught. 

Non- C<mb<Uant8. 

1 Riding Master. 

2 Bough Biders. 

1 Drill Corporal. 

2 European Farriers. 

102 Horsekeepers. 
183 Orass-outters. 

4 Carpenters. 

4 Smiths. 

2 Armourers. 

3 Hammermen. 

3 Bellows hoys. 
1 Sickledar. 

1 Ohuckler. 
1 Conicopoly. 

4 Puckallies. 

1 Dooley with Bearers. 


Ordfumce^ ^. 

2 twelve and 4 six pounders 

2 five and a half inch howitzers ... 

8 tumbrils 

1 forge cart 

1 store do. 

1 4pare carriage 

Horses for riders 

Spare horses harnessed 1 to 6 in draught. 


In To OMTj 
draught. men. 







• •• 




HI8T0BT or THl ]liJ>llA0 ABUT. 

OHAP.xyn* The native troopj which was to be thoroaghly in- 
Native troop. Btmcted in the duties of artillery^ consisted of — 

Natiye foot 
artillery or 

of horse 
and of 

1 Lieutenant. 

1 Second-Lieutenant. 

1 Subadar. 

2 Jemadars- 
4 Havildars. 

4 Naigues. 
1 Trumpeter. 

1 Farrier. 
70 Priyates. 

2 Beoruit boys. 

1 Puokally. 
82 HorsekeeperSi 84 Grass-cutters, and 88 horses. 

The mider9ientioned officers of artillery were posted to 
the troop : — 

Oaptain-Lieutenaut Noble, Commandant. 

Lieutenant G. W. Poignand. 
Do. E. M. G. Showers. 
Do. W. M. Burton. 
Do. Waiter Shairpe. 

Lieutenant H. T. Budyard. 
Do. B. Beauchamp 
Mr. Asst. Surgeon D. Ainslie. 

Officers were to provide their horses on the same 
principle and terms as officers of cavaliy. 

On the 29th of the same month an order vras issued 
directing that two companies of natiye foot artillery, of 
the undermentioned strength, should be raised, one 
company to be attached to each battalion of European 
artillery : — 

1 Subadar. 

2 Jemadars 
6 Havildars. 
6 Naigaes. 

A European officer was to be detailed by the com- 
mandant of artillery for the immediate charge of each 
company of Golandauze. 

The following order regarding the uniform of the Horse 
Artillery and Golandauze was issued on the 8th May :— 

'* The clothing of Horse Artillexy is to be blue, with scarlet 

1 Drummer. 

1 Filer. 

2 Bhesties. 
80 Privates. 


— i 


collar and cuffs ; trimmings yellow, and of the fi^on of cloth- OHAP. XYIl. 
ing of cavalry regiments. ""^ 

^ The clothing of GK>landaaze is to be of the colours and Gdlandaiuse. 
fashicm of dothing of artillery." 

The undermentioned alteration in the desigpiation of the Squadron of 
Horse Artillery took place in January 1806 : — leiy, 18O6L 

0.0. by (he Oaomander-in-Ohief^ 6ih January 1806. 

'* The Horse Artillery, which was established by General 
Orders of 4th April 1805, shall be denominated ' The Squa- 
dron of Horse Artillery,' and shall be mustered, paid, and 
returned as such from the 1st January 1806. 

'* The European non-commissioned, rank and file, shall be 
denominated * The First Half Squadron.' 

" The Native commissioned, non-commissioned, rank and 
file shall be denominated ' The Second Half Squadron.' 

'*To the first half squadron shall be posted the Oaptain- FoBting of 
Lieutenant, the second Lieutenant^ the fburth Lieutenant, the ^™^'"* 

sixth Lieutenant, and the Assistant Surgeon ; and to the 
second half squadron the senior Lieutenant, and the third 
and fifth lieutenants." 


chap. xvii. 

European Ikfantbt, 1803-1806. 

On the 15th May 1804^ a despatch from the Ooart of 
Directors regarding the off-reckoning fands, and other 
matters, and from which the following are extracts^ was 
published to the army. 
Gompvtaeioii ''Para, 21. By the regalations established by Marquis 
?' ^^yl^^"^' Oomwallis in 1788, for the annual computation of the off. 
reckonings, those of the European artillery, and infantry are 
calculated upon the actual strength ; but in regard to the 
native corps, ihe established strength is taken, whether the 
same be complete or not ; hence if these corps be deficient, 
the company are charged with off-reckonings for a greater 
number than are clothed, and the clothing being issued to the 
effectives only, the fund for distribution is thus increased." 

• • • • 

Computation ** Para. 23. * * As the mode of calculating the off- 
?' ^'^^^^' reckonings above noticed appears exceptionable, we direct 
Uiat in future the stoppages from the men actually clothed be 
considered as the fund applicable to distribution, and that 
the off-reckonings shall be calculated upon the effective 
strength only of all the corps. 

• • • • 

«uleBfortlie " Para. 84. In fact we are convinced that the interests 

diatnbuticm ^^ ^y^^ Lieutenant-Colonels are amply provided for in the 
tOf the xoncui. * .r » ,. . •■■ j. 

prospects held out to them by the arrangement for distnout- 

ing the off-reckonings, which, after mature deliberation, we 

Slave resolved on, and which is aa follows : — 

'* 1. That ihe off-reckonings at aU the Presidencies, from 
tthe regular corps of artillery, infantry, and cavalry, calculated 
as above directed, be drawn into a general fund. 

^* 2. That a retired list of General Officers, or Colonels, be 
formed, who are to be struck off the strength of the Army, 
and considered altogether out of the service ; the number to 


be twenty-one, vis., nine from Bengal, eight from Madias, CHAP. ZVIL 

and four from Bombay. The senior offioers from all the oorps 

at each Prendenoy, aooording to the dates of their oommis- 

sionSy to form this list^ unless it should bethought proper by 

onr Governments to reserre any of this olass of officers for 

staff appointments. 

^* 3. That each of the retired Generals or Colonels above 
mentioned, be allowed the sum of £548-15-0 per annum from 
the off-reckoning fund in addition to the full or half pay they 
may be entitled to aooording to the length of their actual 
service in India. 

*' 4. That the remainder of the off-reckoning fund be 
divided among the Colonels of the regiments of infantry, and 
cavalry, and of the battalions of artillery . 

^ 5. That the offioers last mentioned be allowed to reside in 
Europe with their shares of off-reckonings and their pay ; 
subject always to the Court's orders for their return to their 
duty in India, and if they decline so to do, they are to relin- 
quish their share of off-reckonings, and retire from the service 
on their pay only. 

'* 6. That when an augmentation of the armies in India takes 
place, in increasing the General fiind, the shares to the 
Colonels above mentioned in the service are to be augmented 
accordingly ; on the other hand, if the armies be reduced so as 
to diminish the General fund, their shares are to be reduced 
in proportion, it being our intention that whatever surplus 
remains after providing for the retired list in the manner 
stated in the Srd article, it is to be divided amongst the 
Colonels who continue in the service. 

^* 7. That if a reduction in the number of regiments takes 
place, the Colonels of the reduced regiments are not there- 
after to participate in the off-reckonings, until by vacancies 
occurring they are reinstated in the command of regiments. 

** 8. That the General officers not on the staff, or kept in Unemployed 
India by the orders of our respective Governments to succeed ^j^^?^ 
to the staff (if such a measure should be thought necessary), 
be allowed only their pay and share of the off-reckonings, 



CHAP.ZYIL whether resident in India or in Europe; inoh offioem not 
"""" being oompetent'by the existing reg^ations to do duty with 
their regiments. If, however, these officers shall be emplo jed 
on actual service, they are to be allowed the nsnal batta. 

^35. We haTe also to inform yon, that after matore deli- 
beration, we haye resolyed that General officers on the staff 
shall continne to hold their staff appointments for four years 
only, at the end of which they are to be relieved by other 
officers, nnless oar Gkxvernments shonld re-appoint them to 
the staff at the expiration of fonr years, snbject, of ootirsei 
to our approbation. 

of Oeneral 
limited to 
fonr years. 

the new 
retired list. 

Certain " 37. But in forming this arrangement it has been impos« 

adn^tted^to" **^^® ^'^^ ^^ *^ Overlook the pretensions of those General 
officers, and Colonels who have already retired from the 
service on their pay only, under the idea that onr orders of 
Jnne 1798 were to be strictly adhered to. Some doubts 
may also be fiurly entertained whether these orders were 
strictly compatible with those of 1796, nnder the construction 
of which those officers came to Europe ; the alteration in the 
orders of 1798 by the present arrangement, which in a great 
degree reverts to that of 1796, gives the officers above- 
mentioned a jast and equitable claim to participation in the 
benefits derivable from the change of system, and we have 
therefore agreed to admit them on the retired list. 


of messes. 

" 45. The Chief Engineers are to be allowed to reside in 
Europe, and receive their pay, and the equivalent for off- 
reckonings, in the same manner as Colonels in command of 
regiments. '* 

The necessary orders for carrying these instructions 
into effect were issued to the Army on the same date. 

While the manner of the distribution of the off- 
reckoning funds was under consideration in England^ a 
claim was put forward on behalf of Lieutenant-Colonels 


in command of battaUons, on the ground that they were OfiAP.XVlIr 
called upon to incnr extraordinary expenses in receiving """ 
and entertaining their officers. 

The Court of Directors, in disposing of this applica* 
tion, observed that the custom in question was not con-* 
sistent with the practice in His Majesty's or any other 
service, and that they saw no reason why commanding 
officers should not live at mess with their brother officers 
without affecting any expense inconsistent with the fair 
emoluments of their situation. They further remarked 
that although it might be difficult for individuals to 
break through an established practice, it was the duty of 
the Qovemment to discountenance habits of useless 
expense, incompatible with the well-regulated constitu- 
tion of any army, and to relieve, by the weight of their 
sanction and admonition, the feelings of officers, who 
might otherwise be reluctant to depart from what may 
have grown up into a general habit. 

In consequence of these observations the following 
order was issued by the Gbvemor in Council on the 
16th May :— 

"The Governor in Council, fully impressed with the im» 
portant advantages to the pablio service, and general disci- 
pline oi the Army, which will result from the establishment 
of messes of officers in the several corps of the Army as 
proposed in the 32nd paragraph of the letter of the Honorable 
Court of Directors, desires that the Commander-in-Chief will 
adopt such measures as he may deem proper and necessary to 
obtain so desirable an object, to the extent which the nature 
of the service will admit, reporting his proceedings ' in this 
respect to the Bight Honorable the Governor in Council." 

^ Messes were intcodnoed m June ISOfi. 



OHAP.XVII. On the 17th Jane the nndennentioned revised com- 
Complement plement of neoessaries was ordered to be adopted in the 
artillery and infantry. 

of neoes« 



White-sleeved waiBttiOftta of 
Nankeen, with red and green 
wingfl to diatingnish the flank 
companies ••• ..i ... 

White pantaloons 

White linen false collars 

Cloth half-gaiters (blackened) 

P ttUTB •«• ••■ ••• tta 

Black leather stock 

Pipe-clay, whiting, black ball, 
grease and powder for the hair, 
and powder bag and pnff. 




Shoes (pairs) 
Stock, clasp brass 
Hair leather 
Foraging cap ... 
Cnmlj watch coat 
Clothes bmsh ... 
Shoe brashes 

••• 8 

1.1 I 

..I I 

... 1 

... 1 

... 1 

... 1 

... 2 

... 2 

In snch proportions as may be 
regolatedin thestandlngorders 
of corps by their Colonels. 

Company of 
the regiment 
of Wnrtem- 

and ftineralSi 

The company of the regiment of Wnrtemberg^ com- 
manded by Captain Q^npp, which had been admitted 
into the British Bervice in 1796^ having become ineffi- 
cient in consequence of the great redaction in the nnmber 
of men, it was ordered to be struck off the strength of 
ihe Indian Army from the Ist September 1804. 

The officers and men were allowed to retire on full pay, 
in consideration of the ''distinguished merit'' of the 
company, and such of the latter as were able and willing 
to serve, were admitted as privates into the East India 
Company's European infantry. 

On the 27th March 1805 an order was issued pre- 
scribing certain rules for the performance of marriages, 
baptisms, and funerals, and for the preparation of 
registers ; of which order the following is a precis : — 

(1) Registers of marriages, baptisms, and funerals 
to be kept by every Clergyman, Magistrate, or 
Military officer who may perform them. Copies 
of the entries to be forwarded to the Senior 



Chaplain at the Presidency on the day of the CHAP. XVII. 
performance of the ceremony. 

(2) In the absence of a Clergyman, marriages and 
baptisms were to be performed by the andermen- 
tioned functionaries in the following order^ viz. : 
Magistrate^ Collector, Commercial Resident. If . 
no Civil Servant should be available, then by 
the senior Military officer on the spot. 

(3) No officer or gentleman residing at an out-station 

to be married without a license from the Governor 
of Fort St. George, such license to be obtained 
by application through the Town Major. 

(4) Funeral ceremonies to be performed either by 

Civilians or Military officers according to cir- 

The order contains forms of certificates to be used 
when the duty should npt be performed by a Clergyman. 

On the same date officers commanding regiments of Light 
infantry, whether European or Native, were directed to exercSe 
instruct their men in the duties of light troops as ^^^* 
recently introduced in Europe. The instruction so 
imparted was not to be limited to the light companies, 
but every company was to be taught to manoduvre in 
extended order. 

On the 21st February 1806 the establishment of Bivi* Diyisional 
sional staff was fixed at one Assistant Quartermaster- 
General, one Assistant Adjutant-General, and one Aide- 
de-Camp or one Brigade- Major according as the command 
of the division or district might be held by a Major- - 
General or by an officer of inferior rank. The Hydera- 
bad Subsidiary force was excluded from the operation 
of this order, and Staff officers of the grade of Deputy 

VOL. III. 21 



CHAP. XVII. Adjatant-General and Deputy Quartermaster-General 
were continued therewith as before. 

of inyalidB. 


New general 



for loss 
of limbs. 

During the month of March the existing companies of 
European invalids were reduced, and the following 
arrangement substituted. Two garrison companies, to be 
officered from the non*efFective establishment, each 
company to consist of 10 Serjeants, 10 Corporals, 10 
Gunners^ 4 Drums and Fifes, and 100 Privates, were 
ordered to be formed from the invalids of artillery and 
infantry not holding situations on the staff. The 1st 
garrison company, under Lieutenant-Colonel Aiskill, 
was stationed at Vizagapatam, and the 2nd, under Major 
Jones, at Tanjore. 

The clothing was ordered to be blue, with scarlet 

A new code of regulations for the several branches of 
the Army was published on the 11th March, and all 
previous regulations militating against the spirit of the 
new code were abrogated. 

On the 1st April the Cadet company was ordered to 
march from Tripassoor to Cuddalore, there to be stationed. 

On the 9th May Lieutenant Charles Stewart, 21st 
regiment N.I., was appointed to instruct the cadets in 
Hindostanee on a salary of 100 pagodas per mensem. 

The following order regarding pensions for wounds was 
pubUshed to the Army on the same date : — 

*^ His Lordship in Council has been pleased to resolve that 
every European, or Native soldier, who may have lost a 
limb in the service by wounds received in action, shall be 
pensioned on toM pay; the certificates with which such 
soldiers have been furnished will accordingly be exchanged 
for others entitling them to the payment of their augmented 


The nnmber of Chaplains, which had been fixed at six CHAP. XYii. 

in 1796, was increased to nine daring May 1806, and the ijgtabiiah- 

foUowin^ distribution was ordered to be made, viz. :— J?^** °? 

At the Preaidenoy town ... 2 

„ Hasalipatftm 1 

„ Yelloie ... ... ... 1 

Triohinopolj ... ... 1 


At Sering^patam 1 

In Malabar , 1 

,, Ganara ... ... ... 1 

Provinoes ceded by Nizam ,., 1 

The following table of Precedence, established by the Beiattre 
Court of Directors, was published on the 27th June : — 

Senior Merchants to rank with Lieatenant-Colonek. 
Junior do. do. Majom. 

Factors do. do. Captains. 

Writers do. do. Snbaltems. 

The undermentioned allowances to be drawn on account Allowance 
of any mess established in a regiment of European 
infantry, either in His Majesty^s or the Honorable Com- 
pany's service, were sanctioned on the 30th June, viz. :— 

When marching or in the field ... 48 Star Pagodas, per mensem. 
In garrison or cantonment ... 21 do. do. 






Officers of 

Pensions to 
the heirs of 
men killed 

Native Infantry, 1803-6. 

On the 17tli February 1804 an order was published to 
the effect that no officer should be recommended for the 
adjutancy of a native regiment unless he understood 
Hindostanee sufficiently well to be able to explain his 
orders to the men in that language. 

On the 10th April the following order was issued, 
directing the formation of a regiment for the service of 
the Presidency town during the war : — 

•* F&rt St George, 10<A Apnl 1804. 

'* The Bight Honorable the Qoyemor in Council, deeming 
it expedient that an - additional corps of iu&ntry shall be 
raised for the immediate sernce of this Presidency during 
the continuance of the present war ^ with the French and 
Batavian Bepublics ; and having dispensed for the present 
with the personal services of the European, Portuguese, 
Armenian, and Native inhabitants of this Settlement ; has been 
pleased to resolve that a native corps of 750 rank and file, 
with a dud proportion of native commissioned and non-com- 
miBsioned officer?, shall be raised and maintained by private 
contribution in lieu of the personal services of the inhabitants. 
This corps to be denominated the 1st regiment of Native 
Fencibles of Madras. The Bight Honorable the Governor will 
assume the command of the corps as Oolonel Commandant." 

Mr. George Taswell of the Civil Service was appointed 
Lieutenant-Colonel^ and two Majors^ and ten Captains^ 
all of whom were Civilians^ were posted to the corps. 
The native officers were selected from the regular regi- 

On the conclusion of the campaign in the Deccan^ 
Government determined to make some provision for the 
families of men killed in action, and a General Order was 

^ Declared against England, May 1808. 


issued on the subject in September 1804, from which the OHAP.XVII« 
following are extracts : — 

*^ His Lordship in Oouncil has accordingly been pleased io 
adopt, and to pabllsh the following resolutions for general 
information : — 

'' Fira.^Thskt the half pay of his rank shall be allowed to 
the nearest heir of every native officer and soldier, 
of cavalry, infantry, pioneers, and gun lascars 
who has died in battle, or in consequence of 
wounds received during the late war against the 
liahratta confederates. 
" Second. — That in cases where the deceased officers and 
soldiers may have left sons, the provision shall be 
continued during the term of 12 years only. 
'* Third, — That in cases where the &milies of the deceased 
officers and soldiers may consist only of women 
and aged persons, the provision shall be continued 
during the life of the nearest heir of the &mily." 
On the 9th October orders were issaed for an aagment- Augment- 
ation to the extent of four ^ additional regiments, and 
six extra battalions were ordered to be raised at the 
same time. 

The head-quarters of the 20th regiment were fixed at soth ragi. 
Tanjore. The 1st battalion was formed from the 1st ^^3^40^^^ 
extra battalion, the second battalion was composed of the K*^*!*)- 
''Madras^ Volunteer Battalion,'^ supplemented by drafts 
from the *' Tanjore Provincial Battalion/' 

The 21 st regiment was formed in the Northern Circars. sist legi- 
The Ist battalion was composed of the 2nd extra, and was ^^^"^ 
stationed at Ghicacole. The 2nd battalion was composed M.N.I.). 
of the fourth extra, and was stationed at Masulipatam. 

1 The 46th and 45th were redaoed 00 tiie 24th January 186S» the 
44tfa, 48rd and 42nd on the 29th April 1864| and the 4lBfc, 40th, and 
S9th on the 80th Jnne 1S82. 

' Betomed from the Molnooas in oonaeqneitceof the treaty of Amieni. 




22nd regi- 
ment (43rd 

23rd regi- 
ment (46th 

Officering of 
the extra 



The extra 
broken up. 

The Ist battalion 22nd regiment was formed of the 
3rd extra^ and was stationed at Vellore. The 2nd bat- 
talion was formed of the 6th extra, and was stationed at 

The Ist battalion 23rd regiment was formed of the 
5th extra, and was stationed in Fort St. George. The 
2nd battalion was composed of the 7th extra^ and was 
stationed at Sonkemacoil. 

The full complement of native commissioned and non- 
commissioned officers and naigues was furnished to the 
new extra battalions from the senior nineteen regiments, 
the men of each grade receiving a step in rank on their 
transfer. A large proportion of this promotion was 
g^ven to the regiments recently employed in the fields as 
a reward for their services. 

The Ist extra battalion was stationed at Seringapa- 
tam, the 2nd at Bangalore^ the 3rd at Cuddapah^ the 
4th at Erode, the 5th at Tanjore^ and the 6th at Sanker» 

On the 7th June 1805 the establishment of the Corps 
of guides was fixed at 3 head guides^ 14 second guides, 
and 36 privates. 

The six extra battalions above mentioned were reduced 
on the 30th June, and the native commissioned and 
non-commissioned officers, drummers, and rank and file, 
were distributed amongst the regular regiments, large 
drafts being sent to those corps which had suffered most 
during the war. For example, the Ist battalion 8th 
received 465 rank and file, and the Ist of the 3rd, the 
2nd of the I2th, and the 2nd of the 18th upwards of 360 
men each. 

On the 14th November 1805 the following order, 
which was destined to achieve an anenviable notoriety, 
was published to the Army :— - 

' ■- -"1 



'' Head-Quarters, OhouUry Plain, lUh November 1805. CHAP-ZVII. 

'^ Lieatenant-Qeneral Sir J. F. Gradock has established a New 
tnrband for the native commissioned officers, non-commis* turbands. 
sioned officers, and rank and file, of regiments of native 
infantry, of companies of golandaoze, and of gun lascars 
attached to battalions of artillery belonging to the Army on 
the establishment of Fort St. George. 

" The tnrband so established shall be considered to be the 
uniform of the above-mentioned corps, and shall be worn as 
snch to the exdnsion of every other that may heretofore have 
been anfchorised. 

'* Sealed patterns of the tnrband will be furnished to 
corps, and the Commander-in-Chief forbids any deviation 
whatever from those patterns as established for Grenadiers, 
Light infantry, and battalion companies, either in their 
fashion or trimmings, or in their dimensions or weight." 

The stoppages formerly made from the pay of the sepoys Native 
for the purpose of supplying them with medical aid and iSoS*"' 
country medicines were discontinued on the Ist January 
1806j and the native dressers were ordered to be received 
on the strength of the corps to which they bad been 
attached^ and to be regularly paid by Government at the 
rate of ten pagodas each per mensem. One dresser was 
allowed to each regiment of native cavalry, and two to 
each battalion of native infantry. 

On the 27th February orders were issued for the Corps of 
formation of a corps of dooly bearers, to be employed bearers, 
in the carriage of doolies ^ for the conveyance of the sick 
and wounded^ or as cauvedy coolies. 

The bearers were formed into companies, each com- Establish- 
pany consisting of one head maistry^ three second 
maistries, and ninety men. 

^ A light kind of palankin, the sides being of canvas instead of 
wood. Ganyedies are baskets, or boxes, carried on the shoulder by 
means of a bamboo, to each end of which a rope netting is fixed fov 
the reception of the basket, or box, as the case may be. 






granted to 
the pioneers. 

for meesee. 

The pay was fixed at four pagodas per mensem for 
the head maistries, three pagodas for the second maistries, 
and one pagoda thirty-four fanams for the men^ besides 
batta at the rate of one f anam a day when marching, or 
in the field on service. 

The men were to be enlisted in the same manner as 
sepoys, and entitled to the same privileges as regarded 
prize-money^ family certificates, and pensions. 

A European ofiicer was appointed to command the 

On the 11th March the following order was issued 
regarding the allowance of batta to the corps of 
pioneers : — 

*' The Bight Honorable the Gbvemor in Council is pleased 
to direct that the corps of native pioneers attached to the 
Army under this Presidency, in consequence of the laborious 
duties which this corps is frequently called upon to execute, 
shall at all times be considered entitled, the European officers 
to the difierenoe between their half and full batta, the non- 
commissioned European officers to their net dry batta 
according to the regulations, and the Native commissioned, 
non-commissioned, and privates to the full batta of their 
ranks respectively." 

On the 30th June an allowance of thirty-five pagodas 
per mensem when marching or in the fields and of 
eighteen pagodas per mensem when in garrison or canton- 
ment, was granted to each battalion of native infantry in 
which an Officers' mess was maintained. 




On the 14tli November 1805, an order was issued by CHAPTEE 
the Commander-in-Chief to the e£fect that a new pattern XVIU. 
of turband had been determined upon for the native Alterations 
infantry and artillery. 'ITie introdaction of stocks, leather isos. ' 
cockades, and plumes, was directed about the same time. 

The new turband was ordered on the ground that Reasons for 

.i . i_ J • . , 3 ^ alterinir the 

those m wear were heavy and inconvenient, and also turbanda. 
because there was a want of uniformity in that article of 
dress as worn in different regiments. This last objection 
was not well founded, inasmuch as a pattern turband had 
been sanctioned by Qovemment in March 1797, after the 
Military Board had " given it every consideration which a 
subject of that delicate and important nature required ;^* 
consequently, any want of uniformity, which might have 
existed, ought to have been rectified by inspecting 

Early in 1806 Major Pierce, Deputy Adjutant-General, New 
prepared a volume of regulations for the army, which i^oel*^^'*'' 
contained standing orders for the guidance of native 
infantry. These regulations were approved of by the 
Commander-in-Chief, and submitted by him for the 
sanction of Government, but without calling attention to 
those paragraphs which prescribed alterations in dress, 
and cognate matters. The 10th paragraph of the 11th 
section of these regulations ran as follows : — 

" It is ordered by the Regulation that a native soldier Casta marks 
shall not mark his face to denote his caste, or wear earrings ^^^ earrings, 
when dressed in his uniform ; and it is farther directed that at 
all parades, and upon all daties, every soldier of the battalion 

VOL. III. 22 







Befnsed hj 
the 2nd of 

Action of the 
Com mander- 

First order 
for the trial 
of the men. 

shall be clean shaved on the chin. It is directed also that 
uniformity shall, as far as it is practicable, be preserred in 
regard to the quantity and shape of the hair on the upper lip." 

During the months of April, May, and June 1806 
pattern turbands were sent to each regiment, and com- 
manding officers were directed to cause new turbands to 
be made up in conformity therewith, and to be issued to 
the men. 

The 2nd battalion 4th regiment,^ then at Vollore, was 
the first to show dissatisfaction. The men declared that 
the new turbands bore an offensive resemblance to the 
hat, or cap, worn by the East Indian drummers, and that 
they were objectionable with reference to caste, for which 
reasons they positively refused to wear them. 

Colonel Fanoourt, commanding at Yellore, reported 
the matter, and the Commander-in-Chief, acting on the 
advice of his Staff, who informed him that there was no 
real objection to the turband, directed that the ring- 
leaders in the 4th should be confined and sent to Madras 
for trial. Lieutenant-Colonel Darley, commanding the 
battalion, remonstrated, and prevailed upon Colonel Fan- 
court to postpone the execution of the order, pending 
a reference to head-quarters, but this reference had no 
effect. The correspondence is given below, having been 
afterwards quoted by the Governor, Lord William Ben- 
tinck, as having committed him to a certain line of action, 
which he might not otherwise have pursued. 

" To Colonel Fancourt, 

Commanding Yellore. 
" Sir, — I have received your letter by express of yesterday's 
date, and I have submitted it to the Commander-in-Chief. 

^ The old 16th battalion, now the 15th regiment N.I. This regiment 
was distingnifibed in Goote's oampoigne, and haa always borne a high 
character in th^ army np to the present time. 


" While the Commander-in-Chief regrets the cause which CHAPTER 

requires such measures, he feels it to be his duty to check, ' 

bj the most decided resolution, the symptoms of insubordi- 
nation which you have reported in the 2nd battalion 4th 
regiment of native infontry. 

** His Excellency has therefore ordered to Vellore a detach- 
ment of H.M.'s 19th dragoons, who will receive and escort 
to the Presidency for trial, before a (General Court-martial 
now sitting, the 19 men confined by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Darley, against whom he will prefer charges, and prepare to 
support the same by the requisite evidence. 

" You will also direct the non-commissioned officers of the 
grenadier company (the two, who did not object in the first 
instance to deliver their turbands, excepted) to be reduced to 
the ranks ; the Commander- in*Chief deeming a man who hesi- 
tates a moment to obey an order unfit to bear the character 
of a non-commissioned officer. 

" You will further, through Lieutenant-Colonel Darley, 
direct the native commissioned officers of the 2nd battalion 
4th regiment l^J.tmfnedicUely to make tip, and wear the turband 
of the prescribed pattern. 

'* THsohediencey or hesitation^ on their part will he instantly 
followed by their dis^nission from the service in pubUc orders on 
your report. Lieutenant-Colonel Kennedy has orders, should 
you require it, to march the 19th dragoons to Vellore to assist 
in enforcing obedience. 

*' It is the intention of the Commander-in-Chief imme- 
diately to relieve the 2nd battalion 4th regiment, but though 
he thinks proper to remove them from Vellore, he will not 
admit hesitation even in their obedience to the orders he has 

" (Signed) P. A. AGNEW, 
'* Fort Saint Obobge, Adjutant-Oeneral cfthe Army," 

«• 7th May 1806. 

" 9 P.M." 





" To tbe Officer commanding Vellore. 

" Sir, — Your letter of the 7th instant by express, covering 
one from Lieutenant -Colonel Darley, and stating jour intention 
to suspend the execution of expected orders, has been received 
and submitted to the Commander-in-Chief. 

** His Excellency sees no cause to relax from the orders ho 
has already given, which you will accordingly enforce. The 
places of the non-commissioned officers whose reduction has 
been ordered will be supplied from other corps, as the Com- 
mander-in-Chief deems the 2nd battalion of the 4>th regiment 
of N.I. to be at present unworthy to participate in any 
promotion. From this prohibition, however, he excepts the 
non-commissioned of the grenadiers who did not refuse to 
obey orders. They, if naigues, are to be promoted in the 
place of the havildars reduced. 

^ The 2nd battalion of the 28rd regiment N.T. has been 
directed from Wallajahbad to relieve the 2nd battalion of the 
4th in Vellore. 

" (Signed) P. A. AGNEW, 
"Fort Saint Gboroe, Adjutant-Oeneral of the Army J* 

" Sth May 1806/' 

Besnlt of 
the trialB« 

In conformity with these orders^ 21 privates of the 4th^ 
viz.^ 10 Mahomedans and 11 Hindoos, were tried at Fort 
St. George for contempt of authority and disobedience of 
orders, in having refused to wear the new turband. Two, 
viz., one Mussulman and one Hindoo, were sentenced to 
receive 900 lashes each, and to be discharged from the 
service as " turbulent and unworthy subjects." 

The remaining 19 men were sentenced to receive 500 
lashes each, but they were pardoned '' in consequence of 
their full acknowledgment of error, deep contrition, and 
solemn promises of future good conduct." The charges, 
sentences, and orders of the Commander-in-Chief thereon, 


which last were dated on the 29th Jane, were pablished CHAPTER 


to the army on the 2nd July. _^' 

The Commander-in-Chief had gone on a toar of inspec- Colonel 
tion about the middle of May, and while at Nundidroog warning, 
in the end of June he received a letter from Lieutenant- 
Colonel James Brunton, an able and experienced officer^ 
then holding the appointment of Military Auditor Qeneral. 
In this letter the Colonel stated that the introduction of 
the new turband had occasioned great discontent through- 
out the army^ and he earnestly recommended that the 
order should be cancelled. 

On the 29th June the Commander-in-Chief sent Colonel The 

T» t 1  r^ "I • -L i» Commander- 

Brunton's letter to Grovemment, together with one from in-Chief 
himself, in which he mentioned that the new turband had ^""^^ent. 
been introduced by the advice^ and under the superin- 
tendence, of Colonel Agnew and Major Pierce ; that a 
change having appeared necessary, he had thought that 
" 80 simple a matter '' could not be confided to better 
hands or to officers of greater local experience ; but that 
he had at last corns to the conclusion that the objections 
to the turband were almost universal, and that it was 
commonly believed that the next attempt would be to force 
the sepoys to become Christians, He added that were the 
question connected with British troops he would not 
feel any embarrassment, but, being one of caste, he was 
desirous to have the advice of his coadjutors in the 

The decision of Government was communicated in a Decision 
letter dated 4th July, from which the f oUowinfir is an Sf '**® 
extract: — 

*' If there had been reason to suppose that the late change 
of dress was liable to the objection of militating against the 
religious principles of the inhabitants of this country, we 
should have had no hesitation in immediately recommend] 





Postponed ftt 
the instance 
of the 


Reasons of 
the GK>Tem- 
mesfc for not 
the order. 

to your Ezoellencj the relinquishment of the intention to 
establish the proposed change, bnt as it appears from the 
evidence taken in the late enquiry ^ at Yellore, that no objec- 
tion of this nature exists, we certainly deem it advisable, 
that the alternative of yielding to the " clamor*' arising from 
an unfounded prejudice should, if possible, be avoided.'* 

Notwithstanding the opinion thus expressed, G-overn- 
ment sent to the Commander-in-Chief, by the same 
opportunity, the draft of a General Order intended to be 
published with the object of reassuring the sepoys, but 
the publication was postponed at the instance of His 
Excellency, who advised that course because he believed 
that the disinclination to wear the turband was becom- 
ing more feeble, and he therefore thought it judicious 
to allow the n:iatter to drop. 

After the mutiny, when the reference from Nundi- 
droog became the subject of discussion. Lord William 
Bentinck gave the following reasons for not having inter- 
fered in a decided manner. He remarked, in the first 
place, that the alteration in the turband had been ordered 
without any communication with Government, and that 
when the 2nd of the 4th refused to wear it, the order 
instantly issued by the Commander-in-Chief, in which he 
declared his resolution to put down all such manifesta- 
tions in the most vigorous manner^ was of such a charac- 
ter that Government, on becoming acquainted therewith, 
were of opinion that it would be impossible to recede 

^ Oonrt of enqniry at Yellore, held 14th May, composed of Lieutenant- 
Colonel MoKerras 2nd' battalion 23rd, Lieutenant-Colonel Forbes Ist 
battalion Ist, and Lieutenant-Colonel Marriott Ist battalion 5th, in 
oharge of the Mysore Princes at Yellore. The proceedings are not 
forthcoming, but it appears from a minute of the Commander-in-Chief 
that although no objection to the new turband was elicited from any 
of the native witnesses, yet the officers composing the Court expressed 
a preference for the old turband. 


without committing the discipline of the army. He went GHAFTES 
on to say that Oovemment^ at the time the reference was _ ' 
made, were not in possession of positive information of 
the existence of general dissatisfaction^ without which 
knowledge there would have been no sufficient reason 
for cancelling the order. So far as Oolonel Brunton's 
warning was concerned. His Lordship remarked that 
the health of that officer had long been so bad, that 
his nerves were gone, and that he suffered from great 

The severe measures pursued in the case of the 2nd Seditious 
battalion 4th regiment appear to have rendered the 2*?^OTe. 
opposition to the new turband more determined than ever. 
Frequent secret meetings were held in the lines of the 
native battalions at Vellore, at which the men bound 
themselves to resist all innovations, and finally formed 
the plan for the attack and destruction of the European 
officers and men. These meetings were attended by the 
majority of the native officers, and by several of the 
retainers of the sons of Tippoo then confined in the fort. 

On the night of the 17th June, the intentions of the MuBtapha 
mutineers were divulged to Lieutenant-Colonel Forbes tiS^ptotH^nd 
of the 1st, by Mustapha Beg, a private of the battalion. i«oonfined. 
The Colonel, instead of making cautious inquiries, sent 
for his native officers, who, on being questioned, affirmed 
their innocence of any evil intention, professed their 
readiness to wear the turband, and persuaded Colonel 
Forbes to place the sepoy in confinement as being insane. 

It also appears that a European woman named Burke Mrs. Bnrke 
would have given information, had she not been prevented, f^^ giving 

" The deponent > farther states that she went to Colonel information. 
Fanoourt to state what she had heard, as well as to apply for 
her husband's prize-money, but on his asking her if she was 

' Eyidenoe before the Conunission at Vellore after the mutiny. 




of Vellore. 

GnardB on 
the 9th Jaly. 

A<M* 8 69th. 

a married womaD, and her replying she was a widow, he said 
he took her to be a bad woman, and bade her go away." 

The garrison of Vellore at this time consisted of fonr 
companies ' H.M/s 69th regiment, six companies 1st 
battalion 1st, and the whole of the 2nd battalion 23rd 
regiment N.I. The 1st battalion was the oldest' in the 
service, and had always maintained a high reputation. 

The 23rd had recently been raised in the district of 
Tinnevelly, and contained in its ranks a number of the 
followers of the Polygar chiefs whose possessions had 
been forfeited in 1801 for rebellion. The 69th were 
quartered in the fort. Most of the sepoys lived in the 
pettah, but their arms were lodged in the fort. 

The men for general duty on the night of the 9 th July 
were taken from the 69th, and the 1st regiment. 

The detail of the 69th consisted of 3 Serjeants, 4 corpo- 
rals, 2 drummers^ and 44 privates^ under Lieutenants 
Eley and Popham. 

The men were divided between the main guard, the 
general magazine, and the gate, but the number at each 
post has not been precisely ascertained. The main guard 
furnished five sentries, viz., one at the guard, and four at 
different points at some little distance, from which it may 
be inferred that it consisted of about 20 rank and file, 
with one or two Serjeants and a subaltern. 

^ 1 Major, 2 Captains, 7 Lieatenants, 1 Assistant Surgeon, 19 Ser- 
jeants, 18 Corporals, 6 Drummers, 830 Privates. — Retarn, 9th Jaly 1806. 

' It is stated in Wilson's History of British India, Vol. I, page 133, 
that the 1st regiment had been chiefly raised in Mysore^ and that many 
of the officers and men had served in the armies of Hyder and Tippoo. 
The aooaracy of this is questionable. The Ist battalion was formed in 
1758 from the independent companies, forty years before we had any 
connection with Mysore. It distinguished itself in the first campaign 
against Hyder, 1767-69. It was nearly destroyed at Baillie*s defeat in 
September 1780, and was reformed at Tanjore in 1781. It served in 
the Mysore campaign of 1790-92, and again daring the final campaign 
of 1799, but it was never stationed in the Mysore country until long 
after 1806. 


The number of the 1st regiment on dnty amounted to CHAPTBB 

4 native oflBcers, 9 havildars, and 251 rank and file, under ' 

Lieutenant O'Reilly, No return showing the particulars ^* regiment, 
of the distribution has been found. 

1 Serjeant^ 2 corporals, and 12 privates of the 69th Bamck 
were on duty at the barracks^ and furnished three sentries, ^^^^^"^ 
viz.^ one at the gate of the barrack yard, one immediately 
outside the barracks, and one over the regimental maga- 
zine close to the ramparts. 

Captain Miller of the 1st regiment was captain of the 28rd 
day. '^'°*"*- 

Nearly the whole of the 2nd battalion 23rd regiment 
appear to have received permission to sleep in the fort 
on the night in question in order to be in readiness for 
an early parade next morning. 

Nothing unusual attracted the attention of the officers Laadty of 
on duty during the night ; indeed it was afterwards ™®*P^*- 
stated in evidence by a Hindoo sepoy who had been on the 
main guards that the European officer did not go hi» 
rounds^ but desired one of the native officers to take the^ 
dnty^ upon which Jemadar Shaik Cossim of the Ist^ one^ 
of the principal conspirators^ volunteered to do so, and 
left the guard ostensibly for that purpose. 

About half past tw'o o'clock on the morning of the lOth^ The natiny 
the native troops made an almost simultaneous attack .on ^^^^ ^^^ 
the European guards^ and on the barracks^ also keeping 
up a smart fire on the officers' quarters in order to keep 
them from joining the men. 

The following account of the commencement of the 

attack is taken from a letter ^ to the Commander-in-Chief 

 li^— III 11 

' In reply to «n order oaUing upon him to report the nature of the 
preoantiona taken for the protection of the barracks. This information 
was required in oonaeqnenoe of romonrs to the effect that the barracks 
bad not been attacked until some time after the men on the main guard 
had been overpowered. 

VOL. in. 23 

178 HISTORY or THfi MADRAS ARilt. 

CHA^TEE from Major Coatee erf the 69th, who resided outside the 

Attack on '* With respect to the main guard, one of the fonr Earo- 

^^^^'^ • peans who survived is Corporal Piercy, who received a severe 
wound. He states that he was called to by the European 
sentry about half past two o'clock, saying that a shot or two 
was fired somewhere about the 69th barracks. He had scarce 
tfme to answer when the sepoy part of the guard rushed on 
the Eng^h and murdered the whole, himself and three more 
excepted. He conceives they thought him dead ; he says they 
were instantly joined by several more, who assisted in com- 
pleting the dreadful havoc, adding, that he perceived numerous 
bodies of sepoys attacking the barracks of the 69th regiment 
at that time.** 

AttacV on the " Agreeably to your Excellency's command, I relate to you 
bErraoka. ^ follows concerning the barracks occupied by the 69th 

*' Having the command of the detachment stationed at 
Vellore, I conceived it proper to mount a guard consisting of 
one Serjeant, two corporals, and twelve privates, placing three 
sentinels from it on such parts of the barracks as I thought 
would most conduce to their order and regularity. The 
account I received from Serjeant Oosgrave, who was Serjeant 
of the barrack guard on the lOtb of July, and was so severely 
wounded as to render him incapable of being of further 
service to His Majesty. He gives the following statement of 
the transaction. Hearing a trampling of feet, he called to 
the sentry at the guard house door about half past two 
o'clock, expressing his astonishment that the patrol should 
pass that way. He had scarce spoke when a party of sepoys 
formed in front of the gate, and discharged a volley of mn»* 
ketry on the guard, and in the oarracks, by which several of 
the 69th fell. On the guards getting under arms the sepoys 
quitted that station, when an instantaneous, and general 
attack was made upon the barracks. He assures me, as do 


% mimber of respectable iestimooies, that the barracks of tbe CHAPTSa 
edth regiment was the first object of attack^ the result of ^ ^^l* 
which has been so fatal to so manj brave officers, and soldiers." 

Snrgeon Jones of the 1st, and Assistant Surgeon Dean Aooonntgiven 

of the 28rd, who were actively engaged during the out- jonee"!^ '" 

breaks especially after all the other officers were either ^®^- 
killed or disabled^ made the following joint report for the 
information of the Commander-in-Chief. 

"The following gentlemen, having been previously alarmed Eight officers 

by a heavy fire of musketry, met accidentally at the house of ^^^^ ^^ ^^ 

Lieutenant and Adjutant Ewing, 1st battalion Ist regiment, ^?"«« ^ 


about half past 3 a.m., viz., Captain Maclachlan, Lieutenants Ewing. 
Mitchell, Baby, and Jenour, and Serjeant Brady, H.M.'s 
69th regiment, Lieutenant and Adjutant Ewing, Lieutenant 
Cutcliffe (desperately wounded), and Mr. Surgeon Jones^ 1st 

*' Mr. Assistant Surgeon Dean, 23rd regiment. 

'' Lieutenant and Adjutant Ewing having previously secured 
the arms and ammunition of one naigue and three sepoys (the 
guard over the battalion books at his house), every one 
prepared for being attacked. In a quarter of an hour an 
attack was made by a strong party of sepoys on the front of 
the house. After a sharp fire on both sides they retired, 
none of us having received any injury. 

" On consideration, it appeared advisable to retire to the They retire 
house of Mr. Snrgeon Jones (the adjoining house) as being g^l^e^^ 
more capable of defence, the doors and different apertures of Jones, 
the house being better secured. This was immediately done. 

'* At the time of our quitting Lieutenant Ewing's house, Ser- SerjeaAt 
jeant Brady was requested to go, and to endeavour to procure report.' 
information of what was going on, and on his return an hour 
after, he brought us the lamentable account of the murder of 
every European on the different guards, of the Mysore flag 
being hoisted, of the European officers, together with the 
commandant of the garrison, being killed. Many men in the 
European barracks killed and wounded by two 6-pounders, 





goes to the 

The other 



The officers 
ikod men sallj 
from the 

and musketry keeping np a oontinned fire on them, and tbe 
whole fort appeared to him to be in possession of the insur- 

'' About 7 A.M. Lieutenant Mitchell, H.M.'s 69th regiment, 
left the party to endeavour to make his way to the barracks, 
or to the house of Captain Barrow, the senior officer of the 
regiment then in the fort. 

*' Nothing had been heard since our retreat to this house, 
but confused shoutings, and constant heavy firing of g^s 
and musketry in different parts of the fort. In this state of 
anxious suspense did we remain until about 8 a.m., wben a 
strong party attacked the rear of the house, and broke open 
the door of the room in which we were posted to receive them. 
After having exchanged fire, judg^g any further opposition 
fruitless, wo retreated to the European barracks by the front 
of the house, the insurgents still keeping up a fire on our rear 
during the retreat. 

** On our entering the barracks they were found in the 
greatest possible confusion, every man sheltering himself in 
the best way he was able, from the shot which were frequently 
fired from the two guns placed to command the ranges of the 
cots. Many men lay killed and wounded. Here we found 
Lieutenant Mitchell. 

'* Having a short time debated on what was best to be done 
Captain Madachlan, as senior officer, taking the command, 
it was determined to sally out from the windows opposite to 
the paroherry,' and to gain the ramparts adjoining. 

^It was found the men' had been originally provided 
with only six rounds of ball cartridges. Many of these had 
been expended during the morning. At the bottom of the 
ramparts was a small magaune for the European stores. AU 

^ The langee of huts oocnpied by the camp-followers. 

' The ntimber of non-commissioned rank and file in the fort amounted 
to 372, of whom 191 were killed or wonnded. Many of these fell on the 
ramparts. The number of those who sallied may therefore be estimated 
at about ^10. 


tlie ball cartridges had been taken oat by the insurgents, and CH AFTBB 
nothing left but a few blank ones, of whtoh some were taken. ' 

'* Having climbed ap the &ce of the ramparts under a heavy They take 
fire of musketry, we took post on a bastion near at hand to ^ptl^OTih* 
collect the men. We then advanced to dislodge the insur- ^^^t oavalier 
gents (in considerable force) from the north-east cavalier, 
which we accomplished, but with the loss of t^ptain Mac- 
lach]an*B further services (he having received a severe wound 
through the thigh) as also of several men. On our way to the 
attack of the cavalier we were joined by Captain Barrow, 
H.M,'s 69th regiment, who then took the command 'as senior 

** A. party having been left at the cavalier, we proceeded and the 
along the ramparts under a constant heavy fire of musketry to ^^*^'^''^^' 
take possession of the gateway,^ which was effected. Wishing 
to ascertain whether the gate was open we proceeded below 
and found it locked, and a 6-pounder placed opposite to it for' 
its defence. The fire from the palace at this time was exces- 
sively heavy. Many men fell, and Lieutenant MitcheU was 
severely wounded by a musket shot in the arm. There being 
no ammunition with the 6-pounder, it was suffered to remain, 
and the party stationed over the gateway was ordered to 
keep it from falling into the hands of the insurgents. The 
men at this time had scarcely a ball cartridge remaining. 
To attack the arsenal was deemed impracticable, and the only 
remaining chance of gaining ammunition was by attempting 
to gain possession of the grand magazine. 

^ The main body of the detachment proceeded with Captain Oaptai« of 

Barrow to carry the bastion and cavalier at the south-east face ^l^^^^^^th* 

' eaBtem 

of the fort, which lay on our way to the flagstaff and maga- bMtioii aod 
sine, then defended by a strong party of the insurgents. In ^^^ 
advancing to the attack, Captain Barrow fell by a musket shot 
passing through his leg. There then remained no officer . 
except Mr. Surgeon Jones, and Mr. Assistant Surgeon Dean, 

^ On the eastern iftce of the fort A sigsag eotranoe, defended by 
f onr gates, and a drawbridge. 





The party 
reaches the 
magaziDe, but 
finds nothiag. 

It returns to 
the cayalier 
and gateway. 

The Mjsore 
flag pulled 

to carrj tiie plan in execution, who, leading on the party, 
carried the cairalier and bastion, bat with the loss of seyeral 

" The insnrg^mtB chiefly fled into the body of the fort, bat 
many posted themselveB in the gateway of the granary. 
These were destroyed by a party sent down from the rampart 
for the purpose. 

" The party soon arrived at the flagstaff, and were much 
annoyed by fire f rotn the pettah on the opposite side of the 
ditch, and from the garden in the fort. A soldier, in attempt- 
ing to take down the Mysore * flag, was shot from the pettah. 
A very heavy fire being kept np, antl the men falling fast, no 
time was to be lost in proceeding to the magazine, which 
having been bnrstopen, to oar general disappointment, nothing 
bat loose powder could be obtained. 

*< The men at this time wished to proceed towards, and to 
attack, the sepoy barracks, which was instantly opposed. 
Our numbers being very much reduced, added to the disap* 
pointment of not getting ammunition, it became our principal 
object to return and keep possession of the gateway, and 
cavaliers, until the arrival of a relief which we had hopcQ of 
soon seeing. 

^* On our return from the magazine the Mysore flag was 
taken down by two men who were requested to volanteer for 
the occasion, viz., Serjeant MacManus ' and Private Philip 
Bottom, H.M.'s 69th regiment, under a very heavy fire from 
the pettah ' and fort. 

" We returned to the cavalier and gateway, having left a 

> This was said to haye been handed out of the palace by Mois-ool- 
deen, the third sou of Tippoo. It was an old flag —green stripee on a 
red field, with a sun in the centre, and was supposed to hare been 
bought at one of the sales of the Seringapatam booty, a considerable 
time before the mutiny. 

' These men were thanked in Greneral Orders for their gallantry, and 
received a donation of 50 and 20 pagodas respectively. 

3 The flagstaff on the centre bastion of the soathern face was within 
easy range of the pettah or native town. 

aiSTORt OF TB£ MADRAS AfillT. 183 

fitrODGT party at the cavalier and bastion on the south-east CHAPTEB 

face for its defence. Soon after our return a party of cavalry * 

was descried to approach towards the fort." 

LieuteDant-Golonel Marriott^ the officer in charge of Statement 
the Mysore Princes^ who lived in the fort with Captain Marriott. 
* Marriott^ Assistant Paymaster of Stipends^ was awoke by 
the firing, and immediately i^terwards the naigue of his 
guard, who belonged to the Ist battalion, came upstairs 
and reported that the disturbance was caused by the men 
of the 28rd battalion, who were firing in every direction. 
The Colonel went down to his guard, where he found 
Lieutenant and Adjutant Coombs ^ of the 23rd, who was 
very unpopular with his men, and had escaped from his 
quarters, where he had been fired at. Colonel Marriott 
desired him to go into the house, and he had just done 
so, when a number of the 23rd came up and ordered the 
guard to join them as it was a '' general business '* ; but 
they did not attempt to molest the Colonel, who returned 
into his house, where he found Lieutenant Gunning of the 
69th, who had come there after an ineffectual attempt 
to reach the barracks. About daylight the house was 
surrounded by sepoys, who took possession of the lower 
rooms, and fired a volley upstairs, by which Captain 
Marriott, the Assistant Paymaster, was wounded, after 
which thBy went and set fire to Lieutenant Coomb^s house. 
About 7 o,'cIock the sepoys fired another volley, and then 
went upstairs, calling for the Adjutant of the 23rd. 
Colonel Marriott and his friends retreated from room to 
room, and then going down the back steps, they returned 
into the lower part of the house, fortunately unobserved. 

> Brigadier Coombs was shot at Palavaram in October 18S3 by a 
bayildar of the Bifle company of the 6th regiment, who had intended, 
as was generally believed, to kill the Major of his corps. He had no 
grievance against Colonel Coombs. 




of Captain 
l«t regiment. 

retire to tlie 
hill fort. 

The sepoya went away shortly afterwards, and were beard 
to call out ** Come out, Nawab^ come oat, Nawab^ there 
is no fear/' This was supposed to be addressed to 
Futteh Hyder, the eldest of the four Mysore Princes^ who 
lived in the palace close to Colonel Marriott's quarters. 

About 8 o'clock the Colonel heard that the Europeans 
were coming out of the barracks, but he did not venture 
to leave his house until about 10| a.m., when the gate 
was blown open^ and the troops entered the fort. 

Lance-naigue Mahomed Yacoob of the 1st, who was on 
the in-lying picket, went to the house of Captain Marrett 
of the same battalion about 3 a.k., and warned him not 
to go near the barracks as the men of the 28rd were 
firing upon them. Captain Marrett immediately went to 
the Amboor gate, where he found a guard of his own 
regiment under arms. The' naigue of this guard, Syed 
Ahmed, also advised him not to approach the barracks, 
upon which he returned to his quarters, where he was 
joined by Lieutenant Bissett of the 69th. Presently they 
resolved to go to the main guard, and on the way they 
passed another guard posted on the Nawab's bastion 
near the north-west angle of the palace. Vencatram, 
the naigue in command of this guard, told Captain 
Marrett not to venture near the parade, upon which the 
two officers returned to the other side of the palace by 
the magazine, and succeeded in gaining a house behind 
the main guard. After waiting there a short time they 
got over the wall into the main guard, which had been 
deserted, and they concealed themselves there until the 
arrival of the cavalry. 

Lieutenant Ewing of the Ist having become separated 
from the other officers after leaving the house of Surgeon 
Jones, assembled several European stragglers, and 


making^ his way oat of the fort^ he joined Colonel Forbes. CHAPT8B 

These two officers, accompanied by a number of unarmed * 

men belonging to the Ist battalion^ then took possession 
of the principal hill fort^ where they remained until after 
the dispersion of the mutineers* 

Major GoateSj on hearing the beginning of the firing. Major Goatos 
endeayoured, together with some officers of the 23rd, to 3^^.*^ 
enter the fort, but being unable to effect this, he sent off 
an officer to Arcot with a letter for Colonel Gillespie, 
who commanded the cavalry cantonment at that place, 
distant about 16 miles from Vellore. The letter having 
reached the Colonel about 6 o'clock Ajf., he set out imme- 
diately, taking with him a squadron of the 19th dragoons 
under Captain Toung, supported by a strong troop of the 
7th cavalry under Lieutenant Woodhouse, leaving orders 
for Colonel Kennedy to follow with the rest of the cavalry, 
with the exception of a detachment left to protect the 
cantonment and to keep up the communication. 

When Colonel Gillespie arrived he found the draw- Colonel 

._ _ mil':! GKllespie 

bridge down, and the two outer gates open. The third arrives, 
gate was Opened from the inside by some of the 69th, 
who were let down from the rampart by their comrades. 

This progress was made without loss owing to the 
position occupied by the 69th, but when the detachment 
came in front of the fourth, or inner gate, the approach 
thereto was found to be so completely commanded by the 
fire of the mutineers, that Colonel Gillespie thought it 
prudent to await the arrival of the guns. In the meantime, 
in order to encourage the brave men above the gateway, 
who, being without ammunition, had to trust to their 
bayonets alone. Colonel Gillespie got himself drawn up by 

1 Lieutenant Swing's deposition has not been found. It is presumed 
he must hare left the fort by the sally-port or " Amboor " gate on the 
sonthern face, which was held by a naigne's guard of his own regiment. 

VOL. III. 24 




Beeapt ire 
of the f jrt. 

a rope^ and iiqmediately began to employ the men in tam- 
ing the guns towards the interior of the place, and while 
thus engaged the rest of the cavalry came ap from Arcot. 
It was then about 10 o'clock. The gate was blown open 
at the first discharge from the galloper guns of the 
19th under the direction of Lieutenant Blakiston of the 
Engineers, and the troops entered the place headed by a 
squadron of the dragoons under Captain Skelton, hand- 
somely supported by the native cavalry. 

Colonel Gillespie, descending from the rampart, joined 
in the attack, and in about a quarter of an hour the fort 
was again in our possession. About 350 ^ sepoys were 
killed, the rest escaped by the sally-port on the southern 
face, but a number were taken in different parts of the 
country within the next few days. 

Caenaltiee in 

The loss of the troops ir< 

om Arcot was 


to nothintr. 

tlie cavalrj. 

viz., one * European troop 

er killed and 

three wounded. 

' Bztract from a minate hj the Gommander-iii*( 

C/hief entered in the 

ConsnltatioiiB of Qovemment, 16th September 1806. 

let bait, let regt 

2nd batt. 28rd regt. 


K.C. R. A F. 


N.C> A* o F. 

At Chaiidragheny and 

Chittoor exempt from 

l^ilt ... ... ... 8 


• • • 

. 1 . 

At VeUore, innooent ... 2 




At Yellorei prisoners for 

mutiny 5 




At Yellore, not confined 

but considered as im- 

plicated 6 




Missing since 10th July, 

of whom many were 

killed, and many taken 

prisoners in different 


Total ... 21 






^ The retnm of oasnalties in the native cavalry had not been for- 
lushed when Colonel Gillespie sent in his first report, and it has not 
been found. 


a result which may be attributed to the crallantry of the CHAPTER 

. . XVIII 
69th^ for had the mutineers raised the drawbridge and * 

closed the two outer gates^ the fort could not have been 

recaptured by a coup de main. 

Five Serjeants^ 4 corporals, 1 drummer, and 90 privates CMnalties in 
of the 69th were killed during the outbreak, and 15 ««*">■<>»• 
privates subsequently died of their wounds. The num- 
ber of wounded, exclusive of these, amounted to 76. 

The undermentioned officers were killed, viz., Colonel 
Fanoourt, H.M.'s 34th regiment, commanding the garri- 
son, Lieutenant-Colonel McKerras, Captain Willison and 
Lieutenants Winchip and Jolly of the 23rd, Captain 
Miller, Lieutenants O'Reilly, Smart, and Tichboume of 
the Ist, and Lieutenants Eley and Popham of the 69th, 
Mr. Mann Deputy Commissary of Stores, Mr. Gill Con- 
ductor of Ordnance, and Mr. Smith the Military Pay- 

Major Armstrong of the 16th N.I., who happened to 
be passing the fort in his palankin, was first wounded 
by a Hindoo sepoy of the 1st, and then killed by a Maho- 
medan follower of one of the Mysore Princes. 

Captains Barrow tind Maclachlan and Lieutenant 
Mitchell of the 69th were severely wounded, also Lieute- 
nant Cutcliflfe of the 1st. 

Captain Marriott Assistant Paymaster of Stipends, was 
wounded slightly. 

The officers and men engaged in the suppression of Rewards to 
the mutiny were thanked for their services. Serjeant and° ^ 
Brady of the 69th was recommended for a commission, 
but he was afterwards permitted, at his own request, to 
exchange it for an appointment as Conductor of Ordnance 
as being better suited to his circumstances. 

The detachment of native cavalry consisted of 107 of 
the 7th under Captain Doveton, and of details from the 
other seven regiments^ amounting to 305 men of all ranks 





of the ring. 

under Captain Mason of the 5th regiment. These men 
were rewarded by an addition to their ordinary pay on 
the following scale, viz. : — 


Snbadar ... ... ... ... 21 

Jemadar ... ... ... ... •••14 

Ebiyildar... ... ... ... .•• 7 

Naigne and Private 3| 

This allowance was continued to the recipients on their 
being pensioned or discharged. 

It was resolved at the same time that medals, with a 
suitable inscription, should be presented to the detach- 
ment, to be of gold for the native officers, and of silver 
for the other ranks, but this resolution was never carried 
into effect. 

Private Mustapha Beg of the 1st regiment was pre- 
sented with a donation of 2,000 pagodas, and pensioned 
for life on the pay of a subadar of infantry. 

The principal leaders of the mutiny were tried at 
Yellore, and disposed of in the manner reported in the 
following letter from Colonel Harcourt to the Adjutant- 
General : — 

'' VeUore, 2Srd September 1806. 
" Sir, 

'*! request you will be pleased to communicate to His 

Excellency the Commander-in-Chief, that I have this mom« 

ing carried into execution the approved sentences ^ of the 

lai hattalion \9t r»giment. 

Blown from a gun 1 hayildar, 1 naigae. 

Shot ... .*• ... ... 1 naigne, 4 sepojs. 

Hnng ... 1 jemadar, 4 sepoys. 

Transported 3 barildars, 2 naigaes, 

1 sepoy. 

2nd battalion 23rd regimenL 
Blown £rom a gnn „\ ... 2 subadars. 

Hang 2 havildars, 1 naigne. 

Blown from a gnn ... ... 2 lasoars. 


Natiye Qeneral Conrt Martial ; six of ihe oonyicted mntineeis CHAPTBB 
were blown away from, guns, five were shot with musketry ' 

(by a detachment of the Ist of the Ist^ and 2nd 23rd) and 
eight were hung. The two men that were acquitted are 
released, and those sentenced to be discharged the service^ 
and to be transported, remain in confinement, awaiting His 
Excellency's farther orders. 

*^ 2. The execution took place on the western glacis of the 
fort, and the painful duty was performed without a single 
f aOure or accident. 

« (Signed) GEO. HAROOURT, Colonel." 

Eight of the retainers of the Mysore Princes were Trial of the 
tried before a Special Commission at Chittoor in April of the 
1807, and the proceedings were confirmed by Gtovern- ^^^^^^^ 
ment in May. One was sentenced to deaths two to 
transportation for Ufe, one to imprisonment for Uf e, one 
to imprisonment for ten years, and three were acquitted. 

The princes themselves were sent to Calcutta, their Deportation 
complicity not having been established to such a degree pnnoes. 
as to warrant more extreme measures. 

The obnoxious orders remrdini? dress were cancelled ^ ^® . 

^ ° obnozioiis 

on the 17th July, and on the 24th September a General orders 
Order was published, by which all unauthorised alterations ^^^^^ 
in dress, or interference with the native soldiery in regard 
to their national observances, was strictly prohibited. It 
was further directed that the turband sanctioned by 
Government on the 15th March 1797 should continue to 
be the pattern for the army. 

Immediately after the suppression of the mutiny steps Gonrte of 
were taken to ascertain the causes which had led to it. ^^^^' 

A Court of enquiry, of which Lieutenant-Colonel 
Kennedy of H.M.'s 19th dragoons was President, was 

^ These orders will be found in 'the accoont of the Natiye Infantry, 
1806-9, at the end of Chapter XIX. 


CHAPTBB assembled by Colonel Gillespie at Vellore, but the mem- 


' bers had not proceeded &r with their investigation when 

they were relieyed by a Special Commission appointed by 
Government on the 12th July^ and composed as follows, 
viz. : — 

PresideiiL — ^Major- General Pater. 

Members. — Lieatenant- Colonel Dodsworth H.M.'s 
34th regiment, Messrs. Webb and Ogilvie of the 
Civil Service^ and Major Dowse of the 8th regi- 
ment N.I.^ with Major Leith, Jadge Advocate- 
General^ in attendance. 

Report of the The following extracts are taken from the report of 
ommusion. ^j^^ Commission, which was submitted to Government on 
the 9th August, together with the depositions taken 
during the enquiry :— 

" There are two principal causes which appear to us to 
have led to the mutiny. The late innovations in the dress 
and appearance of the sepoys, and the residence of the fkmily 
of the late Tippoo Sultan at Vellore. We shall beg leave to 
submit our reasons on each of these heads, and first in regard 
to the dress. 
Changes in '' The article of dress is, both with the Hindoos and Maho- 

'^^' medans, an indication of their caste, and a badge of their 

respective distinctions and place in society ; and when it is 
recollected how obstinately the Indians of all descriptions 
adhere to their customs, and with what difficulty the natives 
were brought to adopt many parts of their present military 
dress, it will not appear surprising that some of the late 
innovations in that respect were offensive to their feelings. 

" The sepoys appear to have felt that the wearing of the 
new turband would make them come to be considered as 
Europeans, and would have removed them from the society 
and intercourse of their own castes. 

'* We did not think it material to ascertain how far every 
article of dress, which they have complained of, was repng- 


nant to their tenets, or unreasonable in itself. Prejudices CRkFTlSSL 
would cease to be so could they be regulated hj reason. _! 

** We shall not dwell particularly upon that, part of the 
order which respected effacing from the forehead the marks 
of castes, as it has not been specified to us as a cause of 
grievance, though one of the battalions appears to have 
previously carried it into execution. We may be allowed to * 

suppose, however, that it was not without its effect upon the 
minds of individuals. In the same corps the tnrband was not 
complained of, yet we know that it led to the mutiny. 

** These distinctions of castes add to the personal importance 
of the individual with society, and create a sense of honor, 
which operates more strongly than the fear of punishment in 
the prevention of crimes. 

"In this country the prejudices of the conquered have 
always triumphed over the arms of the conqueror, and have 
subsisted amidst all the revolutions and shocks to which the 
empire has been subjected. Any innovation, therefore, in that 
respect must be calculated to call forth their feelings, and the 
more trivial the object required to be sacrificed, the stronger, 
in our opinion, would the reluctance be to make it. Nothing 
would appear to be more trivial to the public interests than 
the length of the hair on the upper lip of a sepoy, yet to the 
individual himself, the shape and fashion of the whisker is a 
badge of his caste, and an article of his religion. 

'* We shall now remark on the second cause, viz., the Intrignea of 
residence of the families of the late Tippoo Sultan at Vel- ^^^S^ 

^Accommodations were here provided for them nearly 
resembling a palace in magnificence, and an establishment 
allowed them on a very extensive scale of liberality. Their 
followers had emigrated in great numbers to Yellore, and 
husbands for the Princesses were allowed to come from differ* 
ent parts of the country. These persons naturally brought 
along with them their former attachments and prejudices, 
and the interests of Seringapatam were transplanted with its 
inhabitants to the Camatic. Speaking the same language, 




of the 

The Qoyem- 
ments oononr 
-with the Com- 

The Gomman. 



the new 

and following the aame religion, connections were easily 
formed, and amongst men who were not much occupied 
with engagements of trade or business, schemes of power and 
ambition would naturallj occur to those who had been bom 
to enjoy them. 

" Under other circumstances the tnrband, Ac., might have 
proved offensiye to the sepoys, but when we look back to 
some former insurrections amongst the troops, and remember 
(and it falls within the personal knowledge of some of us) 
the civility with which the men distinguished their officers, 
and the point of honor which they seemed to feel in doing so, 
we cannot but think that the outrages on the late occasion 
are of foreign growth and could only have been inspired by a 
barbarous enemy. 

" On the whole we draw from the evidence now before us 
the following circumstances : — 

'* That the late innovations as to the dress and appearance 
of the sepoys was the leading cause of the mutiny, and the 
other was the residence of the family of the late Tippoo 
Sultan at Yellore." 

The conclusion arrived at by the Oommissioners was 
concurred in by the Government of Madras^ and by the 
Supreme Gtovernment ; the only dissentient voice being 
that of Sir J. P. Cradock^ the Commander-in-Chief, who, 
in a report to the Conrt of Directors dated 21st Septem- 
ber 1806^ expressed the opinion that the alterations in 
dress had been nothing more than a pretext ;^ the real 
object having been the restoration of the Mahomedan 
power. He maintained that the new tarband was free 
from objection of any kind, as had been fully established 
by the depositions of several Mahomedans and Hindoos 
of the highest castes who were examined before the 

^ He wonld seem to have forgotten his letter of the 29th Jmie, in 
which he infonned Government that the objections to the tnrband were 
almost oniyezsal. 


court of enquiry at Vellore in May. He was supported OHAPTEB 

in this view by the Adjutant-General^ and his Deputy^ who ' 

stated that tui*bands nearly resembling the new one in 
shape and material had long been worn by the 2nd batta- 
lion 13th ; that the men of the 2nd battalion 14th had 
shown a decided preference for the new turband ; and 
that no appearance of dissatisfaction had been manifested 
until it was unexpectedly shown by the 2nd battalion 4th 
regiment. It was further remarked that the old 12th 
battalion (12th M.N.I.) had, for many years^ worn a 
bonnet almost exactly similar to those of the Highland 
regiments, and had continued to do so until the introduc- 
tion of the turband of 1797 ; and that when the 36th 
battalion (26th M.N.I.) was first raised^ the men wore a 
bonnet of the same kiud as the 12th, with the addition 
of a tuft and leather cockade. 

The order regarding caste marks and earrings was 
justified on the ground that, although they had not 
previously been prohibited by any formal order, it had 
never been the custom in any well regulated corps for 
the men to appear with them on parade. Letters from 
General Dugald Campbell^ Lieutenant*Colonel Chalmers, 
and Major Bruce were quoted in support of this assertion. 

It must be remembered that the reputation of the Bepntation of 
Military Department was at stake, and the report of the Departing 
Commander-in-Chief seems to have been written with at ■take, 
the view of showing that the new regulations had not 
been the cause of the mutiny, or, if they had, then that 
the responsibility rested with his advisers, Colonel Agnew 
and Major Pierce, by whom he had been assured that 
the proposed changes were not open to any objection. 

As the defence of the new turband rested chiefly on yalneleis 
the evidence of the native officers and soldiers as given the eyidenoo 
before the court of enquiry, it may be well to consider J? *»▼<>' ©' 
what that evidence was worth. Bearing in mind the turband. 
VOL. III. 25 





Alarm at 

exceedingly summaxyy arbitrary^ and severe manner in 
whicli the 2nd of the 4th had been dealt with only six 
days before the assembly of the oonrt^ it onght not to 
have been matter of surprise to any one at all conversant 
with the disposition of the native soldiery, that the coart 
should have failed to elicit any unfavorable opinion 
regarding the new turband. It was well known that the 
change had been recommended, either by the Adjutant- 
General or his Deputy, or both, officers, who,at that period^ 
and for many years afterwards, were supreme in respect 
to all matters connected with native troops. With this 
knowledge, and with the punishment of the 4th before 
their eyes, was it to be expected that the turband would 
be condemned by the native officers called upon for 
their opinions f The extraordinary thing is, that opinions 
obtained under such circumstances should have been 
gravely put forward as good evidence in fayor of the 
change. The significant hint of the field officers of whom 
the court was composed does not appear to have met with 
any attention. 

The excitement created by the proposed alterations in 
dress extended to the troops at Hyderabad, Bellary, 
Wallajahbad, Bangalore, Nundidroog, and Sunkerry- 
droog, but not to such a degree as to cause any anxiety 
except a.t Hyderabad ; the subsidiary force at which place 
was then commanded by Colonel T. O. Montresor, H.M.'s 
22nd dragoons. 

The first intimation of alarm was conveyed to Colonel 
Montresor, on the evening of the 11th July, bj some 
officers of the 11th regiment M.N.I., who told him that 
the native troops suspected Government of an intention 
to make them relinquish all distinctions of caste, and to 
convert them to Christianity by degrees. The excite- 
ment was intensified by certain absurd rumours invented 
and circulated by ill-disposed persons. It was generally 


reported and implicitly believed, both in the cantonment, CHAPTEB 

and in the city, that the existence of a considerable * 

treasure at the bottom of the well in the European barracks 
had been revealed by an oracle, which treasure, however, 
could not be discovered until a certain number of human 
heads had been offered to the tutelar deity of the well. 
The number of heads required was to be provided by the 
European troops, who were to be employed at night to 
waylay the natives ; and the discovery, about this time, 
of a headless corpse near the Residency, so completely 
confirmed the belief in the rumour, that few of the natives 
ventured out after dark. Other reports, of an equally 
monstrous character, obtained similar credence. 

On the night of the 12th a number of men assembled General 
in rear of the cantonment, and the pickets were ordered i,!^© te^ 
out for fear of a tumult, but their services were not 
required. During the next few days the general dissat* 
isfaction was manifested in several ways. The sepoys 
declared it to be impossible for them to comply with the 
orders regarding dress, and at the same time to adhere to 
the tenets of their religion. The men of the 2nd batta- 
lion 15th regiment publicly announced their intention to 
refuse to wear the turband, and the other battalions were 
believed to be of the same mind. lieutenant-Colonel * 
Doveton informed Colonel Montresor that the cavalry 
would not draw a sword to put down any riot that might 
be occasioned by an attempt to force the new turband on 
the infantry. 

Colonel Montresor, after mature deliberation, andhaving Colonel 
considered the small number * of European troops at re^okMrtho 
his disposal, determined, in communication with Captain orders 

* regaromg 


> H.M.'8 8Srd regiment^ and a detachment of artillery. The 
natiye troope oonaiBted of two regimenta of cavalry, aiz hattaliona 
of natire infantry, and detachments of native artillery and pioneera. 




of the oAtiTe 

of Major 
Welsh and 

Sydenham the Besiclent, to take the responsibility of 
reyoldng the offensive regnlations, and this was done by an 
order published to the force on the 23rd Jnly. Although 
immediate tranquillity followed this wise and timely 
concession, the importance of which can scarcely be 
over-estimated, the Colonel does not appear to have been 
rewarded except by the approval of the Supreme and 
Madras Qovemments, subsequently endorsed by that of 
the Court of Directors. 

Nothing of moment took place at the other stations 
specified above beyond the dismissal of a few men at 
Nundidroog, Bangalore, and Bellary, and the disarming 
of the 1st battalion 23rd regiment at Wallajahbad. The 
investigation which followed this last measure showed 
that the disaffection was limited to a few native officers, 
and men of indifferent character. The only other point 
worthy of remark is the circumstance that the native 
officers generally evinced extreme indifference in the 
discharge of their duty, and made no attempt to check 
inflamuLatory expressions made use of by some of the men, 
more particularly at Wallajahbad. Nothing criminal, 
however, was established against any native officer, except 
in the case of three subadars of the 15th regiment at 
Hyderabad, who were transported to Penang for life, 
and of a jemadar of the 1st battalion 22nd, who was 
sentenced to be shot, which sentence was afterwards 
commuted to transportation for life. 

The agitation caused by these events had begun to 
subside when it was revived by the precipitate action 
of Major Welsh conmianding the Ist battalion 3rd regi* 
ment at Palamcottah, and of Lieutenant-Colonel Grant 
commanding the subsidiary force in Travancore, who, 
about the middle of November, disarmed and confined 
a large proportion of the Mahomedan troops under their 
respective commands. 


These officers were tried by court-martial at Fort St. CHAPTER 


George in February 1807, for baying taken sacb extreme * 

steps without justifiable cause, adequate necessity^ or 
sufficient investigation; such conduct being calculated 
to produce disunion, and distrust. 

Both Colonel Grant, and Major Welsh were honorably Opinion of the 
acquitted, and the proceedings were approved and con- 
firmed ; nevertheless Government, while giving these 
officers credit for their good intentions, and zeal for thd 
public service, condemned them for their precipitation, 
and want of judgment. 

The investigations in connection with the mutiny Final 
appear to have terminated with the proceedings of a X807. ' 

court of enquiry composed of Mr. A. Scott of the Civil 
Service, Lieutenant-Colonel (afterwards Sir John) Mai* 
colm, and Lieutenant-Colonel John Munro, who were 
appointed to enquire and report their opinion regarding 
the existence of a general Mahomedan conspiracy for 
the subversion of British rule in India, a view which had 
been pressed upon the attention of Government by 
Major Hazlewood of the 2nd battalion 24th regiment. 
These officers closed their proceedings on the 19th March 
1807, when they came to the conclusion that '' the infer- 
ences drawn by Major Hazlewood were not supported on 
any sufficient grounds/' 

Gbvemment, on the 2nd April, expressed their entire 
concurrence in that conclusion. 

On the 15th April 1807, the Court of Directors sent out Bemontl of 

an order directing the removal of Lord William Bentinck, ^^ the*"^' 

and Sir J. F. Cradock from their respective offices, and p®?,"*"^^' 

on the 29th May they reviewed the several reports regard- 1807. 
ing the mutiny in a lengthy despatch^ from which the 
following are extracts. 




Bemarks of 
the Court of 
Direoton on 
the oaneea of 
the mntiny, 
and on the 
conduct of 
the authori- 

They were of opinion that the *' immediate cause of the 
discontent among the sepoys was the introduction of 
certain innovations in their dress, which were offensive, 
and, as they held, degrading to them ; and that the cap- 
tive sons of the late Tippoo Saltan, with their adherents 
and abettors, took occasion, from the dissatisfaction of 
the sepoys, to instigate them to insurrection and revolt, 
with the view of effecting their own liberation, and the 
restoration of the Mahomedan power/' 

They remarked upon the danger of interfering, ''without 
some object of great and undeniable importance, with the 
sepoys in any manner which, however erroneously, they 
might consider as affecting their castes,'' and they went 
on to say that *' to have proceeded with a measure which 
compromised the authority of Government on the one 
hand, or risked the disobedience of the sepoys on the 
other, seems to argue a want of that prudence and discern- 
ment BO requisite in administering the government of a 
numerous and peculiar people/' They further observed 
that ''when it was found that the sepoys discovered 
great reluctance to the adoption of these novelties, the 
important question to be solved was, not whether the use 
of the turband was indeed inconsistent with the purity of 
caste, or whether the prohibition of marks and whiskers 
was sanctioned by any former practice ; neither was it 
enough that the Mahomedan priest and Hindoo brahmin, 
who were consulted, both admitted that there was in the 
turband, or in those other articles, nothing contrary to 
their castes ; but the matter of enquiry should have been, 
whether the sepoys, ignorant and bigotted as they might 
be, were really persuaded that the usages imposed upon 
them did trench upon their castes, because, if they were^ 
no compliance was to be expected from them, whatever 
might be the sacrifice. And, if this enquiry, which might 


haye been made indifferent modes, had given you reason CHAPTER 

to suppose what the sepoys affirmed^ that their conformity ' 

would have determined persons of the same caste no longer 
to associate with them^ the impositions, being of no real 
importance in themselyes^ might have been giveu up with- 
out discredit, and a new proof would have been afforded 
by Ooyernment of its tenderness to religious scruples/' 

The Court greatly regretted that when, on the 29th 
June, the Commander-in-Chief reported the existence of 
y an almost uniyersal objection '' to the new turband^Lord 
William Bentinck should haye neglected to make full 
enquiry before permitting the change to be carried out. 

As to the Commander-in-Chief, they observed that it 
was impossible to exonerate him from responsibility on 
the plea that he had acted under the adyice of his Staff. 

The following reasons were giyen for the recall of the ReaBons for 
Goyemor and the Commander-in-Chief : — the 

" It seems to us that the Government, considered generally, 
did not exercise the discernment and vigilance which all the 
circumstances of the time required. 

" Besides the application of this observation to Sir J. Commander- 
Cradock in particular, the injndicions regulations enforced 
under his anthonty, the remarkable degree in which he was 
unacquainted with the state of his own army just at the eve 
of an insurrection, when he thought all was calm ; and the 
nnpopnlarity which, it is too justly to be apprehended, the fatal 
issue of the whole would entail npon him, rendered it, in onr 
opinion, impossible, whatever regret we felt on the occasion,, 
to continue him in the command of the army. 

'* With respect to Lord William Bentinck. Of the upright- and the 

^^ I.* • X i.' J !-• J ^ • Governor, 

ness of his intentions, and his regard for our service, we 

have no doubt ; and we have had pleasure in expressing our 

satisfaction with different measures of his government ; but 

others which we felt ourselves obliged, in the coarse of the 

last year, to disapprove, impaired our confidence in him ; and 



RenioTsl of 
the Adjatant- 
GeDeral and 




of the 


after weighing all the coDBideratiosiB connected with the 
business of Vellore, we felt onraelTes unable longer to con« 
tinne ^ that confidence to him which it is so necessary for a 
person holding his situation to possess." 

Lieutenant-Colonel Agnew,' and Major Pierce were 
considered to have shown so little acquaintance with the 
disposition and prejudices of the native troops that they 
were removed from their respective appointments^ and 
ordered to England. 

Colonel Gillespie was presented with 7^000 pagodas 
(Bs. 24,500), and Serjeant Brady with 800 pagodas 
(Bs. 2,800) in acknowledgment of their services. 

Mrs. Fanconrt was gpranted an annuity of £100, so long^ 
as she might continue a widow, and an allowance of £25 
per annum was given to each of her two children, to be 
continued until the age of 16 in the case of the boy» and 
to that of 21 in the case of the girl. 

A gpratuity, equal to one month's pay, was sanctioned 
for each non-commissioned officer and private of the 19th 
dragoons who had been employed at V ellore. 

The punishment of the mutinous battalions became 
the subject of much controversy, and was not finally 
settled until January 1807, when the l8t« and 23rd regi- 
ments were struck off the strength of the army from the 
31st December 1806. 

' In reply to a remonstranoe against this snmmarj treatment, and 
an application for redress, which was snbseqaently prefen^ by Lorfl 
William Bentinok, the Court of Directors, on the 25th Jnly 1809, while 
again expressing their sense of his Lordship's uprightness, and seal, and 
disclaiming any intention of personal disrespect, still adhered to their 
original view, and regretted that " greater care and caution had not been 
exercised in examining into the real sentiments and dispositions of 
the sepoys before measures of sererity were adopted to enforce the 
order respecting the use of the new turband." 

* These officers returned to duty, bat were not restored to their 
appointments on the staff. 


Their places were sapplied by two regiments of two CHAPTEB 

battalions eacb^ numbered respectively the 24th ^ and 25th *. 


Mr. Petrie, Senior Member of Council and Provisional interim 
Governor, took his seat as Grovemor on the 11th Sep- oomma^deff- 
tember 1807, and Lieutonant-6-eneral Hay McDowall in-Chief, 
assumed command of the army on the 17th of the same 

' For the formation of these regiments, vide aocoant of Natiye 
Infanlrj, 1806-9, Chapter XIX. The 24th and 25th regiments were 
restored to their original positions in the army in consideration of the 
gallantry displayed by the 1st battalion 24th regiment at the battle of 
Seetabnldee near Nagpore on the 26th and 27th November 1817. 

VOL. III. 26 





Earn, 1808. 

CHAP. XIX. Sir George Hilabo Barlow, Bart., arrived from Cal- 

cutta in December 1807, and took his seat as Governor 

of Madras on the 24th of that month. 

In February 1808, Lieut.-Colonel Montresor marched 
from Hyderabad towards Sholapoor, in order to suppress 
an insurrection caused by Mohiput Earn, an influential 
Jaghirdar who had been recently dismissed from the 
Court of the Nizam, at the instance of the Resident, as 
being inimical to the interests of the British Government. 
Mohiput Ram retreated on the approach of the detach- 
ment/ and ultimately, but with difficulty, succeeded in 
making his escape into Candeish, where he took refuge 
with Holkar, but he had been so hard pressed, that he 
was obliged to abandon his guns and baggage. 

Colonel Montresor returned to Hyderabad in June. 

During this year, Mohiput Rao Holkar, Wahid Ally 
Khan Bungush, and Daudin Khan, three dependents of 
Holkar, taking advantage of the confusion which followed 
the insanity of that Chief, established themselves in 
Candeish, from whence they made incursions into the 
territories of the Peshwa, and of the Nizam. In conse- 

Aotion ftt 

» lit and 8th oav&lry, a detachment of artillery with 8 guns, and 5 
howitaera. H.M.'8 83rd foot 6 companies, Ist battaUon 16th, and 
2nd battaUon 21st native infantry, and 100 pioneers. Joined soon 
afterwards by the 2nd cavabTr. and 2nd battalion 10th native infantry. 


quence of these depredations^ troops were ordered from CHAP. XIX. 
Poonah and Janlna, and on the 28th December the free- 
booters were surprised near the fort at Amulnair^^ and . 
dispersed by the Janbia detachment under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Doveton^ who displayed great energy and activity 
during this service. 

The following order was issued by the Governor- 
General on this occasion : — - 


Fort William, 30th January 1809. 

"The Bight Honorable the Governor-General in Council Complimea- 
has received the satisfactory intelligence that a detachment' ^^^'^®'' 
of the subsidiary force of Hyderabad, under the command of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Doveton, consisting of a corps of horse 
artQlery, two regiments of native cavalry, and twelve com- 
panies of native infantry, employed in the province of Candeish 
in the pursuit of the predatory force of the Chiefs Mohiput 
Ram Holkar, Wahid Ally Khan, and Daudin Khan, after a 
forced march of near 100 miles, having succeeded in surpris- 
ing the enemy at the fort of Amulnair on the morning of the 
28th ultimo, effected the complete dispersion of their troops, 
consisting of between four and five thousand men, cavalry, 
and infantry, captured the whole of their guns, baggage, and 
camp equipage, and near 1,000 horses* The loss on the part 
of the enemy is stated to have been very great ; on the part 
of the British detachment, between 20 and 80 men killed and 

'* The Govemor-(}eneral in Council deems it proper, on 
this occasion, to express in the most pubUc manner the high 
sense which he entertains of the zeal, judgment, and activity 
manifested by Lieutenant-Colonel Doveton in planning, and 

* Aboat 22 mfles north-east of Dhoolia in Gsndeiah. 

* Horse artillery one troop, 4th and 8th regiments oaTafay, detaoh- 
ments of the Ist battalion lOth (lOth M.N.I.), 1st battaUon 12th (2drd 
W.L.I.)* 2nd battalion l7th (84th C.L.I.) 


CHlP. XIX. execating this arduous enterprise, and of the distingniahed 
*""" perseveranoe, exertion, and gaUantry of the officers and troops 
under his command in accomplishing a march of near 100 
miles in the space of 48 hours, and immediatelj attacking 
and defeating a snpeiior force of the enemy, whose depreda- 
tions in the proyince of Candeish, and in the territories of 
the allies of the British Government, had so long disturbed 
the tranqnillitj of the Deccan, and had rendered necessary a 
combined movement of divisions of the subsidiary forces of 
Poonah and Hyderabad under the general direction of Colonel 
Wallace, commanding the subsidiary force of Poonah." 

Captxmof Bungush Ehan having managed to re-collect several 

Daoi^KhAii. hundreds of his scattered followers^ retreated northwards, 
crossed the river Taptee near Eoprell^ and took refuge 
in the adjoining hiU country belonging to a Bheel chief- 
tain, by whom both he and Daudin Khan were given up 
to Colonel Wallace in January 1809. Mohiput Bao^ who 
had separated from the otherSi effected his escape. 



Disturbances took place near Viadanagram^ and in the 
"H^ll Zemindary of Maringy during 1808. One of the 
chiefa, named Deo Padmanabh^ Bauze^ was captured at 
Stringaram Cottah in August by a detachment under 
Captain Powell, Ist battalion 21st, but others evaded 
pursuit, and towards the end of Uie year €bvemment, 
considering it necessary to direct that martial law should 
be proclaimed in certain parts of the district, issued 
special instructions for the compoeition of the Courts, and 
laid down the prindptes upon which their sentences were 
to be guided. The disturbances appear to have been 
quelled for the time during the early part of 1809. 


Pbojicted Expedition to the Persian Gulph. chap. XIX. 

About the end of 1808^ orders were issued by the 
Supreme Government for the assembly of an expeditionary 
force at Bombay for the purpose of taking possession of 
the island of Karrack in the Persian Qulph. The quota 
furnished by the Madras Army amounted to 50 officers^ 
and about 1^000 men, and was composed of horse and 
foot artillery^ four troops ^ of cavalry, and a detachment 
of pioneers, all under the command of Brigadier General 
John Malcolm. 

The intention having been given up, the troops returned 
to Madras during May 1809, when they received the 
thanks of Government for the alacrity with which they 
had proceeded on foreign service. 

Honorary badges were conferred on the native officers 
and men. 

The other troops destined for this expedition were 
H.M.'s 65th regiment under Lieutenant-Colonel Lionel 
Smith, and the Bengal Marine battalion under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Shuldham. 

The force was reviewed at Bombay on the 2nd Febru- 
ary 1809, and highly complimented in general orders on 
its appearance and discipline. 

On the departure of Lieutenant-General Macdowall 
for England in January 1809, Major-General Gowdie, the 
senior officer in the Company's service, was appointed to 
command the army. 

War in Travanoore, 1808-9. 

The subsidy payable by the Bajah of Travanoore InnTrecfcioii 
having fallen considerably into arrear^ Lieutenant*Colonel leoef **^ 
Macaulay^ the Resident^ urged upon him, as a measure 

^ One from each of the following regiments, rii., 8rd, 6th, 6th and 




OEAP. XIX. of eoonomy^ ihe expediency of dismissing a body of 
regular infantry in his service known as the '''Camatic 
Brigade/' bnt this proposal was not acceptable. The 
Besident believing that the Dewan, or prime minister^ 
was the principal cause of the opposition^ insisted upon 
his removal from office, which was agreed to^ but during 
the interval required for the selection of a successor^ the 
minister employed himself in organizing an insurrection 
of the Nairs with the view of accomplishing the murder 
of the Resident, and he induced the minister of the Rajah 
of Cochin to join in the plot. 

This design having become known at Madras^ additional 
troops were immediately ordered into Travancore. H.M.'s 
12th foot sailed from Cannanore for Quilon on the 26th 
December 1808, followed two days afterwards by the 2nd 
battalion 18th native in&ntry, and on the 1st January 
by a detachment of artillery consisting of 45 Europeans, 
and 82 natives, with four 6-pounders, and two 5^-inch 
howitzers. The 1st battalion 17th native infantry em- 
barked at Tellicherry for Cochin on the 30th December. 

On the night of the 28th December, the house of the 
Besident, who was then at Cochin, was surrounded by a 
number of armed men, and he had barely time to conceal 
himself when they broke into the Residency. Not 
finding him, they left the place, and the Colonel got on 
board one of the ships coming down the coast with troops, 
which, most fortunately, happened to pass Cochin about 
daybreak on the 29th December. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Chalmers ^ was at this time in com- 
mand of the subsidiary force, the head-quarters of which^ 
consisting of the 1st battalion 2nd, 1st of 4th, and 2nd 
of 13th, were stationed at Quilon. 

Attonpt to 
nmrder the 

Sroatfl nt 

^ H»]or-General Sir John Chalmeni, k.g.b. The same officer, who, 
when a Lieatenant, made the gallant defenoe of Coimbatore in 1791. 


The Colonel^ having received information on the 29th ^ CHAP. XIZ. 
December that a number of armed men^ well supplied 
with ammmiition, had assembled at the house of the 
Dewan in the immediate neighbourhood^ ordered the 
force to be on the alert, which had scarcely been done 
when he heard that a large body of Nairs was about to 
advance upon the cantonment from Paroor, a village on 
the coast about ten miles south of Quilon. Upon this 
he detached Captain Clapham, with five companies of the 
4th, and a gun, to occupy some heights near the Dewan's 
house, and to remain there during the night, with the 
object of preventing the force being placed between the 
fire of two parties. On approaching the heights. Captain 
Clapham found that a small hill on the right of the road 
was already held by the insurgents, whose numbers were 
increasing every moment, and he had scarcely time to 
load when he was attacked by a strong body in column. 
Reserving his fire, until it had come within a veiy short 
distance, he delivered a volley, but it was not until after 
a good deal of firing that the enemy were finally compel- 
led to retreat. 

Nothing further took place until next morning, when 
Captain Clapham, having been joined by Major Galbraith 
Hamilton with two companies of the ISth, the Dewan's 
house was attacked, and taken, together with six 4- 
pounders which had been mounted in front of it. 

This had just been efiected when it was reported that AfFair at 

T * W 

the.Travancore troops were crossing the bar at Ivicka,* ^^ ** 
about five miles north of Quilon. Major Hamilton was 

^ Some aooounta say the 30th ; that in the text is taken from the 
report made by Colonel Chalmers to the Resident, dated at Qoilon, 2nd 
January 1809. 

' This bar or estaary, about a quarter mile broad and half a mile 
long, conneots the sea with a large lake or baokwater, whioh extends 
nearly })araUel to the coast for sereral miles. 



CHAP. XIX. immediately paslxed on to oppose this movementi and 
felling in witii several small parties of the enemy on the 
way^ he dispersed them and took a number of prisoners^ 
from whom he learned that the troops at Ivicka consisted 
of about 4^000 Nairs^ and a battalion of the Garnatic 
brigade from Alleppy. On arriving at the bar it was 
found that a considerable number of men had already 
crossed^ and were drawn up to cover the landing of the 
remainder. Major Hamilton attacked them instantly, 
killed about 400, and drove the rest into the river, where 
a number were drowned. The guns were then opened 
upon the Camatio battalion on the opposite side of the 
bar^ and compelled it to retire, but in about two hours it 
returned with several guns, supposed to have been 12- 
pounders, and began to fire round and grape, which was 
replied to from our side. 

While this was going on, a number of boats, full of 

men. were seen crossing on each flank, observing which 

Colonel Chalmers directed Major Hamilton to fall back 

lest he should be cut off from the cantonment. 

Colonel During the afternoon reports were received to the effect 

Chalmers j^y^^j^ 10,000 men were advancing from Paroor, in conse- 

encamps near ' . 

the canton- quence of which Colonel Chalmers moved the troops into 
the ruined fort at Quilon, as being a more defensible 
position, but early next morning, finding that no imme- 
diate attack was to be apprehended, he left the fort, and 
encamped near the cantonment, which he entrenched to 
the best of his power. 

Defence of Cochin, 1809. 

On the 19th of January an attack was made by several 
strong bodies of the enemy on the town of Cochin^ 
defended by six companies 1st battalion 17th native 
infantry, and 50 men of H.M.'s 12th foot^ all under tho 


H18T0BT Of TBS MADfiAS AlUnr. 309 

oommand of Major Hewitt of the former corps. The CHAP. XIX. 
defence was made with mach skill and gallantry^ and ^^^ 
the assailants, after several determined attempts^ were 
repulsed at eveiy pointy and compelled to retreat with 
the loss of about 300 men. 

The following is a copy of the report made to Colonel 
Macauky :— 

''I have the honor to inform you that the detachment 
H-lC's I2th regiment, and the six companies Ist battalion 
17th regiment under my command, were attacked by three 
columns of the enemy on three difEerent points about 6 
o'clock this morning, and aflber ti yery severe engagement of 
three hours, we repulsed them on all sides with considerable 
slaughter, and captured their two guns. 

^ By the enclosed return you will observe that our loss ^ 
is not trifling. Since your departure we are entirely out q£E 
from all communication by sea, and I am giv^i to understand 
fresh troops are coming in from all sides. 

''From what I could observe in the field of action, the 
enemy's force appeared about 8,000 excellent disciplined 
troops, but firom what I can collect from report, they amounted 
to much more. 

''Qn the other side of the river, close to the mouth, they 
have erected a battery of two guns, which prevents vessels 
from coming in or going out, and which played upon us vrith 
some effect on our ohargixig the enemy on the south side. I 
trust you will immediately dispatch the armed cruiser to keep 
the mouth of the river open, and recover our craft.'' 

(Signed) W. HEWITT, Major, 
Oamp Ck)CRni, Commanding, 

I9th January 1809. 

> HJi.'8 ISth— 1 priTftie killed » LieiitBnuii Tfaompaoii, a&d 14 rtak 
»Bd Sle wooAded. 1st battelion 17ih— 10 priTttfeei killed} Oaptoia 
Bead mortally wounded) 46 rank and file wounded. 

VOL. in. 27 



Thanks of 

CHAP. XIX. A subsequent report^ dated on the 2l8t^ concludes with 

the following words : — 

"The small detachment H.M*'s 12th regiment behaved 
with great gallantry, and showed a noble example to the first 
battalion of the i7th regiment, who followed it entirely to my 

The detachment received the thanks of Government^ 
conveyed in a general order dated 4th February 1809 : — 

" The Honorable the Governor in Oounoil also takes this 
opportonity of expressing his warm approbation of the con* 
duct of a detachment of troops stationed at Cochin,^ under 
the command of Major Hewitt, who with gpreat skill and 
bravery repulsed a numerous and united force of the troops 
of Travancore and Cochin in an attack which they made on 
the British detachment on the 19th ultimo. The Governor 
in Oouncil has particular satisfaction in expressing to Major 
Hewitt, and to the officers and troops under his command, his 
public thanks for their highly deserving conduct." 

On the 8rd January a detachment of artillery, 300 
H.M.'s 80th foot, the 2nd battalion 12th, and the 2nd 
of the 22nd arrived at Cannanore from Seringapatam to 
replace the troops sent to Cochin and Quilon, and further 
reinforcements were put in motion from Mysore in the 
direction of the Western Coast. A requisition for Euro- 
pean troops from Ceylon was made about the same time. 

Opbbations in thb South ov Tbavancobe, 1809. 

About the middle of January a force ^ was assembled 
in the southern division with the object of operating in 


1 On ihe 4ih September 1840 the 83rd regiment M.N.I. was author, 
ised to bear the word ** Cochin " on the colors and appointments in 
commemoration of this seirice. 

' 6th oayalxy, one company of artillery with fonr e-ponnders and 
two 6^inoh howitaers, H.M.'s OSth regiment, 1st battalion 8rd five 
companies, 2nd battalion 8rd, 1st battalion 18th, 2nd battalion 18th 
one company, 2nd battalion I6th five companies, 2nd battalion pioneers 


Trayancore from the south, and thus t^reating a diversion CHAP. XIX'. 
in favor of Colonel Chalmers. 

Travancore is divided from Tinnevelly by the range Arambooly 
of mountains running from the north to Cape Coinorin, ComOTSttes. 
which are not practicable for the passage of an army 
except at a point some 14 miles distant from the Cape^ 
where there is a break in the chain about three miles in 
width. This break was defended by walls of masonry 
with bastions at intervals armed with cannon^ and the 
position could not be turned on either flank without much 
difficulty owing to the impenetrable nature of the country. 
This portion of the defences was known as the *' Aram- 
booly " lines^ and the road from Palamcottah led nearly 
through the centre of the works. The southern portion, 
called the '* Cunniah Comary '^ lines, separated from those 
on the north by a mountain, extended to the Cape, was 
nearly ten miles in length, and similar in charact^ to the 

The force from Trichinopoly, which had been placed Capture 
under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel the Honorable AramboolT 
A. Sentleger, 6th cavalry, came before the Arambooly ^^' 
lines on the 6th February. The Colonel, being without 
a battering train, determined to attempt a surprise, and 
on the night of the 9th, twelve ^ companies of infantry, and 
a party of pioneers with scaling ladders, all under Major 
Welsh of the 3rd regiment, moved towards the redoubt 
on the hill at the southern extremity of the works. The 
country being very difficult, owing to the thickness of the 
jungle, and the numerous ascents and descents, the troops 

>' H.M.'s 69th two eompaaies and tlie pickets, Captain Byms ; Ist 
battalion 8rd flank oompanies, Sod battalion 8rd seven companies, aR 
under Captain Lneas 2nd battalion 8rd regiment; pioneers under 
Lieutenant Bertram of the ftid battalion 17th N.I. Another company 
of the 09th and three oompanies 1st battalion 18th N.I., all undae 
Captain Hodgson of the latter, were afterwards sent in support*? 



Thanks to 
the troops. 

OHAP. XIX. dia not reach the foot of the walls near the summit of the 
hill until after a march of six hours, when the ladders 
were planted, and the whole of the works, together with 
the arsenal, were in our possession by 8 o'clock on the 
morning of the 10th. Our loss was extremely small, vis.. 
Captain Cunningham of the 69th and one sepoy killed, 
four Europeans, and seven natives wounded. 

Major Welsh and his detachment were thanked by 
Colonel Sentleger for *' their gallant exertions in accom- 
plishing an object which must ever be considered as enti- 
tled to a high place in military records,'^ and on the 16th 
February the ColonePs report was published in general 
orders, together with the names of the officers who had 
been engaged in the escalade. The thanks of the Governor 
in Council were conveyed to Colonel Sentleger, and the 
officers and men in the same order. 

Colonel Sentleger, having been joined on the 16th by a 
company of royal artillery from Ceylon with six three- 
pounders, and a wing of the 8rd Ceylon native regiment, 
marched about 3 o'clock a.m. on the 17th for the contigu- 
ous villages of Nagercoil and Cotaur, distant about eight 
miles south-west of Arambooly, and where the enemy 
had assembled in some strength. The advance, com- 
posed of a strong picked detachment,^ led by Colonel 
McLeod of the 69th, came upon the enemy at daybreak 
in a strong position, defended by cannon, and with a river 
in their front. 

Colonel McLeod immediately attacked, and compelled 
them to retreat in confusion with the loss of nine guns. 

Capture of 
Cotaur and 

^ eth oayalxy three troops; flank omnpanies SQth s Ceylon regiment ; 
flank oompanies Ist and 2nd battalions 8rd regiment i flank oompaniea 
1st of 18th I one oompany pioneers nnder Lieutenant Faterson, Madras 
European regiment ; detachment royal artillery i galloper g^ns of the 
oavalry, and a brigade of siz-pounders attached to the 1st battalion 18th 


The two villages were taken poBsesaion of without farther CHAP. XIX. 
opposition. Captain Lenn of the Ceylon regiment, and 
Lientenant Swayne 1st battalion 13th regiment, were 
wounded, and 49 rank and file killed and woanded. 

On the 19th the force advanced against the forts of Oooapation of 
Oodagherry and Papanaveram, distant from Nagercoil ^^^ 
abont eight miles in a north-westerly direction, and found ^^>^^°^- 
them both abandoned. A. number ^ of guns and valuable 
arms were taken, but the treasure had been removed. 

The following order was published on the 26th Feb- 
ruary : — 

" The Governor in Oooncil repeats to Lieutenant-Colonel Thanks to 
Sentleger, and to the officers and men under his orders, his ^ roops. 
warmest thanks for the activity, seal, and bravery which have 
■igualised their operations. 

" The Gbvemor in Council has particular satisfaction in 
observing the further proof of military skill and gallantry 
afforded by that distinguished and valuable officer, lieutenant- 
Colonel McLeod of H.M.'s 69th regiment, in the action of 
Cotaur and Nagercoil, which has been followed by events of a 
highly important nature." 

On the 21st February Colonel Sentleger took np a The forae 
position half-way between Oodagherry and the town of 55e^^m. 
Colaohee on the coast, which was taken possession of 
on the 28rd by a detachment for the purpose of opening 
a communication by sea with Colonel Chalmers at Quilon. 

This having been secured. Colonel Sentleger marched 
on the 27th for Trevandrum, the capital of the Rajah, 
where he arrived on the night of the 28th, and occupied 
a position commanding the place. 

When the main body marched from Arambooly, a Capture of 
detachment of the 2nd battalion 6th, under Captain ^^Kmthem 
Townsend, was left there to protect the communications, 

> Appendix B. 



CHAP. XIX. and also to take possession of the soathem^ or Canniah 
Gomary lines^ whicli was accomplished without dpposi- 
tion about the 21st February. 

Action at 

for attack. 

Defeat of 
the enemy. 

Affairs at Quilow, 1809. 

H.M.'s 12th regiment^ followed by the 2nd battalion 
18th regiment N.I.^ joined Colonel Chalmers early in 
January^ and the next few days were spent in adding to 
the strength of the cantonment, then threatened by the 
enemy, who had assembled in the neighbourhood to the 
number of about 80,000 men with eighteen guns. 

Early on the morning^ of the 15th January the enemy 
was observed approaching in force from several directions^ 
and the troops were immediately got under arms. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Picton with a wing of H.M.'s 12th, 
eight companies of the 18th under Major Muirhead, and 
a couple of guns, advanced against a large body which 
had occupied some heights in front of the cantonment, 
while Major Hamilton of the 13th, with the other wing 
H.M/s 12th, the 1st battalion 2nd, and his own batta- 
lion, moved against another considerable body with guns, 
which had taken up a position on the left, about half a 
mile from the cantonment, upon which they had opened 
fire. Colonel Chalmers accompanied this column. Cap- 
tain Newall, with the 1st battalion 4th, was left to defend 
the camp. 

The right column under Colonel Picton entirely defeated 
the enemy, killing a great number, and taking two guns. 
He spoke highly of the behaviour of the troops, Euro-^* 
pean and native. 

The left column was equally successful, having dis- 
persed two separate bodies, and taken four guns. During 

* Colonel Clialmen' report. 



the pursuit, part of tlie Comatic Brigade, with guns, CHAP, 
appeared on the heights to the west of the cantonment ~*^ 
and opened fire. It was immediately charged and forced 
to retire, and the guns taken. 

In the meantime three regular corps of Nairs, which 
had advanced on the right of the camp, had been attacked 
and dispersed by Captain Newall. A number of them 
were killed, and four of their guns were captured. Cap* 
tain Newall was wounded, but the battalion did not lose 
a man. 

Although this engagement lasted four hours, our casual- Oajmaltiei. 
ties, including officers, only amounted to 141 ^ killed and 
wounded. Fifteen guns were taken. 

The following order was issued on this occasion : — 

*' FoH 8t George, Aih February 1809. 

''The Honorable the Gbvemorin Council has recently Complimen- 
received a particular account of the action which took place ^^ 
at Qoilon on the 1 5th ultimo, between the British troops, and 
the troops of Travancore, in which, after a severe and long 
contest, the Travanoore troops were defeated with heavy loss. 











H.M/8 18th regiment, 
let b»tt«lion 8nd ... 
let do. 4th 
2nd do. 18th ... 
8nd do. 18th 

Total ... 



>. . 






•  • 




• •f 

• • * 



• ** 

• •■ 








Captain Bajley, Lieutenant MoUoj, and Surgeon Erskine, H.H.'8 
12th, wounded. 

Captain KewaU 4th, Ueutenaot Blade 18th, and Assistant Snigeon 
Davidson artillery, wounded. 


CHAP. XIZ. From the extent of the combined force whicli was opposed 
to the British troops, this s^al victory reflects the highest 
honor on their discipline and yalonr : and the Gk>Temor in 
Council has great satisfaction in expressing his strongest 
approbation of their meritorions condact. 

^ The Oovernor in Gonncil accordingly conToys to Liente- 
nant*Colonel Chalmers, who oommasided the British detach* 
ment at Qnilon in this distinguished action, his public thanks, 
and Lieutenant-Colonel Chalmers is requested to convey the 
thanks of the Oovernor in Council to Lieutenant-Colonel 
Picton H.M.'s 12th regiment, Major Muirhead, Major Hamil- 
ton, Captain Newall, Captain Pepper, Captain Mackintosh, 
Lieutenant Lindsay, Lieutenant Arthur of the Engineers^ 
and the officers of his staff Captain Oanston and Captain 
Ahmuty, with the other officers and troops of the detachment 
who bravely signalised themselves on the occasion." 
Seoond The cantonments were again attacked ^ on the 3lst 

^i^i^yQ^^^,^ January, with a similar result, and the Nairs suffered so 

severely that they began to desert in considerable num- 
Final defeat No farther attempt was made by the enemy after the 
of the enemy, repulse of the 81st January, and Colonel Chalmers, 

having been joined on the 19th February by H.M/s 
19th regiment under Lieutenant-Colonel the Honorable 
P. Stnart, felt himself sufficiently strong to attack their 
position at KiUianoor,* which was protected by batteries 
having a deep nullah full of water in their front, and 
defended by about 5|000 men. 

The first brigade, composed of H.M.'s 12th, the 2nd of 
the 18th, and a wing of the 4th, all under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Picton, was ordered to turn the left of the posi- 
tion, while the seoond brigade, composed of H.M/s 19th, 

' The report oontoining the partionlan o^ this aAur hM act beea 
' Aboat two and a-half miles inland from cantonments* 


led by Major B6aver^ the 2Dd of the 13th under Major CHAP. XIX. 
Hamilton^ and three companies of the 2nd nnder Captain 
Pepper^ all commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart, 
attacked in front. Both attacks were completely success- 
fal, and the enemy took to flight, leaving their guns 
behind. The advance of the front attack having been 
covered by a well-directed fire of artillery until the head 
of the column had nearly reached the batteries, the casual- 
ties in this brigade were much less than they would other- 
wise have been. 

It does not appear that the other brigade sustained any 

The following are extracts from the report of Colonel 
Chalmers,, dated 23rd February : — 

'* The greatest credit m due to the troops for the steady 
manner they advanced against the batteries, through deep 
water and mud, and thorny bushes, under a heavy fire of 
musketry, round, and grape. H.M.'8 19th reg^iment lost one 
killed and ten wounded, several very severely, and about the 
same number of natives. 

^ Captain Foote, H M.'b ' Piedmontaise ' volunteered his 
services on shore, and landed a detachment oi seamen. Half 
of them went with Lieut.-Colonel EHcton under Lieutenant 
Turner, and the other half, under Captain Foote, accompanied 
Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart. They were employed in bringing 
up our artillery in the front of the enemy's batteries. They 
did this with that alacrity and courage whioh they invariably 
display on all occasions of service. I regret one of them was 
severely wounded." 

On the Srd March a general order was published, from OomplimeBr 
which the following is an extract : — ^^ 

'* The Honorable the Governor in Council has great pleasure 
in recording the high sense which he entertains of the skill 
and judgment evinced by Lieutenant-Golonel Chalmers in the 

VOL. III. 28 




The arxnj 



Snicide of the 
Dewan, and 
exeontion of 
his brother. 

in Cochin. 

arrangements made by him to secure the success of the attack ^ 
upon the enemy's position, and requests that LienteHant- 
Golonel Chalmers will convey to Lieutenant-Colonel Picton, 
to the Honorable Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart, and to the officers 
and men who served under them, the public thanks of the 
Honorable the Governor in Council for their meritorious 
ezertiions on this occasion." 

Colonel Chalmers marched from Quilon on the 26th 
February, and encamped afew miles north of Trevandrum^ 
a day or two after Colonel Sentleger had occupied a 
similar position on the sonth. The Rajah submitted 
immediately after the concentration of the army round his 
capital^ and on the Ist or 2nd March it was agreed that^ 
in addition to all arrears of subsidy, he should pay the 
expenses of the war, and that the Camatic Brigade, and 
the Nair battalions in his service should be dismissed. 

The Bewan committed suicide, but his brother was 
taken and hanged for his participation in the murder 
of Assistant-Surgeon George Hume of the Company^s 
service, and about thirty-three men of H.M/s 12th foot, 
which had been treacherously perpetrated at AUeppy on 
the 29th December 1808, the day after the commence- 
ment of the insurrection* The body of the Dewan was 
hung in irons and exposed upon a gibbet, a proceed- 
ing which called forth the severe aninoadversion of the 
Supreme Government. 

In the meantime, a strong detachment ^ under Lieute- 
nant-Colonel John Cuppage had entered the territory of 
Cochin and encamped about twelve miles north of the 
town, where it remained until affairs were finally settled. 

^ From this order it wonld appear that the action took place on the 
2lBt, but Colonel Chalmers makes it the 22nd. 

^ Detachment artillery, detachments H.M/s 59th and 80th, flank 
companies 1st battalion 5th, 2nd battalion 9th, 2nd of 12th| and 2nd of 


Lieutenant-Colonel John Munro^ previously Quarter- CHAP. xix. 
master-General^ was appointed Resident in October 1810. settlement of 
Soon afterwards, at the request of the Rajah, and with ig®^^''*''**' 
the assent of the British Government, he assumed the 
administration of the province, which he conducted with 
great success until 1814, when he made over the manage- 
ment to a Native, by which time the State had been 
relieved of pecuniary embarrassment. This arrangement, 
however, was condemned by the Court of Directors, who 
pronounced it to be entirely opposed to all the principles 
upon which their relations with friendly Native States had 
theretofore been conducted. 




officer of 
oavalzy, 1808. 

the appoint • 
ment, 1807. 




Scale of 




Cavalet, 1806-9. 

In Angast 1806 Colonel Gillespie^ H.M/s 19th dragoons, 
was appointed to be Inspector and Exercising Officer of 
Cavalry^ on a staff allowance of 200 pagodas per mensenij 
bnt this appointment was discontinned in November 1807, 
in oonseqnence of orders from the Court of Directors, bj 
whom it was pronounced unnecessary. They at the same 
time remarked, that as four-fifths of the cavalry consisted 
of native troops, with whose usages Colonel Gillespie, 
who had only been a short time in India, could not possi- 
bly be acquainted, the selection for the appointment, had 
it been required, ought to have been made from amongst 
the experienced officers of their own service. 

In April 1807 a depdt, for the instruction of young 
officers, and recruits of cavalry, was established at Aroot 
under the command of Captain Davidson, 4th regiment, 
but it was abolished in February 1808. 

The following scale of pensions to the several ranks of 
native cavalry was published in general orders of the 
13th May 1807, to have effect from the 1st January 1807 
in arrears for December 1806 :^ 

f First class 
Sabadar < Second do. 

LThird do. 
Jemadar ... 



Trooper or Trumpeter 



PAG. F. C. 


14 21 


4 21 


2 21 
1 21 


The body guard was discontinued as a separate corps 
from the 30th April 1808, and the native officers and men 


were ordered to be borne on the stre&gtii of tbe several CHAP. XIX. 
regiments. """ 

The regulation of 1802 regarding the provision and Hni^g 
maintenance of camp equipage having been abolished in 
May 1808^ hatting allowances on the foUowing scale were 
then granted to the native cavalry and infantry, for whom^ 
np to that time, officers commanding regiments and 
battalions had been bound, in consideration of a certain 
monthly allowance, to provide accommodation for their 
men when not in camp. 



Do. Jemadar 


\fA 111 IliWllV* J 



Do. Havildar 




Da Naig^e 




Do. Private 






Artillbbt^ 1806-9. 

Field offioen, ^^ ^^^ ^^^ August 1806, an additional Lieutenant- 
18^ Colonel^ and Major were posted to each battalion of 

artillery, the promotions to have effect from the 15th May 

General ^ *^® 1^*^ November the following order regarding 

^,??S™ M the employment on the staff of General Officers of Artil- 

eligiblefor * r; 

■feair emploj. lery and Engineers, was published to the army : — 

'' O.O.a.G., Fort WiUiam, Uth May 1806. 

'' The Honorable the Court of Birectord in their general 
letter to the (Jovemor-General in Council of the 12th July 
1805, have been pleased to confirm the general orders of the 
Oovemor-General in Council of 4ith August 1803, declaring 
officers of Artillery and Engineers, when promoted to the 
rank of General Officers, to be eligible,^ conformably to the 
existing reg^ations of the Honorable the Court of Directors, 
to be employed on the general stafE." 

These officers were, by the same order^ declared in- 
eligible for the command of their respective corps. 
Enliainnjoiits, . In February 1807 it was reported by the Conmiandant 
of artillery that ten privates had recently shot or other- 
wise injured themselves^ in order to obtain their discharge^ 
and that he attributed this conduct to the manner in which 
men had been enlisted during the last few years. The 
established period of service, up to the year 1800, had 
been five years, at the end of which men were entitled to 
bounty on re-enlistment; but the recruits recently received 
had been enlisted for long terms, viz., some for ten years, 
some for '' general service,^' without limitation of period, 

^ Ganoelled by the Court of DireotorB, Febroaiy 1814. 



and others as '' culprits ^' to serve for life^ but unaccom- CHAP. XIX. 
panied by any specification of crime or record of sentence. 
Many of these men declared themselves ignorant of the 
conditions of their enlistment^ and all were discontented 
at seeiug the payment of bounty to their short-service 

Government, at the instance of the Commander-in- 
Chief, agreed to recommend to the Court of Directors that 
these recruits should^ at the expiration of five years, 
be entitled to the same privileges as their comrades, and 
the Commander-in-Chief was requested to cause this 
resolution to be made known to the corps of artillery, 
and to the European regiments. 

During August it having been brought to the notice of Tomb-stonfla 
Government that a number of tomb-stones, which had J^ttMiea. 
been taken from St. Mary's Church daring the siege of 
Fort St. George in 1758, to be used as platforms in the 
batteries on the northern face, had remained there ever 
since, it was ordered that they should be replaced. 

A new scale of pensions for Golandauze was introduced Pensions to 
during the year, to have retrospective eflTect from the 1st 
January 1807 in arrears for December 1806. The follow- 
ing were the rates fixed : — i 







Drummer or Fifer 

Daring 1808 the artillery received 133 men from the Transfer 
Eegiment de Meuron, which called forth the following |^|^*rL{. 
remark from the Court of Directors in their general letter °^^^^ ^^^ 
dated 6th April 1809 :— 


. p. 0. 







7 40 





Stroogih of 
the aiiiUery, 




'' In oonsideraiion of ihe long and faithful servioes of the 
Begiment de Menron nnder the Britiah Goyemment in India, 
and of the deficient state of your artillery corps, we do not 
ohject to the transfer of a part of that regiment to the corps 
alluded to, notwithstanding our disinclination, on general prin- 
ciples, to any large proportion of foreigners being admitted 
into that corps." 

Besides the draft mentioned above^ 442 recraitfl were 
received from England daring the year, and a retom 
dated 12th November shows the strength of the artillery 
to have been as shown below : — 





Hone Artilleiy 

l8t BaUalion Artillery. 

2iid do. do. 







On the 15th March 1808, a Captain-lieutenant was 
attached to the squadron of Horse Artillery, and on the 
27th Janoaiy 1809, the establishmenlb was augmented, 
and denominated " The Corps of Horse Artillery.'^ It 
was to consist of three troops, viz., two of Europeans, and 
one of natives. The Captain and three Lieutenants were 
posted to the first troop ; the Captain-Lieutenant and three 
Lieutenants to the second troop ; and the third troop was 
to be commanded by a Lieutenant, with two other officers 
of that rank as Subalterns. The officer commanding the 
corps was vested with authority to impost the officers to 
troops from time to time, as he might consider bestlbr the 
public service. ^ 

In July another Captain-Lieutenant was appointed Y^ 
the corps, and the following detailed account of t^e 
establishment was published in general orders, viz : — \ 



1 Gaptain- Commandant. 

2 Captain-Lieutenants. 
9 Subalterns. 

1 Surgeon. 

1 Adjutant. 

1 Quartermaster. 

1 Serjeant-Major. 

1 Quartermaster Serjeant. 

1 Ridingmaster Serjeant. 

1 Drill Serjeant. 

4 Rough Biders, and 

1 Sub Assistant Surgeon. 


European Non^ Commissioned, Bank and File, 

9 Serjeants. 
4 Farriers. 
4 Trumpeters. 

9 Corporals. 
18 Gunners. 
142 Matrosses. 

Native Non-Commissioned, Bank and FUe, 

1 Subadar. 

2 Jemadars. 
4 Hayildars. 
4 Naigpes. 

Two I2-pounders. 
Two 5i^-inch howitzers. 
Ten 6-pounders with car 

70 Troopers. 

1 Pay Havildar. 

2 Rough Riders. 
5 Sallastries. 


16 Tumbrils. 
2 spare carriages. 
2 forge carts, and 
2 store carts. 


26 for Officers, 412 Regimental. 
The Adjutant, and Quartermaster non-effective. 







of Colonels, 

Abolition of 
from the 
Bazar Fund, 

Forage cap8« 

Fond, 1806. 

Edeopkan Infantry, 1806-9. 

In November 1806 it was notified to the army that 
Colonels in the Company's service would not, in future, 
be promoted to the rank of Major-General independently 
of the operation of promotions under the Royal Brevets. 

In June 1807^ it was announced that^ in conformity 
with orders received from the Court of Diredtors^ all sums 
collected on account of duties levied in military bazars 
would thenceforth be carried exclusively to the credit of 
(Government. The final payment to be made to officers 
commanding districtsj garrisons, cantonments, &o. to be 
for the period between the 12th July 1806, and 11th July 

About the end of the year it was ordered that the pat- 
tern of forage cap worn by the officers of H.M/s 59th 
regiment should be adopted by the European officers of 
the Company's infantry, including those attached to the 
native corps. 

In March 1808 the establishment of a Military Fund 
for the benefit of the officers of each branch of the army 
was authorised by Government, subject to the approval 
of the Court of Directors. 

The following is an abstract of the main points of the 
original regulations : — 

1. It was optional with officers to join the fund. 

2. Monthly stoppageSi at certain fixed rates, were to be 
made by Paymasters from the pay and allowances of sub- 

8. A donation, equal to a month's regimental pay, was 
payable by instalments, so that the whole amount should be 
liquidated either in six, twelve, or eighteen months at the 
option of the subscriber. 



Native Intantbt^ 1806-9. 

The following orders were issued in July^ August^ and 
September 1806 in consequence of the mutiny at Yellore : 

" 0,0, by Oovemm&rU.—Fart Saint George, 17ih July 1806. 

** It haying been represented to the Right Honorable the Canoelling 

Govemor in Council that considerable mtsunderstandincr has ^^^\. 

^ regarding 

occurred among some of the native corps of this establish- dress, 1806. 
ment with respect to a late alteration in the dress of the 
native corps; and it being in all cases the desire of His 
Lordship in Council, and of the Commander-in-Chief, to shew 
every just degree of attention to the usages of the native 
troops ; it has been in consequence resolved that the orders 
which have been considered liable to the objection of affecting 
these usages shall be rescinded." 

^^0.0, by the Commamder-in- Chief, '^OhouUry Plavn^ 

nth July 1806. 

** The Commander-in-Chief is pleased to cancel the 10th' 
paragraph of the 11th section of orders for " Battalions of 
Native Infantry" under date the 13th March 1806.'* 

On the 22nd August an order was published in which Native 
the Commander-in-Chief called the attention of all officers '*'^*™*fi^"* 
to the necessity of making themselves acquainted with 
the native languages^ and announced his determination 
not to recommend any officer for appointment to the stafl^ 
unless duly qualified in that respect. 

The order of 1801, by which the attachment of recruit Boy orderlies, 
boys to European officers as orderlies had been prohibited, 
was rescinded on this occasion for the following reason : 

" His Excellency has been induced to adopt this decision 
from the conviction that the advantage gained by the restric- 

1 Prohibitiog oaste-marks and earrings when in nniform. 





CHAP. XIX. tion of the boys to duties ' purely military ' has not balanced 

the injury the service has sustained by the loss of that &oility 
to the acquirement of a common language, and knowledge of 
native customs which their former attachment to the junior 
officers produced." 

On the 24th September^ a farther order, from which 
the following is an extract, was issued by Govemment on 
the subject of dress^ and marks of caste. 

'* The Bight Honorable the Oovernor in Council deeming it 
of the utmost importance that the intentions of the G-ovem- 
ment with regard to the dress and customs of the native 
troops should be exactly understood, and that all unauthorised 
alterations in the established pattern dress should cease, is 
pleased to issue the following orders. 

'* The order of Government under date the 15th March 
1797, fixing a pattern turband, shall continue to be in force. 
Leather cockades and plumes shall not be worn. Stocks of 
every description shall be abolished. 

" The jacket shall be worn as received from the contractor, 
without any additional ornament or distinction, and the half 
mounting shall in no particular differ from the pattern lodged 
in the office of the Military Board and already in use. 

'* The fullest permission shall be given to the native troops 
to wear their marks of caste at all times, and in any manner 
they think proper. The same full liberty shall be granted 
with respect to the hair on the upper lip, and the wearing of 
joys, and ornaments peculiar to different families, and castes. 
The imposition of any restraint, either by order, or by request, 
on the inclination of the sepoys in these particulars, is posi- 
tively forbidden. The Gt>vemor in Council also requires 
that every practicable indulgence shall be shown to the sepoy 
in the observance of his domestic customs.'* 

The existing arrangements of the native invalid esta- 
blishment were revised in November, with the view of 
enabling the men to serve in their native districts, and 
also with the object of territorial recruiting. 

Harks of 

Eevision of 
the invalid 



The number of companies was ordered to be Increased CHAP. XIX. 
to forty-six from the 1st Jannary 1807, Each company """^ 
'was to be considered as attached to an effective battalion^ 
and was to be permanently stationed in the district where 
that battalion had been raised. 

The companies were to recmit for their respective Territorial 
battalions^ and it was intended that when their connection ™^"" "^' 
had become fully established, the families of the batta- 
lions on field service should reside under the protection 
of the invalid companies under the superintendence of 
a European officer whenever practicable. The pay of 
sepoy invalids was raised at this time to the same amount 
as that of effective men, to have effect from the 1st Decem- 
ber 1806. 

The Commander-in-Chief was directed to publish the Stations 
detailed arrangements for the formation, allotment to oompanies, 
corps, and distribution to stations, of the companies of ^^* 
native invalids on the principle above mentioned, but 
this was not done until the 4th September 1807, when 
the following distribution was ordered : — 


Number of 

Battalions to which 

of companies. 


the companies are attached. 



2nd of 20th, 1st and 2nd 26th. 



2nd of 2nd. 



Ist of 12th. 



Ist of 8th. 



Ist of 8rd. 

Vellore and 
Amboor ... .^ 





1st of 4th and 2nd of 12th. 

Amee ... .-. 


2nd of 14th.. 



2nd of lOth. 



1st of 20th. 



2nd of 18th, 2nd of 24th. 



1st of eth, 1st of 18th, Ut of 16th, 
2nd of 22nd. 



Ist of 14th. 

Hamnad ... ... 



1st of 7th, 2nd of 16th. 



and public 

of the Ist 
and 23rd 

of the 24th 
and 26th 




Number of 

Battalions to which 

of companies. 


the companies are attached. 

Palamoottah and 

1 • 

2nd of 8rd, 2nd of 6th. 



Ist of 22nd. 

Ongpole and 

S ' 

2nd of 15th. 



1st of 17th. 



2nd of 7th, Ist of 15th. 



2nd of 9th, 2nd of 19th, Ist of 



2nd of 8th. 



Ist of 9th. 



2nd of llth. 



1st of 19th. 




1st of 21st. 



1st of llth, 2nd of 17th, 2&d of 




1st of 10th. 

Bellaiy and 

) - 

2nd of 18th. 

Gnddapah and 

I ' 

2nd of 6th. 



Ist of 18th. 



1st of 6th. 

Kistnagherry and 

1 ' 

2nd of 4th. 


Total Gompanies... 


1st of 2nd. 


The Quartermaster-G-eneral was vested with the general 
superintendence and direction of the corps of pioneers in 
November 1806, also with that of all pnblic cattle, of the 
corps of dooly bearers, and of all doolies and sick carts. 

On the 14th January 1807, the 1st and 23rd regiments 
were ordered to be struck off the list of the army from 
the 31st December 1806, on account of the mutiny of 
the 1st battalion of the former, and the 2nd battalion of 
the latter at Yellore in July 1806. 

Two regiments, numbered respectively the 24th, and 
25th, were formed to replace them. Such of the native 
officers and men of the 1st, and 23rd, as had been found 
free from any imputation of disaffection, or previous know- 


ledge of the mntiny, were retained in the service ; the CHAP. XIX. 
rest were discharged. The innocent men of the Ist batta- 
lion 1st were disposed of as follows : — 7 native officers^ isfc battalion 
17 havildars^ 19 naigaes, and 318 privates formed the ^^' 
nucleas of the 1st battalion 24th regiment; 18 havildars, 
8 naig^eSy and 87 privates were sent to the 2nd battalion. 
The 1st battalion was completed to the fall strength by 
transfers from the 2nd battalion late 1st regiment. 

The 1st battalion 25th regiment was composed of the ist battalion 
1st battalion 23rdj and the few well-affected men of the 
2nd battalion of the same. 

The European officers of the late 1st and 23rd regi- Baropean 
ments were posted to the Ist battalions of the 24th and ^^^^ 
25th regiments respectively, pending the formation of 
the 2nd battalions : the officers of the 1st going to the 
24th, and those of the 23rd to the 25th regiment. 

The 2nd battalion 24th was formed at Tanjore, in 2nd battalion 
March, of volunteers from the " Tanjore Provincial Bat- 
talion,'' a local corps commanded by Captain Butler, 
and then about to be disbanded. The officers and men 
having been allowed the privilege of entering the 24th 
with the benefit of their rank and service, the number 
who took advantage of the permission was so large that 
the battalion became known as '* Butler's,'' a name ^ 
which it still retains. 

The 2nd battalion 25th was formed at Madras in snd battalion 
March of volunteers from the " Madras Fencible Batta- ^^ 
lion," a corps which had been disembodied on the 27th 
February. The officers and men were allowed to enter 
the 25th on the same terms as those granted to the 
volunteers from the " Tanjore Provincial Battalion." 

1 The 17th regiment MJ7.I. The original 17th battalion was raised 
in 1777. It beoame the Snd battalion Ist at the reorganisation in 1796, 
and was inoorporated into the 1st battalion 24th in 1807 as mentioned 
in the text. 


OBAP. 3as. 


The posting of Earopeau officers to the 2iid battalions 
of the 24tli and 35tti took place on the 1st March, the 
former receiving half of those who had belonged to the 
old Ist, and the latter half of those who had belonged 
to the old 23rd regiment. 

On the 27th February 1807 a native adjutant was 
allowed for each battalion of pioneers. 

A new scale of pensions was sanctioned on the IStb 
Hay to have retrospective effect from the 1st January 
1807 in Arrears for December 1806. The following were 
the rates for native infantry, pioneers, guides and lasoars 
respectively ; — 

Ifatire lotaittf— riaa. r. c. 

,tSrat oUbb 10 

BabodftT ) Seuond do. 7 21 

'Third do. 6 


8 21 



1 2BdO 


1 21 






Chm Latoan and Fioneen— 



... 6 

Sjraag or Jemadar { aeocuid do. 

4 21 

1 Third 


3 21 40 



... 1 29 

Secxnid do. 



1 21 



Head Guide 


Second do. 





Store and Tent LMC*r»— 


8 21 


1 29 40 

Second do. 

... . 1 21 


... 10 



The tent contraet, which had been introduced in 1802, CHAP. XIX. 
was abolished in May 1808, and it was then determined Abolition 
that the establishment of camp equipage, lascars, and ^^J'^^***^ 
carriage for camp equipage, and regimental stores, should 1808. 
be permanently maintained at the public erpense. The 
Quartermaster-General was vested, under the orders and 
authority of the Commander-in-Chief, with the general 
charge, direction, and control of all establishments con- 
nected with camp equipage ; and a ^et of regulations for 
the guidance of the department was published in general 

The tents in use were made over to Government on the 
terms specified in the following order, dated 3rd May : — 

'' The Honorable the Qovemor in Council having resolved 
that the camp equipage maintained by Commanding Officers 
for the use of native corps shall be purchased by the public 
on the expiration o£ the existing contract, at valuations to be 
certified upon honor by those officers respectively, is pleased 
to order and direct that the tents attached to native corps 
shall be delivered over on the 31st instant to the officers of 
custody of Government, and charged for in bills supported by 
declarations upon honor," 

On the abolition of the regulation above mentioned, Hutting^ 
allowances ^ for hutting were granted to the several ranks ™°^®y' 
of the native army, for whom, up to that time, accommo- 
dation had been provided by Commanding Officers. 

In August 1808, Captain Conway, then Deputy Carriage of 
Adjutant-Greneral at Hyderabad, recommended that the ^^^ '* 
knapsacks of the sepoys, when on service, should be 
carried at the public expense in the same manner as 
those of the European troops. He stated that during 
long and severe marches numbers of men used to fall to 
the rear, and that many of those remaining in the ranks 

' For the scale of allowances see the account of Cavalry, 1806-9. 
VOL. III. 30 


CHAP. XIX. were jaded and fatigued by the weight they had to oarry^ 
which he estimated at 30 lbs. over and above that of arms 
and accoutrements. He remarked that ** the European 
soldier^ who is relieyed from this embarrassment^ is 
seldom known to fall in the rear, even on the longest 
marches or under the hottest sun/' This recommend- 
ation was supported by the Commander-in- Chief > but 
Oovemnfenty although admitting the advantage of such 
a measure, '' did not consider it expedient to issue any 
general order on the subject.^' However, a few years 
later, on the occasion of the formation of battalions of 
'' Light Infantry,^' and subsequently in the case of the 
'' Bifle Corps,'' orders were given that the knapsacks of 
the men of these oorps should be carried at the expense 
of Grovemment. 

Rednetioii, During June 1809 the establishment of privates on 

the strength of native battalions was reduced from 900 to 
800, but the troops serving with the Hyderabad subsi* 
diary force were kept up to the former number, 100 
being returned as supernumeraries. 

The two battalions of pioneers were reduced at the 
same time from 800 to 700 privates each. 







Whbn Lord Comwallis died at Ghazipoor in October CHAP. XX. 
1805, the Government devolved upon Sir George Hilaro ^^ JTh! 
Barlow as senior Member of Council in Bengal, and ^^^^^ 
in February 1806 he was appointed Governor-General 
by the Court of Directors, which was agreed to by the 
Board of Control as a temporary measure. 

This appointment, however, was revoked a few days 
afterwards by the Ministry, who did not approve of the 
policy of Sir George Barlow in regard to certain Native 
States, and, after some discussion and correspondence, it 
was determined to send out Lord Minto^ who arrived at 
Calcutta in July 1807. 

Sir George Barlow, who had been nominated Governor Beooaes 
of Madras as some compensation for his supersession, ^f uSm, 
reached that place in December, when that administration ^^^< 
commenced which has been described as a '' season ' of 
unprecedented private Tnieery, and unexampled public peril 
and ala/rm.*' 

During the time Sir George Barlow filled the office of His nnpopa. 
Governor-General, he not only failed ^ to obtain the defer- caiontta, 
ence and respect due to his station, but made himself ^^^^^- 
obnoxious by his despotic conduct in official matters, and 
his cold and repulsive manners in private life. 

On arriving at Madras the Gk>vemor found the conduct Ur. Shenon's 
of Mr. Sherson of the Civil Service under investigation. **■*• 

1 Wilson's History of British India, VoL I, page 236. 

2 Marahman'g History of India, Vol. II, page 286. 



CliAP. XX. The accounts o{ that gentleman had been reported correct 
by the Civil Auditor, but as they happened not to agree 
with the native accounts in the office. Sir G-eorge Barlow 
assumed that Mr. Sherson had been guilty of peculation, 
suspended both him and the Civil Auditor from the 
public service, and instituted a prosecution against the 
former in the Supreme Court. Mr. Sherson was acquitted, 
and the Court of Directors being of opinion that he had 
been improperly treated, they restored him to the service, 
and presented him with a donation of Bs. 70,000 as 

Reddy Rao's A Special Commission was engaged at this time in 
enquiring into the claims of the creditors of the late 
Nawaub of the Camatic, and the Commissioners had 
employed, as their adviser, a native named Beddy Bao, 
who had been in the Account Department of the Nawaub. 
During the investigation, Beddy Bao produced, for exami* 
nation, a bond held by himself, the validity of which was 
impeached by another creditor named Awadanum Paupiah, 
who supported the accusation by witnesses. The bond, 
however, was pronounced by the Commissioners to be 
genuine, and they resolved to prosecute the witnesses for 
perjury, but this intention was anticipated by the com- 
mitment of Beddy Bao on a charge of forgery. At this 
stage of the proceedings Sir George Barlow interposed his 
authority. He summarily dismissed the Magistrate who 
had committed Beddy Bao, and ordered the Advocate- 
Oeneral to defend the latter at his trial. Two gentlemen, 
viz., Mr. Parry, a respectable merchant, and Mr. Boebuck, 
one of the senior members of the Civil Service, were also 
punished for having opposed the Commissioners, i 
former by being deported to England, and the latter 
being removed to an inferior situation in the Northc 
Circars, where he died soon afterwards. 



Beddy Rao was found guilty before the Supreme Court, CHAP. XX. 
and it was subsequently discovered that he had been *"" 
concerned in the issue of other fabricated securities, and 
generally implicated in the frauds upon the Nawaub's 

The proceedings, in the matter of Mr. Sherson, as well 
as in that of the Camatic bonds, were marked by want 
of judgment, undue severity, and injustice, and in the 
case of Beddy Rao, Sir George Barlow committed the 
Government by *' throwing ^ the whole weight of his autho^ 
rity ^ into the same scale as aa^impostor and a cheat, ^* 

These occurrences did not tend to impress the public 
with any respect for the justice or moderation of the 

From the beginning of 1807^ if not from an earlier BiBoontent in 
period^ a spirit of discontent had existed among the I807.8. 
officers of the Madras array, of which the undermen- 
tioned appear to have been the principal causes, viz., the 
higher allowances granted to the officers of the Bengal 
army, and the undue proportion of commands which had 
been recently bestowed upon the officers of the Royal 
army. This feeling was aggravated by the discontinu- 
ance, in July 1807, of certain allowances paid to officers 
commanding distridts, stations, and cantonments, out of 
the duties levied in military bazars ; and by the abolition 
of the tent contract in May 1808. 

Although the mutiny, which broke out in May 1809, Examination 
cannot fairly be attributed to these grievances, but rather ^evances 
to the harsh and arbitrary measures of the Governor in complained 

> WiUon'B History of British India, Vol. I, pag^^44. 

' It was said that the Goyemment had been induced to support Seddy 
;ao on the representations of certain officials who had a lar^ interest 
\ the bond, and also in seyeral other claims preferred by Beddy Bao. 
-Marshes Review of some important Passages in the Administration 
' Sir G. H. Barlow, 1813, pages 210-15. 



CHAP. XX. Council, yet it may be well to describe the nature and 
extent of the former in order that the reader may esti- 
mate their reality and importance, and jndgo what degree 
of influence they may be supposed to haye exercised over 
the events of May. 

Digpwrityof The disparity between the allowances of the Bengal 
officers, and those of Madras, had always existed, and 
was justified by the Court of Directors in their letter of 
the Idth September 1809, when commenting on the several 
grievances set forth in a general memorial ^ addressed to 
them, which had been submitted by the Commander-in- 
Chief to the Madras Government on the 23rd January 
with his favorable recommendation, but which they had 
censured * and refused to forward. The following are 
extracts from that part of the Courtis letter treating of 
the disparity in question : — 

" In the different Presidencies of the Company in India, 
distinctions, have &om the beginning, subsisted in respect to 
emolomentB, and advantages (not only in the Military, but in 
every department) ; these distinctions have arisen from the 
comparative importance of the Presidencies themselves, and 
of the public business to be transacted under th^m." 

'* Thus Bengal, the first great territorial possession of the 
Company, had its establishments early settled with some 
analogy to its income, and that country, as being the seat of 
Oovemment, the centre of the British interests in India, came 
to have a standard of public allowances which could not be 
exactly imitated at the other Presidencies under very different 

1 ** Although the addxess of the officers is not yet before ns in ar- 
authenticated form, we think it proper to take the present opportnn 
to make some observations upon the topics contained in it.** 

* On the 22nd March 1809 Goyemment informed the Commander-: 
Chief that no officer who had signed the memorial was to be appoint 
to the Staff until further orders. 


" The persons nomioated to Ciyil and Military employments CHAP. XX, 
have entered the services perfectly aware of these ineqnali- " 

ties, and are therefore not entitled to expect that they shonld 
be afterwards removed." 

" The Company have hence always resisted the idea of a 
general equalisation of allowances and emoluments of the 
different Presidencies as not founded on right ' or reason, or 
the nature of things. Supposing for a moment that such a 
principle could be admitted and enforced, the consequencCy 
in the present state of the finances of the Company, must be to 
reduce the few remaining distinctions of the Bengal Presidency 
to a level with those of Madras, and Bombay, as it would be 
utterly impossible to provide for the expense of raising the 
emoluments of the inferior Presidencies to a level with those 
of Bengal, extended, as this rise must be, to all the Civil as 
well as Military branches of the service, if once the principle 
of equalisation were adopted." 

" In all the Presidencies, however, the scale of allowances 
has been more than sufficient for oomfortable subsistence, and,, 
in the case of all the privates and non-commissioned officers 
of the army, the rates have been at all times very generally 
the same at all the Presidencies. The regimental allowances 
of both officers and men are very nearly the same at all the 
Presidencies, and, wherever mere comfortable subsistence is 
concerned, it has been the object of the public regulations, at 
all times to approximate as nearly to an equality of allow- 
ances as the. local circumstances of each Presidency have 

'* But staff, and other extra allowances rest upon a different 
foundation. They are gratuitous advantages conferred on 
individuals at the pleasure and discretion of Qovemment, and 
are calculated, not with regard to what other men receive who 

1 As the eqnaliBation of pay and allowanoea had been xeoommended 
by Lord Comwallis, and sabseqnently both by the Commander-in-Chief 
ind the Government of Madras, it is not surprising that the contuined 
sxistenoe of the disparity should have been considered as a griora&oe — 
vide Volume II, pages 282, 286, 295, 296. 




of oommands 
and staff 

Command of 
the troops in 
Fort Saint 

ship of the 

may perhaps perform similar services in other places, but in 
reference to the means of the governing power, and the view 
which it may take of the merits and services of the receiver." 

The second grievance specified above was really sub- 
stantial^ and although it had been animadverted upon 
by the Court of Directors on more than one occasion, 
no steps had been taken by the Madras Government to 
remove it. The undermentioned extracts from a letter 
of the Court, dated 12th June 1807, will show that the 
partiality complained of existed, at that time, to a very 
serious extent. 

After observing that the just pretensions of both ser- 
vices ought to be duly regarded, the Court proceeded 
to remark upon tbe objectionable manner in which the 
patronage of Government and of the Commander-in- 
Chief had, in several instances, been exercised. 

With respect to the special appointment of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Monypenny, H.M/s 73rd, to the command of 
the troops in Fort St. George, with a staff salary, they 
observed that, in conformity with the usual practice, the 
command devolved upon the senior officer at the Presi- 
dency, who was bound to perform the duties without any 
additional allowance, and for these reasons they directed 
the immediate discontinuance of the appointment. 

The nomination of Lieutenant Hall, H.M.'s 22nd 
dragoons, to be Paymaster to the Subsidiary Force at 
Hyderabad, called forth the following censure : — 

"The Subsidiary Force at Hyderabad consists of about 
7,000 men, mostly native troops, and its annual expense 
amounts to several lacs of pagodas. The office of Paymaster 
to this corps must therefore be considered as of equal impor- 
tance with that of any of the fixed stations of the army, an 
in this view it should have been filled by a Civil Servant of th* 
higher ranks, in the same manner as the paymasterships ^ 
Mysore, Vellore, Trichinopoly and Vizagapatam." 



They went on to say that the Governor, Lord William OHAF. XX. 
Bentinck^ in a minnte dated 3rd March 1805, had recom- 
mended that paymasterships should be held by Captains 
of not less than ten years' service, notwithstanding which 
he had appointed a Subaltern of H.M/s service, who had 
only been a few months in India, to be Paymaster of a 
large force, and they concluded by remarking that they 
had '' seldom met with an instance of so much inconsis- 
tency as is displayed in this appointment. We object to 
it, not only on this account, but also for the general ' 
reasons assigned above, and we direct that it be instantly 
annulled. No stronger proof can be adduced of the 
impropriety of the preference to which we have alluded, 
than the present inatance. The Subsidiary Force, being 
composed chiefly of native troops, naturally pointed out 
the Company's officers, who had been accustomed to serve 
with such troops, as most proper to fill the staff offices 
annexed to the detachment/' 

The appointment of Inspector and Exercising Officer Appointment 
of cavalry, which had been recently created and con- ofi^yairv/ 
f erred upon Lieutenant-Colonel Gillespie, H.M/8 19th 
dragoons, with considerable emoluments attached thereto, 
was ordered to be discontinued forthwith as unnecessary, 
and the Court observed that had such an office been really 
required, it Qught to have been given to one of the 
Company's old and experienced officers of cavalry, in 
preference to one who had only been a short time in India ; 
more especially as four-fifths of that branch of the army 
were natives. 

The Court then proceeded to remark that the com- DiWslpnai 
mands at Hyderabad and Poonah, of Mysore, and of Mala- ^^^g?" 
bar ; besides those of most of the regular garrisons, such 
as Vellore, Arcot, Poonamallee, and Seera, were enjoyed 
by officers of the Royal army ; and they concluded their 
despatch as follows : — 

VOL. in* 31 


CHAP. XX. '^ Haying thna bronglit nnder your notice seyeral instances 
The Co~pt ^ which we conceive that an nn just preference has been shown 
of Directora to the King's officers at the expense of the Company's, and 
the unjuet particularly in situations where the superior local knowledge of 
preference the latter, and their acquaintance with the manners, customs, 
officers of the ^^^ prejudices of the natives, pointed them out as the fittest 
^^al army, ^ |j^ employed ; we have only to repeat that while on the one 
hand we disclaim any intention of throwing any reflection on 
the character of the individuals so selected by you, and are 
ready to acknowledge to the fullest extent the meritorious 
services of His Majesty's forces in India, we feel it our boxm- 
den duty, on the other hand, to guard the interests of our own 
officers. Their claims upon our countenance and protection 
are strong, and indisputable, their exertions have been great, 
and their services zealous and faithful. Our interests must 
suffer materially from any want of harmony and cordiality 
between the two descriptions of officers, and we know of no 
circumstance more likely to produce that injurious effect than 
an undue preference of either. The exigencies of the public 
service may, unquestionably, justify occasional and temporary 
deviations from the principle we have laid down, but we are 
so fully persuaded that a fair adherence to it is so easy, and 
the path to be followed so plain and obvioujs, that we desire 
it to be distinctly and explicitly understood that we shall 
consider a different line of conduct on the part of any of our 
Governments or Commanders-in-Chief to be so highly excep- 
tionable, as to demand the strongest expression of our censure, 
and disapprobation." 
Abolition The discontinuance of the allowances from the Bazar 

allowances i^T^d was justified by the Court as being in strict con- 
B^'^^'tocl formity with the Articles of War, *' which prohibit the 
1807. levy of duties by Military officers on any articles of con- 

sumption^ and is evidently founded on the most incon- 
trovertible principles of sound policy. It is not politic to 
give oflicers an interest in the amount of imposts levied 
on military markets, because it has an evident tondency 
to make the soldiers discontented with thoir officers^ by 


feeling themselves taxed for tHe benefit of those who • CHAP. XX. 
command them. It is farther to be observed that in 
India the amonnt of the collections in military bazars has 
always depended^ principally, on the extension of spirita- 
ous liquors to the troops/' 

Moreover^ the abolition of this allowance was not con- This abolition 
fined to Madras, but was carried out in the other Presi- ^"^ 
dencies also, and it affected the ofllcers of the Boyal army 
as well as those of the Company. 

The officers having pre-faced their memorial with com* UnreaBonabfo 
plaints of the length and severity of the service to be ^™^ *™ '* 
endured in a foreign land before becoming entitled to 
pension, and having spoken of their pay and allowances 
as being scarcely adequate to their subsistence, the Court 
very justly observed that no one entered their service, 
bat on their own application, and with fall knowledge of 
their probable prospects ; and they concluded their reply 
on that part of the subject with the following words : — 

" They snrely forget that the military allowances of the Reply of 
Company are higher than those of any military service in the 
world, although the necessaries of life are comparatively cheap 
in India ; that they attain the highest rank without purchase 
or expense ; and that the provision for retiring officers is 
snch as no other service has ever afforded, and snch as the 
finances of the Company are ever strained to support." 

Lieutenant-Oeneral Stuart, when Commander-in-Chief, Estabiisfa- 
devised a plan for the provision and conveyance of camp tent -contract, 
equipage, and regimental stores, with the object of avoid- ^®^- 
ing the serious losses which had been sustained by Qov- 
emment in consequence of the frequent capture of public 
cattle and tents during the wars with Hyder and Tippoo. 

This resulted in the issue of a regulation in 1802, 
which, in consideration of a certain monthly sum to be 
drawn by officers commanding regiments of cavalry, 
battalions of infantry, companies of artillery, and the 



CHAP. XX. * corps of pioneers^ made it obligatory upon them to provide 
and maintain^ in constant readiness for the fields camp 
eqnipag^ and carriage for their respective corps on a 
scale laid down in the regulation, besides carriage for 
regimental stores, and hutting accommodation for the 
men when not encamped. The allowance in question was 
to meet all expenses for cover to the native troops in the 
field, in cantonment, or in garrison, in peace or war. 

This regulation came into operation shortly before 
the Mahratta War of 1808, and was found to answer 
remarkably well; but shortly after the peace in 1806, 
Government, in compliance with instructions from Eng- 
land, commenced to reduce the military expenditure^ 
and Sir John Gradock, at that time Commander-in-Chief, 
called upon Major Munro, the Quartermaster-General, 
for information regarding the working of the tent con- 
tract. That officer accordingly submitted a report, in 
which, for reasons assigned, the abolition of the contract 
was recommended, and the Commander-in-Chief, concur- 
ring, laid the report before Government in June 1807. 
The recommendation, having been duly considered, was 
approved, and, having received the sanction of the 
Supreme Government, the contract was ordered to be 
abolished from May 1808. 

This change was adverse to the interests of commanding 
officers, inasmuch as it was made during a time of peace, 
when the wear and tear of camp equipage being trifling, 
they expected to have had the opportunity of reimbursing 
themselves for the expenses incurred during the long and 
trying campaigns from 1808 until 1806, being debarred by 
the terms of their contract from soliciting any special 
compensation, although they did receive a gratuity of six 

months' batta in common with all other officers of the 


army in the fiield, to whom it had been granted at the 

Abolition of 
the tent 


recommendation of Major-General Wellesley at the close CHAP. XZ. 
of the campaign of 1804. Nevertheless^ the new order 
was quietly carried oat withont remonstrance beyond that 
contained in the memorial mentioned above, and in a 
separate memorial signed by a number of officers in com- 
mand of corps, which was forwarded by the Commander* 
in-Chief on the 28th January 1809, but returned to him 
by Gx>vemment. 

In all probability the matter would then have been Charge 
dropped had it not been that the Quartermaster-General's ^^rmas- 
report, marked ** private and eonfiderdial" and which had t«r-Q«neraL 
been given by Sir George Barlow to Colonel Capper, 
the Adjutant-General, came, in some unauthorised,^ and 
unexplained manner, to be circulated to officers command- 
ing corps, who immediately took serious offence at one of 
the arguments used therein, viz., that the grant of the 
same allowances in peace and in war, placed the interests 
and duties of commanding officers at variance with each 
other. The result was that the following charge, signed by 
five commandants of cavalry, and twenty-three of infantry^ 
was preferred against Lieutenant-Colonel John Munro, 
Quartermaster-General of the Army, and Captain in the 
Madras European Regiment : — 

'* For baring • • • made use of false and 

infamous insinuations, thereby tending to injare our charac- 
ters SB officers, and otherwise injurious to our reputations as 

* It is difficult to avoid the conclosion that the Qnartermaster-GieDe- 
ral's report waa cironlated by some person or persons in office, with the 
intention of making mischief. 

It is stated in Kaje's Life of Sir John Malcolm, Vol. I, page 460; that 
the obnozions paragraphs were cironlated by Colonel Capper. No 
authority is given for this statement, and nothing tending to corroboraie 
it has been found in the records. Sach a proceeding on the part of 
Colonel Capper would have been a legitimate reason for his suspension, 
and wonld certainly have been mentbned by Sir George Barlow had he 
known of it. 


CHAP. XX. This charge^ although dated on the 25th September 
Hia arrest, 1808, had been kept in abeyance until the 20th January 
1809. 1809, on whioh day Lieutenant-Oolonel Munro was placed 

in arrest by order of Lientenant-Oeneral Hay Macdowall, 
the Commander-in-Chief, who, at the same time, informed 
the Colonel that he regretted 'Hhat this subject has not 
been sooner decided upon, but being desirous of obtaining 
every opinion, and a recent one of some importance having 
only been forwarded to me a few days ago, it was impos- 
sible to avoid delay/' It never became known what this 
opinion was, but it is not improbable that an occurrence 
which took place at Madras at this time may have had 
some influence on the decision of the Commander-in-Chief. 
Bxupicions Government having determined to employ Major 

thlT^axse' Blacker, then Deputy Quartermaster-General, on special 
duty in Travancore, acquainted the Commander-in-Chief 
with their intention on the 15th January. General Mac- 
dowall, in reply, requested that the subject might be 
reconsidered, because the selection of an officer from the 
general staff ought to have been left to his judgment, 
and he therefore recommended Captain Macdowall for 
the situation as being equal to Major Blacker in point 
of ability, while he was Superior to that officer in the 
knowledge of the people and country of Ti'avancore. On 
the 16th, Government wrote to the General declining to 
accept his nomination of Captain Macdowall, and, on the 
20th, Lieutenant-Colonel Munro was placed under arrest, 
by which measure the employment of his Deputy in Tra- 
vancore was necessarily precluded. It is possible that the 
proposed employment of Major Blacker may have been 
unconnected with the arrest of Lieutenant- Colonel Munro, 
but the circumstances have a suspicious appearance, espe- 
cially when it is remembered that the charges had been 
shelved, and that no satisfactory reason was assigned for 
their sudden revival. 


Colonel Munro appealed to Government through the CHAP. XX. 
Military Department, on the ground that his report had (Colonel 
been prepared by order of the late Commander-in-Chief, ^J*"^^ 
and was a confidential communication. General Macdowall 
haying refused to forward the appeal, the Colonel sent 
it in direct. Government, after having consulted their 
legal advisers,^ requested the Commander-in-Chief to re- 
lease Colonel Munro, and as he declined to do so without 
a positive order, Government, on the 27th January, did, 
through their Chief Secretary, direct that Colonel Munro 
should be released from arrest forthwith, which order 
was obeyed accordingly. The General, who, a few days General 

ii-i ji_*«j.j.«j. • J MacdowaU 

previously, had announced his intention to resign, and leaves 
who sailed from Madras to Negapatam on the 30th Janu- ^^^^^ 
ary on his voyage to England, was so much annoyed at 
having been overruled by Government, that he left, for 
publication to the army, an order dated the 28th idem, 
in which Colonel Munro was severely reprimanded for 
having appealed to the civil power, '' an act of disrespect 
for which he would have been brought to trial had General 
Macdowall remained in India.'' 

Government, on becoming acquainted with this order. His 
directed that it should be expunged from the public J^tio^^ed 
records ; but not contented with this, they anticipated the ^7 dismissal, 
expected receipt, from Negapatam, of the Commander-in- 
Chiefs official resignation, and publicly dismissed him, on 
the ground that the order of the 28th January contained 

^ It was afterwards said that the officers who preferred the charge 
had, in oooseqaenoe of the opinion of the Judge Adyocate-General, 
requested io their separate memorial forwarded by the Commander-in- 
Chief on the 28th Jannaiy, that the prosecution of Colonel Munro might 
be postponed. General Macdowall was consequently censured for having 
continued the arrest. This censure, however, was undeserved, inas- 
much as it appears on record that a number of officers who had signed 
the charge had never seen the memorial in question. Amongst these 
were Lieutenant-Colonels the Honorable A. Sentleger, Sumley, and 
Martin, to whom the conduct of the prosecution had been entrusted. 




of the 
General and 
his Deputy. 

Kajor Boleft 
deolines to 

Approval of 
the Supreme 

^' insinaations grossly derogatory to the character of the 
G-ovemment, and sabversive of military discipline, and 
of the foundation of public authority.'^ 

Major Boles, Deputy Adjutant-General, who had signed 
the order in the absence of his principal, Lieut. -Colonel 
Capper, who had accompanied General Macdowall on 
board ship, was suspended from the service for having 
knowingly acted in direct violation of his duty to the 
Government, by giving currency to an order of so ofFen- 
sive a character. Colonel Capper,^ who, on his return, 
had immediately avowed himself to be responsible for 
the circulation of the order, was suspended on the Ist 

Major-General Gowdie of the Madras army, a respect- 
able, but by no means brilliant officer, who succeeded 
General Macdowall as the next senior, caused it to be inti- 
mated to Major Boles that provided he would express any 
adequate regret for his conduct, he should be restored 
to the service, and reinstated in his office. Major Boles 
having declined to make any acknowledgment tending 
to show that he had been in the wrong, his refusal was 
made the subject of a fresh complaint against him, but 
he was afterwards publicly exonerated by the Court of 
Directors from all blame on that account. 

The proceedings in the matter of the Commander-in- 
Chief, and his Stafif were reported to the Supreme Govern- 
ment on the 3rd February, and the memorial of the 
officers to the Court of Directors was forwarded " for the 
sentiments of His Lordship '' by the same opportunity. 

The Governor-General in Council, in their reply dated 
20th February, expressed their entire approbation of the 
whole of the proceedings of the Madras Government, and 

^ Colonel Capper and General Macdowall were both lost at sea in 
March 1809, when on the royage to England. 


condemned tlie conduct of Greneral MacdowalL They CHAP. XX. 
pronounced the memorial to be disrespectful in its tenor, 
and they approved of the resolution not to forward it 
The Supreme Government went on to encourage Sir 
George Barlow to ^' repress the spirit of insubordination 
which prevailed in some portions of the army of Fort St. 
George/' and assured him of their fullest support. 
Although the suspension of Major Boles was not specially 
mentioned in this letter, it must be presumed to have 
been included in the general approval. 

Nevertheless, it appears that Lord Minto heard of the Lord Minto'i 
suspension of Colonel Capper and Major Boles " with the o^^on of the 
greatest * possibl-e regret/* and that he foresaw the wwpenwons. 
consequences which would follow that ^^ most unfortunate 
and imipoUtic measure.^^ He abstained from reversing 
it, partly because he did not wish to " put Sir Oeorge in 
the wrong on any point/' and partly because he thoaght 
the suspension justifiable in a legal ' point of view. 

The astuteness evinced by Sir George Barlow in a passage in 
obtaining the unqualified support of the Supreme Gov- ^^» ^i^^ 
emment on an " ex parte " representation was further ^?'*^®' 

^ Lord Minto in India, pages 209-211. 

* The weight of opinion, even at the tiiAe, was against the legality 
of the suspension. General Maitland, then Governor and Commander- 
in-Chief in Ceylon, vindicatM the coarse followed by the staff officers ; 
and several other officers of ezperienoe, and distinction, dwelt npon 
the impolicy of encouraging officers to debate npon the propriety of 
orders issued by their snperiors, or upon the relative powers of different 

The Court of Directors, on hearing of the suspension, immediately 
ordered that it should be removed, but they rescinded this order on being 
led to believe that Major Boles had permitted himself to be made a 
rallying point for dangerous doctrines. However, on being disabused of 
this impression, they recorded their opmion in February 1811, to the 
effect that%hey '' covXd not discover any such inherenJb or ohvioua illegal* 
ity OB c(yuld justify the Adjutant or Deputy Aa^utam^t-Oeneral in reusing 
to obey the command they had received from Lieutenant-General Mac- 
dowali that the said order should be circulated to the army,** 

VOL. m. S2 


OELAP. XX. exemplified by his conduct towards Major Boles after his 
suspension. That officer, finding himself in difficulties in 
consequence of the loss of his allowances, applied for 
permission to go to England in the Sir Stephen Lushing' 
ton, the last ship of the season^ which was expected to sail 
from Madras about the end of February. This appli- 
cation was refused^ on the ground that the nature of the 
service upon which that vessel was about to be employed, 
rendered it improper that Major Boles should proceed 
by that opportunity. The &ict was, that Government, at 
the suggestion of Sir Oeorge Barlow, had determined to 
send the Chief Secretary, Mr. Buchan, to England by the 
Lushington ^' as possessing a correct knowledge of the 
course of the late events,'' in other words, that he might 
gain the ear of the Court of Directors, an object which 
might not have been accomplished, had Major Boles 
arrived in England at the same time. 
iHflapproval The Court afterwards expressed their disapprobation 
4rf DirM^m. ^^ *^® manner in which Major Boles had been treated. 

" You do not assign any special cause except the nature of 

the service on which that ship was to be employed. We are 

not aware however that there could have been any objection 

to his being allowed to take his passage in the Luahvngtonf 

and we think this refusal imposed upon him an unnecessary 


DiBcontent of It seems desirable that the circumstances, which caused 

mwid^in- *^® dissatisfaction of the Commander-in-Chief, and led to 

Chief. ]xig glial differences with Government, should be described 

in this place, as they were not without influence on the 
events which followed. 

Lieutenant-GeneralHay Macdowall, whohadbeenonthe 
staff of the Madras Establishment since 1804, succeeded 
Sir John Cradock in September 1807. Up to that time, a 
seat in Council, with a handsome additional aUowance 
attached thereto, had, almosfc always, beep held by the 



Commander-in-Chief; but upon this ocoasion the Court of CHAP. XX. 
Directors thought fit to depart from the usual practice, 
and they nominated a civilian to fill the vacant office ; not 
from any personal objection to General Macdowall, but 
because they had resolved that in future the Commander- 
in-Chief should not be a member of Government, a 
resolution which they aEfcerwards found it expedient to 
rescind. The General naturally felt aggrieved by his un- 
expected exclusion from, a situation of dignity and 
emolnmentf and this feeling seems to have led him to 
sympathize with the several complaints of the officers 
more fully than might otherwise have been the case. 

This sympathy, however, was not expressed in any 
objectionable form until about the end of 1808, when 
disturbances broke out in the province of Travancore» and 
a plan of operations was determined upon by Govern- 
ment without consulting ^ the Commander-in-Chief, who 
becam'e so much irritated in consequence, that he appears 
to have placed little restraint upon his words or actions 
from that time^ and he showed his resentment in a manner 
which could scarcely iaSL to produce a bad effect upon 
the discipline of the army. 

In a speech made to the Madras European Begiment on inflamma- 
the occasion of inspecting it at Masulipatam on the 24th ^''sai^ef^ 
December 1808, he observed that the regiment had been Begunent, 
overlooked and neglected by haying been stationed in 
a remote part of the country where it had no opportunity 
of being exercised with other troops ; notwithstanding 

^ Qeneral ICaodow&ll having oompkuned of this in ^ letfcer to Goyem- 
ment dated 19th Jannary 1809, a reply was made on the 28rd idem in 
which it is oet forth that the Commander-in-Chief- had been at a oondd- 
erable distance from the Presidency when the discnssion of the plan of 
a campaign commenced, bn t that His Excellency had been f amiBhed with 
copies of all material papers connected with the subject from time to 
time, and with the least possible delay. No rejoinder to this explana- 
tion has been found. 







Order oeiunir- 
ing Colonel 

in the army. 

which disadvantage he had foandit to be in a high state 
of discipline. He then proceeded as follows : — 

" I know that this state of inactivity most be painfal to the 
feelings of honourable gentlemen and officers, and painfal to the 
feelings of brave soldiers — indeed I am at a loss to know the 
reason for this neglect." 

The General^e fareweU order to the army dated 25th 
January 1809, was also objectionable as containing a 
passage tending to convey the idea that his ezclnsion from 
Council ' had been the means of preventing him from 
ejBSciently advocating the interest^ of the officers. 

^'Had Lieutenant-Oeneral Macdowall succeeded to the 
high and enviable office with all the advantages enjoyed by 
his predecessors, he would, upon first assuming the command^ 
have promulgated his sentiments on so flattering an event ; 
but the circumstauces of his appointment were so humilia- 
ting and unpropitious that he declined addressing the army, 
in the anxious hope that the Court of Directors, might, on 
further deliberation, be induced to restore him to his rights, 
and by altering the new and extraordinary form of Oovem» 
ment, have enabled him to exercise the Amotions of his station 
as the Representative of the Army, with honor to the service^ 
and with credit to himself — ^no prospect of suoh an ocourrenoe 
appearing at all probable ; in justice to the army, and to his 
character, he has determined to retire." 

This was followed by the order of the 28th January 
mentioned above, in which Colonel Monro was repri- 
manded for having appealed to tine GovemHient against 
his arrest^ and in which the Govemm^ut w^^ censured 
by implication. 

The summary punishment of Colonel Capper tfnd Major 
Boles created great excitement and disgust throughout 

> Lord Minto in ftdverting to a letter «f Odneribl Maodowall dated 
Igt May iSOS, obeerred that it manifested ** the deUberate intention ai 
the General to make the army an instrument of oppoeition and difltnrb- 
anoe." lietter to the Secret Committee, 5th Febmary ISIO. 


the army. It was maintained that the illegality of the OHAP. XX* 
order of the 28th January was by no means evident^ in 
which case alone^ could these officers have been justified 
in refusing to issue it. It was also thought that they 
had the same claim to immunity as had been accorded 
to Colonel Munro, and they were consequently regarded 
as the victims of an unjust and vindictive resentment. 
Colonel Capper had left India immediately after his sus- 
pension^ but Major Boles received addresses from sever- Address to 
al quarters in which he was apprised of the intention of ^^^^^ ^'"*- 
his brother officers to organise a fund for his support. 
Had they confined themselves to this intimation little 
exception could have been taken^ but they denounced 
the punishment as *^ severe and unmerited^^' and ended 
by saying that ''such mutual support must be expected 
and accepted by all, who, like yourself , have^ or may, 
suffer through any such exceptionable measures on the 
part of the Civil Government of Fort St. George, as have 
rendered necessary the painful step we have now Jtaken.^' 

Early in February a memorial was secretly prepared Pr(q>osfd 
for transmission to the Supreme Government, o£ which SengaL 
the following is an abstract. After complaining of the 
exclusion ^ of the Commander-in-Chief from Council, the 
release of Colonel Munro, and the suspension of Colonel 

^ The phrase " Beprea^ntaUve of the Army" used with reference to 
the Commander-in-Chief, was derided by the Goremor-Gkmeral, and 
by the Court of Directors ; and many paragraphs were written to prove 
it absurd and inapplicable. It was justly remarked that the subject 
was beyond tiie proTinoe of the officers, but the other criticisms were 
more specious than sound, for it seems certain that matters oonneoted 
with the well being and comfort of the army are likely to be more fully 
and intelligently dealt with when the Commander-in-Chief possesses 
a seat in Council, than when that body is composed excludTcly of 
Civilians* Moreover it is manifest from the subsequent action of the 
Court that ihej were sensible of the error which had been committed 
when they appointed a successor to Sir Jdhn Cradock without nomi- 
nating him to be a Member of the Goyemment. 





Sir George 
prepares to 
punish all 
in the pre- 
paration of 
the memorial 
and address. 

Capper and Major Boles^ the memorialistB observed that 
the general discontent produced by local and partial 
injuries had been falsely represented as public disaffec- 
tion, and they concluded by observing that they " could 
not suppress the expression of their concern at the 
manner in which the exclusive rights of the army have 
recently been violated, and of their sang^ne hope and 
earnest entreaty that the Supreme Government may, in 
its wisdom, be induced to appease their just claims, and 
to anticipate the extreme crisis of their agitation by 
releasing them from a ruler^ whose measures, guided by 
the councils of their implacable enemies, are equally 
detrimental to ' the interests of the 8tat«, as they are 
repulsive to the feelings of a loyal and patriotic army.'' 
The circulation of this memorial was almost entirely con- 
fined to the officer^ in'Travancore, and in the Southern 
Division, and the intention of forwarding it was aban- 
doned about the itniddle of March, when the general indig- 
nation had begun to subside. 

Shortly afterwards, a copy of this document was re- 
ceived by Sir George Barlow through a private channel 
which he declined to reveal, and although perfectly 
aware ^ that all idea of transmitting it to Bengal had been 
given up, he nevertheless prepared to punish all those 
concerned in signing and promoting the circulation of 
the paper as soon as he could discover them. About the 

^ *' As I had reason to belieFe that the apirit <^f d4$affeet%oM was not 
gaining gr<ywnd in the army, it did not appear that any danger 

incurred by waiting for fuller proof as to the individuals who had been 
oonoemed in signing and promoting the oircolation of this paper.* * * 
The information indeed, which I have lately received, affords mfsry 
TBoaon to helievB thai this ii^ienUon is almost, if not whoUy aboMloiisd i 
but if it were certain that the parties oonoemed in franking the paper 
wqnld now sappre9s it, the most solemn obligation^ of our pnblie 
duty would demand that we shoold adopt snoh measures regatding it, 
as the nature of it obviously requires."— iftffi»te, Xst May 1808. 


same time lie became acquainted with the existence of the chap. xx. 
addresses to Major Boles^ regarding which no secrecy had 
been sought to be obserred. 

On the 1st May, after having maturely considered the His reoom. 
whole subject. Sir George Barlow laid a minute before 
the Council, in which he recommended that the under- 
mentioned officers should be punished for their several 
shares, active and passive, in these transactions, viz. : — 

Lieutenant-Colonel the Honorable A. Sentleger, Major 
John DeMorgan, Captain Josiah Marshall, and Captain 
James Grant, to be suspended pending the decision of the 
Court of Directors. 

The dismissal of Lieutenant-Colonel G. Martin, who had 
gone to England, to be recommended to the Court. ^ 

Lieutenant-Oolonel Robert Bell to be removed from 
the command of the artillery pending the decision of the 

Lieutenant-Colonel Chalmers, commanding in Tra- 
vancore, Lieutenant-Colonel Cuppage Adjutant-General, 
and Captain Coombs Assistant Quartermaster-General 
in Mysore, to be removed from their respective appoint- 
ments and to rejoin their corps. 

Captain Smith 2nd battalion 14th, Major Keasbury 
2nd battalion 9th, Major Muirhead 2nd battalion 18th, 
and Major Hazlewood 1st battalion 24th regiment, to be 
superseded in their respective commands, for not having 
exerted themselves to maintain proper discipline. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Bumley, commanding at Bangalore, to be 
removed to the 7th cavalry at Arcot, his conduct having 
been unsatisfactory. 

These recommendations were agreed to in Council, OiHoera 
and the suspensions and removals were published in a without trial 
General Order dated 1st May. Several of the officers o^joppp^f^o- 

nity ox 

named above denied having had any thing to do with the defence, 
obnoxious documents, but all were summarily punished 





in mutiny. 

on the strength of private information^ not only without 
trial, but without having been allowed the opportunity 
of ofEering any defence. Colonel Robert Bell of the artil- 
lery, a most respectable officer, positively denied having 
had any thing- to do with the paper the circulation of 
whioh he was said to have promoted, and this denial 
was supported by the statements of the whole of the 
officers at the Mount, twenty-nine in number. The 
denials of some officers were not so satisfactory. 


No sooner had the order of the 1st May become public 
than the great majority of the officers placed themselves 
in.j>ppoBition to Government, an attitude from which, at 
several stations, viz., Hyderabad, Jaulna, MasulipatKm, 
SamulcottfiA, EUore, Chicacole, Ghittledroog, and Sering- 
apatam, they speedily passed into actual mutiny. 

Events at Htdbrabad. 

The order having contained favorable notice of the con- 
duct of the force at Hyderabad,^ the officers repudiated 
the compliment, and issued an address to the army on the 
18th, in which they condemned the action of Govomment, 
and announced their resolution to contribute towards the 
support of the suspended officers, as well as to join in 
any legal measures calculated to remove the cause of the 
existing discontent. This was followed by a letter to the 
Governor in Council, forwarded on the 23rd June, and 
bearing the signatures of 158 officers, including those of 
the brigades * at Jaulna. In this letter it was asserted 

^ Colonel T. G. Montresor, H.M.'s 82nd dragoons, Oommanding. 

H.M'b 83rd regiment, 6 oompMiies Madras artiUeiy, Ist regiment 
cayaliy ; 2iid battalion 5th, 2nd battalion lOtli, lat battalion iGth, 2xid 
battaHon 2lBt, and detachment pioneers. 

' Lienteuant-Golonel John Doreton, Madras catnlry, Commanding. 

4th and 8th regiments cavalry j 1st battalion 10th, 1st battalion ISth^ 
2nd battalion I7th. 


that with the exception of a few individaals holding CHAP. XX. 
confidential staff situations^ or otherwise dependent upon 
the favor of Government^ the whole body of officers con« 
sidered themselves pledged to support each other for the 
purpose of obtaining redress^ and that unless the order 
of the 1st May were rescinded, they had strong reason to 
fear the most disastrous consequences. The letter con- 
cluded by promising that if the suspended officers were 
restored, the army would patiently await the decision 
of the Court of Directors. 

About this time a Committee of Officers was formed Committee 
for the purpose of conducting correspondence, and con- 
certing ulterior measures, an example which was followed 
at most other stations. 

On the 17th July the 2nd battalion 10th regiment was The Commit- 
warned to prepare to march to Goa in conformity with ^^^t^' ^ 
orders from Head Quarters, but on the next day Colonel ^^^ "^8*- 
Montresor received a letter from the Committee to the maroh. 


effect that although the officers of the force were ready 
to obey him in all matters connected with ordinary duties, 
they could not permit the 2nd battalion 10 th to leave 

On the 21st of the same month the officers presented a uittmatnm to 
document, styled their '' ultimatum'^ to Colonel Montresor GovernmentT 
in which their demands were set forth in the following 
order : — 

1. The repeal of the order of the Ist May. 

2. The restoration of every officer who had been suspended 
or removed. 

3. The trial of Lieut euant- Colonel lones at Masulipatam. 

4. The removal from office of every officer of the General 
Staff supposed to have iuffaenced Government in their several 
recent measures. 

5. A general amnesty, 

VOL. III. 33 




or test. 

This paper was signed by every officer in the force, 
except those on the staff. 

Towards the end of July, Government, with the view 
of ascertaining the exact state of feeling in the army, 
resolved that all the Enropean officers in the Company's 
service should be called upon to sign the following decla- 
ration : — 

" We, the undersigned officers of the Honorable Company's 
Service, do, in the most solemn manner, declare upon our 
word of honor as British Officers, that we will obey the orders, 
and support the authority of the Governor in Council of Fort 
St. George, agreeably to the tenor of the Commissions which 
we hold from that Government/' 

Such officers as might decline ^ to comply were to be 

removed from doing duty with the troops, and to proceed 

to any station on the sea coast, between Sadras, and 

Negapatam that they might select, there to reside, and 

draw their ordinary allowances, until the state of affidrs 

should admit of their being re-employed. 

Colonel Close A copy of this declaration was sent to Colonel Barry 

^mi^^ Close, Resident at Poonah, who had, on the 14th July, 

Hyderabad, been appointed to command at Hyderabad, in the hope 

that his eminent talents, and great influence with the 

army, might enable him to bring the officers to a sense 

of their duty, and to restore order in the force. 

The Colonel, on approaching Hyderabad, received a 
letter from the officers desiring him to halt at the last 
stage as his services were not required. Notwithstand- 
ing this, he continued his march, and arrived at the 
Residency on the 3rd August, when, after a consultation 
with Colonel Montresor, he determined, at all hazards, to 
attempt to place himself at the head of the troops. He 
entered the cantonment accordingly, and was met by the 

' The deolaration was only signed hj about 150 offioers oat of 1,800- 


two Senior Officers, Major Neale of the 1st cavalry^ and CHAP. XX. 
Major Deacon Ist battalion 16th regiment. 

Colonel Close used every argument to persuade these He addresses 

officers to retom to their dnty^ and arged them either to withoot^y 

sign the declaration, or to withdraw from the performance *E^*f®*^* 


of military duty, bnt^ although deeply affected, they 
declined to accept either alternative. The Colonel, upon 
this, declared that he felt himself at liberty to communi- 
cate directly with every native soldier in the cantonment^ 
and he advanced with that intention towards the troops 
which had turned out, and were forming on the general 
parade under their officers. He first addressed the 
cavalry, but without e£Eect^ after which he rode up to 
the 16th regiment and spoke to the men^ but with the 
same result. Finding his attempts unsuccessful, and the 
men having begun to load. Colonel Close left the parade, 
and going to the quarters of Colonel Montresor, he relin- 
quished the command^ as the object of his appointment 
had been defeated. 

The next day he received the following communica- 
tion : — 

" Sir, The officers of the Hyderabad force having considered He is ordered 
your conduct yesterday in the execution of the orders of *? ^'"^ *^® 
Government as highly prejudicial to that confidence which 
subsists betweeo the sepoys and their officers, and subversive 
of the discipline they are anxious to maintain ; they do declare 
that your presence in the vicinity of this cantonment after 
such conduct, must be dispensed with, and they hereby direct 
you to leave the place in the course of this day, lest moro 
unpleasant decisive measures should be neoessaiy." 

The fact was that the Colonel's arguments had pro- Sabmisdon of 
duced a much stronger impression^ both upon officers and ^ ^^"^ 
men^ than had been supposed^ and they contributed 
materially towards the sudden, and unexpected return to 
obedience which took place a few days later. On the 



CHAP. XX. 8th August the Committee of Officers wrote to Colonel 
Montresor^ and after having expressed their respect for 
his character and conduct^ they proceeded to say that the 
recent treatment by Government of the officers at the 
Mount ^ and elsewhere, rendered it necessary to adopt 
measures of precaution which might cause him uneasi- 
ness, and they therefore suggested to him the propriety 
of giving up the command of the Company's troops, 
which they, the Committee, proposed to withdraw from 
the cantonment, and to encamp in the neighbourhood. 
The Colonel, in reply, addressed himself to Major Neale 
as the senior officer, and one whose influence had fre- 
quently been exerted in the cause of order. 

He pointed out the fatal conseqences of the contem- 
plated movement, and earnestly warned him and his 
brother officers, of the disgrace and ruin by which any 
further perseverance in their present course, must inevi- 
tably be followed. This remonstrance, following the 
address of Colonel Close, and the recently acquired 
knowledge of the intention of the Oovemor-General to 
proceed to Madras, had the desired effect, and the officers 
tendered their submission three days later, in the follow- 
ing terms. 

AddreBi to 
Lord Mintow 

" To the Bight Honorable Lord Minto/' 

" Governor-General.'* 

** My Lord, We, the undersigned officers of the Honorable 
Company's Army attached to the Hyderabad Subsidiary Force, 
are folly impressed with a sense of the dangers that threaten 
the country, and not less actuated by those firm sentiments 

^ It was said that the oflSoers in oamp at the Little Mount were 
oiFered the test at Colonel Hare's hoose at the Madras end of the 
Harmalong bridge, and that on their refusal, they were plaoed nnder a 
guard, and sent off to the Coast without being allowed to reyisit tlie 


of loyalty and patriotism from which we have never departed, CHAP. XX. 

beg leav^e to assure your Lordship that we chiefly attribute 

the want of success that attended Colonel Close's mission, to 

the sudden and unexpected manner in which he presented the 

test that was proposed for our sigputtures. Belying, however, 

as we are now disposed to do, upon the justice, clemency, and 

wisdom of your Lordship, we do not hesitate in avowing our 

determination to abide by your Lordship's decision ; and as a 

proof of the sincerity of our principles, have subscribed to the 

test which now accompanies this address, at the same time 

trusting to your Lordship's generosity in granting a general 

amnesty to us, and all those who have engaged in the late 

unhappy events." 

'' Hyderabad, 11th August 1809," 

The Jaalna brigades inarched for Hyderabad on or Sabmissionof 
about the 13th August^ under Lieutenant-Colonel Doveton^ Jaoinar^" * 
in compliance with a requisition from that place^ and had 
reached Partoor^ distant 30 miles from Jaulna^ when they 
received intelligence of the submission at Hyderabad, 
upon which they immediately retnmed into cantonment, 
and the officers signed the declaration a few days after- 


The garrison of Masulipatam, at this time, consisted Mamlipataxii. 
of the first division ^ Madras European Begiment, the 1st 
battalion 19th regiment under Major Btorey, and a de- 
tachment of artillery. On the 7th May Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Innes, who had been recently appointed to command 
the European Regiment, arrived at Masniipatam, and he 
dined at mess that evening, seyeral strangers being 
present as guests. After dinner Lieutenant D. Forbes, 
seconded by Lieutenant and Quartermaster Maitland, 

^ The regiment at thia time consisted of two divisions of six com. 
panies each. 


CHAP. XX. proposed the '' Friends of the Army " as a toast. This 
having been preceded by strictures on the recent orders 
of Qoyemment, and bj remarks in commendation of the 
attitude of the officers at Hyderabad, Colonel Innes, who, 
before leaving Madras, had been warned that the officers 
were not favorably ^ disposed towards the Qovernment, 
objected to the form of the toast, and reqnested that '' The 
Madras Army *' might be substituted. This amendment 
not having been agreed to, the Colonel left the room, 
immediately after which the toast first proposed was 
drank with three cheers. The next day Colonel Innes 
reported the occurrence demi-officially to Head Quarters 
particularly requesting that no public notice might be 
taken of the matter until such time as he might find it 
necessary to bring it forward officially, failing the tender 
of any sufficient apology from the officers named above. 

Notwithstanding this request, an order, dated 17th 
May, was received at Masulipatam on the 22nd, directing 
the removal of Lieutenant Maitland from the Quarter- 
mastership, and detaching Lieutenant Forbes to the 
unhealthy outpost at Condapilly, distant 54 miles from 
Masulipatam* and at which there was not a single man of 
the European Regiment. Colonel Innes was at the same 
time directed to inform the officers that a repetition of 
the irregularity would involve " the severest penalty to 
which such insubordinate proceedings were liable." 

Mntfaij of the The excitement caused by the publication of this order 
was further increased by a requisition of an unusual 
character. It so happened that an urgent application for 
European troops to serve as Marines had been made to 

^ Tbe difloipline of the xegiment bad been relaxed since 1806, and ibe 
officers bad recently been irritated by tbe supposed intentional 
neglect of QoTemment, wbiob bad been dwelt on by Qeneral Maodowall 
at his inspection in December. | 



tilie Madras Goyernment by the Naval Commander-in- CHAP. XX. 
Chief, and as the employment of H.M. regiments in sach a 
manner had recently been forbidden except in cases of 
emergency. Government directed that three officers and 
one handred men of the Madras European Regiment 
should be warned to be in readiness for embarkation on 
board H. M. Ships of war, for that duty. The officers, 
for several reasons, determined to disobey this order. By 
that time they had made common cause with the officers 
at Hyderabad, and were opposed to any measure by which 
the strength of the regiment would be diminished. More- 
over, the service was disagreeable in itself, and the legality 
of the order questionable. Advantage was therefore taken 
of certain expressions which had been used by Colonel 
Innes, and it was represented to the men that the pro- 
posed embarkation was the first step towards disbanding 
the regiment, a representation which appears to have 
obtained immediate credence, and to have been followed 
by the promise of support. On the arrival of the frigates, 
which took place on the 1st June, the officers waited upon 
Colonel Innes, and requested him to countermand the 
order for embarkation, pending a reference to Madras. 
This the Colonel refused to do, upon which the officers 
placed him in confinement under European sentries. 
The command of the garrison was then assumed by 
Major Storey, and that of the European Regiment by 
Captain Andrews. 

Grovemment, on becoming acquainted with these Colonel Mai- 
occurrences, appointed Lieutenant-CoIonelJohn Malcolm ^tomm^ 
to the command of the European Regiment, and of the °^a'>^* 
garrison at Masulipatam. 

He was also nominated President of a Committee to be 
assembled at that place for the propose of enquiry, and 
report. The other members were Lieutenant-Colonel 
Berkeley commanding the 2nd battalion 4th regiment at 



CHAP. XX Berhampore^ and Major Evans Superintendent of the Stad 
at Gbnjam^ but as both of these officers were prevented by 
illness from proceeding to Masulipatam the performance 
of the duty devolved upon Colonel Maloolm alone. He 
arrived on the 4th July^ and found everything in the hands 
of a committee composed of violent young men : the 
authority of Major Storey being little more than nominal. 
This committee was in correspondence with almost every 
station in the Presidency, and had received the strongest 
assurances of support from Hyderabad, towards which 
place, the garrison, together with the native battalions 
at EUore and Samulcottah were preparing to march. 
After a discussion which lasted for several hours, the 
officers consented to acknowledge Colonel Malcolm's 
authority, and to submit to an enquiry into their conduct. 

On the next day the Colonel reported that after having 
perused certain papers shown to him by the officers of 
the garrison, he was satisfied that there was not a single 
corps in the Company's army from Cape Comorin to 
Ganjam which was not pledged to rise against Govern- 
ment, and that no commanding officer had any real control 
over his regiment or battalion. 

In these circumstances he advised the Government to 
give way, and he went the length of drafting a resolution 
for their adoption, in which they engaged to recommend 
to the Court of Directors the restoration of the officers 
whose suspension had been reported to that body ; to re- 
appoint, of their own authority, Colonels Bell and Chal- 
mers to the commands of which they had been deprived, 
and to grant a general amnesty. Neither the matter nor 
the manner of this communication was likely to be at all 
acceptable to the Government, who could not have yielded 
at such a crisis without inflicting a fatal blow on their 
own authority, and on the future discipline of the army. 
Colonel Malcolm was therefore informed that, after the 

Colonel Mal- 
colm adyiaes 
to cancel the 
order of the 
l8t May. 


most mature consideration^ Sir Oeorge Barlow could nofc CHAP. XX. 
" satisfy his mind of the policy of the course of mea- r^^^ Oovem- 
sures " which had been recommended. ^^^^ decline. 

The Colonel was at the same time authorized to grant. Colonel 
at his discretion, a pardon to the non-commissioned ojfi- emi^eredto 
cers, and privates of the European Regiment, and to all ?f^^'^^** 
the native ranks of the 1st battalion 19th, for any part they 
might have taken in the recent insubordinate proceed- 
ings. He.was also informed that it was presumed he had 
already explained the causes which had led to the requisi- 
tion for men to serve as marines, and that there never had 
been any intention ^ to break up the European Regiment, 
and place the officers on half pay, or to impose any mark 
of disgrace or disapprobation whatever on the corps. 

Colonel Malcolm, who had not considered it pmident to Bat refrains 
attempt any direct communication with the men, for fear "* <Mng«>- 
of " irritating the officers^ and driving thein to despair/' 
took the opportunity of a punishment parade on the 
14th July to address them, and he there stated that there 
never had been any intention to disband, or to disperse the 
regiment ; but he refrained from any mention of the prof- 
fered pardon, for the same reason which had deterred 
him from communicating with them before. 

^ Notwithstanding this disavowal, there is evidence to show, that 
whether with, or withoat dne aathority, threats were made use of whioh 
were indicative of an intention to disband the regiment. Colonel 
Innes, when urging Lieutenant Spankie to accept the vacant Quarter- 
mastership told him that *' on the conduct of the officers of the rogi. 
ment much depended on this occasion, for if thej persevered in the un- 
warrantable course thej were pursuing, the regiment would be reduced, 
and all the officers, not on the staff, put upon the half pay of their rank." 
Lieutenant-Colonel Innes, to Lieutenant-Colonel Malcolm, 20th July 

A note written to Lieutenant Spankie by Colonel Innes about the 
same time concludes as follows, " it is absolutely proper and necessary 
that you should accede to the General's wishes to save a whole regiment^ 
think of this." 

VOL. HI. 34 




Returns to 

His oondact 

Pater offers 
a pardon to 
the men. 

of the 

On tbe 17th July he wrote to Madras for permission 
to return to that place for the purpose of conferring per- 
sonally with Sir George Barlow. He left Masnlipatam 
accordingly a few days afterwards and arrived at Madras 
on the 26th July. 

The coarse he had pursued was not approved by Gov- 
ernment, who, in their report to the Court of Directors, 
dated 6th September, remarked that '^ to this apparently 
unreasonable forbearance/ and attention to the feelings 
of officers who had, by their acts of violence and aggres- 
sion, forfeited all claims to such consideration, may, 
we conceive, be ascribed. Lieutenant- Colonel Malcolm's 
failure in the establishment of any efficient control over 
the garrison.'* 

A copy of the declaration of the 26th July was received 
in due course by Major-General Pater commanding the 
Northern Division, who had arrived at Masnlipatam 
shortly after the departure of Colonel Malcolm, but who 
did not deem it expedient to produce it for signature until 
the 9th August, when he ordered a general parade of the 
troops, at which he offered a pardon to the garrison, the 
European officers excepted, on condition that they would 
return to their duty to the State ; but the offer was 
rejected because of the exclusion of the officers. 

On the 15th of the same month intelligence of the 
cubmission at Hyderabad reached Masnlipatam, and on 
the next day the officers consented to sign the declar- 
ation. This sudden change alarmed the men of the 
European Regiment, who immediaiely began to suspect 
their officers of a design to abandon them to punishment ; 

^ The oonoiliatory policy of Colonel Malcolm was defended hy himself 
and others. Colonel Barry Close, then the most able and experienced* 
cfSieer in the service, was of an opposite opinion, and in favor of 
coercive moasiuvs, un opinion which seems jasti&ed by the event. 


and under the influence of that feeling they tamed out, CHAP. XX. 
and threatened to shoot any officer who should sign the vioiJ^ 

test. conduct of 

the men of 

The General) not knowing to what extremities the men the Earopean 
might not proceed^ was induced to promise, in the name ^^'^^'^ 
of Goyemment, a general pardon both to officers and 
men, which pacified the latter for the moment, but they 
continued to suspect the existence of some treachery, and 
a violent disagreement ensued^ a number of the men in- 
sisting upon marching to Madras with their officers, there 
to state their grievances.^ At last Lieutenant Scott, 
one of the General Staff, took it upon himself^ with the 
view of allaying the tumult, to* order the whole regiment 
to march, and it quitted the fort accordingly about 
4 P.M. on the 17th. It was intended that the native batta- 
lion should follow, but the Europeans, finding, after having 
gone some little distance, that they and their officers were 
unprovided with the necessary requisites for a march, 
returned to the fort the next day with the exception of 
4 Serjeants and 160 rank and file, who, with 5 officers 
chosen by themselves, proceeded towards Madras, accom- 
panied by 12 artillerymen, and a Jemadar^s pai*ty of the 
1st battalion 19th regiment. 

Subordination was restored in the garrison immedi- Order 
ately after the departure of the detachment, and the '^^®^^- 
whole of the officers signed the declaration, an example 
which was followed by the rest of the officers in the 
Northern Division. 

^ A great number of the men had enlisted for unlimited service, and 
were discontented beoantfe they had not been admitted to the benefit 
of an Aot| sabseqnentljr passed, which aUowed of limited service, and 
under the provisions of which many of their younger comrades had 
enlisted. Another cause of complaint was the long detention of the 
regiment at Masulipatam, viz., from 1800 with the exception of an 
interval during 1803, when it was sent to Cuttack un service. 




Mntinj at 




On tlie 12th Augast> the 1st battalion 11th regiment 
stationed at Samulcottah^ marched oat of cantonment 
against the orders of Lieutenant-Colonel Simons the 
Commanding Officer. Captain James Patterson then took 
charge of the battalion, and detached two companies to 
Cocanada, distant about ten miles, with orders to take 
possession of the treasure at that place. The sum of 
Bs. 3,42,539 was seized accordingly, and conveyed to 
Samulcottah, from which the battalion marched the fol- 
lowing day for Masulipatam. It arrived at Rajahmundry 
on the 17th, when Captain Patterson took possession of 
the Post Office, and ordered that all the mails should be 
delivered to him. 

The next day he crossed the Godavery, having first 
called in the detachment of the battalion doing duty at 
the station. On the arrival of the battalion at Covoor on 
the 20th^ it was met by an express from Masulipatam 
with the intelligence of the submission of the officers at 
that place, in consequence of which Captain Patterson 
retraced his steps^ and returned to Samulcottah, where 
he arrived on the 25th^ having previously restored the 
treasure. Lieutenant-Colonel Simons resumed command^ 
and the officers signed the declaration. 

Mntinj at 


Lieutenant-Colonel Fletcher^ commanding the 1st 
battalion 24th regiment at Ellore, being aware of the dis* 
affection of his officers^ had formed a plan to place them 
under restraint in the event of their refusing to sign the 
test, but this design having been divulged by the Native 
Adjutant, the Colonel was seized on the 5th August^ and 
placed in confinement. However, he was allowed to 
leave the cantonment the same evening, and to go to 


Madras. The command of the battalion was assumed CHAP. XX. 
by Captain Sadler^ who retained it until the submission of ' 

the officers at Masulipatam^ when he was superseded by 
Major Hazlewood of the same battalion. The officers 
signed the declaration on or about the I9th August. 


The head-quarters of the 1st battalion 21st regiment^ Mntinyat 
under Captain George Wahab, took possession of the trea- *^**^ ^ 
sure at Chicacole about the 15th August^ and marched for 
Masulipatam^ being joined en route by a detachment of 
the same battalion under Captain Fair, who had seized the 
treasure at Vizagapatam to the amount of Bs. 5^50^000. 
Captain Wahab had arrived within two marches of Samul- 
cottah on the 2ith when he was met by a messenger from 
Masulipatam, upon which he returned to his station. 
The treasure was restored. 


Lieutenant-Colonel W. Berkely, commanding the 2nd Battalion at 
battalion 4th regiment at Berhampore^ on hearing of the 
march of the battalion from Chicacole^ sent a detachment 
for the protection of that place. The officers of the 2nd 
of the 4th do not appear to have been implicated in the 

The pardon granted by G-eneral Pater to the garrison Goyernment 
of Masulipatam^ and subsequently to the officers at EUore, par^^ 
Samulcottah^ and Chicacole, was not recognised by Gov- g™-*^*®^ ^J 
emment, who sent orders directing the march of the Pater, 
undermentioned corps to Madras, viz., the European 
Begiment, the Ist battalion 19th, and the 1st battalion 
24th regiment, all of which movements commenced early 
in September. 


CHAP. XX. Affairs at Serinoapatav. 

Btateofthe Lieutenant- Colonel Davis^ H.M/s 22nd dragoons, 
gamBoii. Commanding the Mysore Division, the Head-quarters of 
which were at Bangalore, happened to be at Mysore on 
the 24th July when he received a letter from Lieutenant- 
Colonel John Bell of the artillery then in command at 
Beringapatam, requesting that certain recent orders for 
the march of a company of artillery, and the second 
battalion 19th regiment, might be countermanded on 
account of the severity of the duty which their removal 
would throw upon the remaining company of artillery, 
and the 2nd battalion 15th regiment, which corps, to- 
gether with two companies H.M/s 80th foot, composed the 
garrison, lliis request was accompanied by letters from 
the officers expressing their alarm in consequence of the 
prevalence of a report to the effect that it was in con- 
templation to separate the native corps, and to seize the 
Earopean officers. It was well known, however, that the 
officers of the garrison were in communication with those 
at Hyderabad and at Masulipatam, and pledged to 
support them, hence their principal objection to reduce 
the strength. 

Colonel Davis Colonel Davis, being without the means of enforcing 
officers compliance with his orders, consented to their postpone- 

effect^^ ment pending a reference to Head-quarters, and on the 

29th he entered the fort with the view of using his 
personal influence with the officers. On the morning of 
the 30th he called them together, and after having 
addressed them without effect, he was told that he must 
not only remain in the fort, but that he must not quit 
his house. 

However, they changed their minds during the day, and 
allowed him to return to Mysore the same evening. 


The public treaanre was seized, under the immediate CHAP. XX. 
direction of Captain Cadell the Town Major, on the same geisuTof 

day. txeaBiire. 

On the Slst Colonel Davis sent the declaration of Thedeolara- 
fidelity to the fort with instructions to Colonel Bell the Fort for 
I desiring that it might be tendered to the oflScers for ogna*'"®* 

signature, and that in event of refusal he should use his 
endeavours to prevail upon them to abstain from the 
further exercise of their military functions. 

The envelope and letter were returned along with the 
note given below, the copy of the declaration having 
been abstracted, and retained. 

" Seringapatam., Slst July 1809." 

*' My dear Colonel. You must be perfectly aware of the 
state of the garrison which I reported to you long since, and 
it is at the peril of my freedom, to open any public coomiuni- 
I cations." 

(Signed) J. BELL. 

I On the 2nd August the sum of Rupees 1,40,000 on the Farther 

way from the Ceded Districts, was seized by a party sent txeMure. 
from the fort for that purpose. 

On the 3rd August the detachment of H.M/s 80th regi- The detach- 
ment was sent out of the fort with instructions to march goth sent oat 
to Bangalore. It was duly provided with camp equipage, ^ ^^^ ^^^' 
and sick carriage, and the garrison went through the 
form of presenting arms as it left. These companies 
proceeded along the Bangalore road for some marches, 
and then changing their route they joined Colonel Davis 
at Mysore on the 7th August. 

The declaration was signed by Colonel Bell on the Colonel Bell 
3rd August, upon which he was invited by Colonel test. 
Davis, and the Resident, to abandon the mutineers and 
come to them at Mysore, but he declined, and announced 




The other 



Bef Deal of the 
Btaif Officers. 

Escort of the 

of the fort. 

his intention to remain in tlie fort as long as he could be 
of any service. With the exception of Colonel Bell, the 
whole of the officers refused to sign the declaration for 
the reasons given in the following resolution which was 
subscribed to by the officers of artillery, and those of the 
native battalions. 

** The moment the grievances of the army are redressed, we, 
the undersigned officers, will, with the greatest satisfaction, 
sig^ the proffered declaration of Government under date the 
26th July 1809, but as the intention (at present) of that 
obligation is evidently to bind us down to shed the blood of 
our own brother soldiers, we most decline affixing our names 

The staff officers, viz., Captain De Havilland of the 
Engineers, Captain Cadell, Town Major, and three others, 
recorded their dissent in the following terms : — 

" We never can pledge ourselves to obey the orders of Bir 
George Barlow and his advisers, which so clearly tend to the 
total destruction of the British Empire in India. In this 
declaration we are actuated alone by principles of regard 
for the public safety, and the welfare of the State." 

The European officers of the detachment doing duty 
at Mysore as the Resident's escort, and who belonged to 
the 2nd of the 15th, resigned their militaiy functions 
rather than sign the test, but the native officers and men 
remained steady. 

Government, on the 5th August, sent orders for the 
investment of the fort, and on the 10th, a detachment 
from Bangalore, consisting of two squadrons H.M.'s 25th 
dragoons, three companies H.M/s 59th regiment, the 
5th regiment cavalry, and the 1st battalion 3rd regiment, 
with a party of artillery, all under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Gibbs H.M/s 59th, arrived, and encamped about three 
miles from the fort. 


About this time^ Colonel Bell^ when called upon to chap. XX; 
surrender, wrote several letters of an extraordinary Bxtraordi- 
character to Colonel Davis, and to Ooyemment. He n«T«>"dnot 

of Colonel 

complained of neglect^ of his not haying been made Bell, 
acquainted with the real objects which the Govemment 
had in view, and feigned to believe that an attack on 
the fort was contemplated by the troops of the Mysore 
Bajah, for which reason he declared that he could not 
give it up without the special order of the Qt)vemor 

Although the fort was amply supplied with artillery^ The let of 
and military stores of all kinds, the garrison was scarcely igt of the'^ 
equal to the defence of so extensive a place, and the 15<J march 

* , to Beringaipei* 

officers were therefore anxious to obtain an addition to tam. 
their strength. With this object they placed themselves 
in communication with the 1st battalion 16th regiment 
stationed at Chittledroog about 150 miles north of Sering* 
apatam, and also with the Ist battalion 8th regiment 
then on the march from Nuggur Bednore to Wallajahbad, 
and they succeeded in persuading the officers of these 
corps to join them. The Ist of the 8th left their 
&milies at Chittledroog having been informed by their 
officers that their services were emergently required to 
assist in the defence of Seringapatam against the troops 
of the Bajah of Mysore who were about to attack the 

The 1st of the 15th were misled in a similar manner. 
The two battalions ^ left Chittledroog accordingly on the 
5th August, and on the morning of the 10th, while 

^ Ist of 8th nnder. Captain H. Mcintosh, 8 companies. (2 companies 
at Chittledroog.) 

Ist of 16th nnder Captain F. K. Aiskill, 7 companies. (2 oompaniea 
Chittledroog, 1 at Paaghar.) 

VOL. UI. 35 



Attacked by 
the Mysore 
hone, and 

OHAP. zx. approacliing Nagamnngalam/ distant abont 26 miles from 
Seringapatam, they fell in with a body of 3^000 siUadar 
horse, which, together with abont 1,500 armed peons, had 
been sent by the Honorable Arthur Cole then officiating aa 
Resident, with instructions to retard the progress of the 
detachment, and to prevent it from entering Seringapa- 
tam. No collision took place that day, and the battaliona 
encamped at Nagamungalum. 

The march was resumed at 10 o'clock the same night, 
and next morning, when about 10 miles from Seringa- 
patam, the rear guard, which had fallen behind, was 
suddenly attacked by the Mysore horse, a few men 
wounded, and the baggage taken. The horse then made 
several charges which were repulsed, and the battalions 
had arrived within about two miles from their destination, 
when they were simultaneously attacked and broken by 
H.M/s 25th dragoons, and the Mysore horse. The 
sepoys were completely surprised, and made no attempt 
to defend themselves against the Europeans, whom they 
believed to be their friends. Captain Mcintosh was 
wounded, and taken prisoner, and a number of the men 
were killed,' and wounded ; but a very large proportion, 

1 This aooount of the maroh is taken from an interoepted letter 
written by Lieutenant Baker of the 8th to his brother. Mr. Cole, in a 
report dated 12th Angnst says, ** a very oansiderable number of the 
silUdar horse hare been killed, this body having skirmished with the 
detachment during the last 20 miles before the aotion took place." 
The actual casualties in the silladar horse were 126 men, and 150 horses, 
killed, and wounded. For this information I am indebted to Colonel 
B. C. Stewart recently in command of the Mysore Silladar Horse. 

8th reg^ent. 15th regfiment. 

* Killed 6 8 

Wounded 84 119 

Mining 186 115 

206 887 

Lieutenant Best 8th regiment died of fatigue. 
The above is taken from a return dated 15th August. 
In a foot*note it is stated that many of those entered aa S* mining*' 
were supposed to have been killed or wounded. 


viz., 20 Earopean officers, 19 native officers, 46 Havil- CHAP. XX. 
dars, and 785 rank and file, made their escape into the 
fort under cover of the guns. 

The conduct of the officers of the Ghittledroog batta- Disoreditable 
lions, and that of those in Seringapatam seems to have the officers 
been equallv discreditable. •* CWttie. 

^ *' droog and 

The former induced their men to march by means of Senngapa. 

•> tain. 

false representations, and the latter treacherously kept 
their advancing comrades in ignorance of the arrival of 
the troops from Bangalore. 

Indeed, had it not been for the receipt of a pressing 
requisition from the fort, it may be assumed, as nearly 
certain, that the lamentable conflict would never have 
taken place. It appears from a report to Government 
from the Resident, dated 14th August, that a few hours 
before the action, Captain Mcintosh received a letter 
from the garrison, in which he was urged to push on. In 
consequence of this he made a forced march which was 
the cause of his missing a despatch ^ from the Resident Miaoamage 
mentioning the arrival of the force under Colonel Gibbs, Reddent'i 
and the determination of Colonel Davis to prevent the '''■"^• 
entrance of the battalions into Seringapatam. It cannot 
be supposed that Captain Mcintosh, at the head of about 

* " It is greatlj to be lamented that we did not reoeiye the letters 
from Mr. Cole, and Colonel Dayis, which I understand they sent, 
requesting us not to proceed. Even had an officer come to us from 
either of the King's corps, informing us of the consequences in case we 
did come on, we should ne?er have proceeded." — Intercepted letter 
from Lieutenant Baker. 

An officer of H.BC.'s 25th approached the column while it was harassed 
by the Mysore horse. The accounts of what foUowed are contradic- 
tory. Lieutenant G. A. Walker of the 8th deposed, supported by 
other officers, that he advanced towards the dragoon officer, holding 
a white flag, but that before he could reach him, the officer turned, 
galloped off, and joined the Mysore horse. Others say that the officer 
was fired at. 




Balliea from 
the fort. 

of the fort. 

t>f liie 
officers in 

1^120 natives^ woald have ventared to oppose sncli a force 
as that under Colonel Oibbs. 

During the attack, the guns in the fort opened upon 
the camp, and a party under Colonel Munro of the 16th 
sallied in that direction, but was driyen back. The camp 
was again cannonaded at intervals during the night, and 
a few camp-followers and horses were killed and wounded, 
but no further damage was done. Another sally was made 
upon the Mysore troops on the-lSth, in which Captain 
Turner of the 15th battalion was wounded, and several 
of his men killed. 

The next few days were passed in negotiations, during 
which the intelligence of the submission of the officers 
at Hyderabad having been received, the fort surrendered 
at discretion, and was taken possession of by Colonel 
Davis on the 23rd August, the declaration having been 
previously signed by the officers of the garrison. 

The officers of the 5th cavalry, and 1st battalion 3rd 
regiment at Bangalore, having refused to sign the test^ 
they had been removed from their respective corps by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Oibbs before his march upon Seringa- 

The officers of the 2nd battalion 3rd regiment, which 
had relieved the 8th at Bednore, also refused to sign, and 
Major Lucas made over charge of the battalion to the 
senior native oflScer on the 9th August, pending the nomi- 
nation of a European Commandant. 

of GoTem. 

Aftairs at thi Prxsidinct. 

Early in July, in consequence of the threatening aspect 
of affairs at Hyderabad and Masulipatam, Government 
applied to Ceylon, and to Bombay, for reinforcements of 
European troops. They also took steps, by means of 


correspondence, and agents, to disonite ^ the native troops CHAP. ZX. 
and their officers. 

About the same time they directed the assembly of a Tender of the 
field force to be encamped on the race -coarse near the 
Monnt^ and on the 26th July the dechiration of fidelity^ 
previoasly mentioned^ was tendered to the Company's 
officers in the said camp^ to those at the Mount, and also 
to those in garrison at Fort St. George. The whole of 
those in camp, with the exception of three or four, refused 
to sign, and were ordered off to the sea coast between 
Sadras and Negapatam. 

Amongst these were Lieutenant-Colonel Floyer and 10 Basalt in 
officers 3rd cavalry, Lieutenant-Colonel Bumley and "^^^ 
7 officers 7th cavalry, Major Bruce and 14 officers 1st 
battalion 20th, and Major G-umell and 5 officers 2nd 
battalion 25th regiment. 

All the officers of artillery at the Mount, viz., 1 Lieuten- ^ ^^® 
ant-Golonel, 6 Captains and 15 Lieutenants, havipg 
refused to sign, Major Sir John Sinclair, Bart., was sent 
from Madras to command one battalion, and Captain 
Creighton, H.M.'s 59th regiment, to command the other. 

The vacancies in the native corps were filled, so far 
as the means would admit, by officers of the Boyal army, 
and such available Company's officers as had signed the 

The declaration was signed by all the officers of the At Ifadnuk 
General Staff at the Presidency, but only by a small 
number of the regimental officers in the fort, viz., those 

^ This measare has been denonnoed as dangerocui and impoUtio. 
The following extract from an intercepted letter of the time, dated at 
the Monnt, shows the rapid effect, on the native mind, of such a proc eed * 
ing. '' The common topic of the laeoan in this oanUmment to the 
servants is, ' That not long before all white face gone. This Governor, 
veiy fine Qovemor, he tell black men, that they better than white men» 
and that sepoy never mind again what they say.' " 


GHAP. XX. belonging to the Ist of tHe Sth, 2nd of the 8th^ and 2nd 

of the 20th. 
Field tone Abont the end of July a detachment of Boyal artillery^ 

J^^* 400 H.M.'a 66th, and 200 H.M.'s 89th were sent from 

Difltrioii. Ceylon, and the 1st battalion H.M.'s 56th from Bombay. 
The Government, on being informed of the approaching 
reinforcements, determined to send a strong force into 
the Ceded Districts, to move, either upon Hydierabad, or 
Masulipatam according to circumstances. This foroe was 
placed under the temporary command of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Conran of the Royals, and marched from Madras 
about the middle of August. 


Lieutenant-Colonel Boss Lang having been unable to 
prevail upon any officer of the 2nd battalion 11th regi- 
ment, then stationed at Yellore, to sig^ the declaration^ 
they were all ordered off to the sea coast. 

Pbogbbdinos in thb Southbbn Division. 

Triohinopolj. The declaration was tendered to the officers at Trichino- 

poly on the 30th July by Colonel Wilkinson, H.M/s 80th 
regiment, commanding the Southern Division, and was 
signed by 20 officers, viz., 1 of cavalry, 1 of artillery, 2 
of engineers, 8 of the 2nd battalion 13th, 12 of the 2nd 
battalion 24th, and 1 Staff officer. The remaining officers 
of the 24th who were stationed at Tanjore signed a few 
days afterwards. Sixteen officers at Trichinopoly having 
not only refused to subscribe the declaration, but having 
declined to '' give their word of honor that they would 
not interfere, or have any further intercourse " with their 
men. Colonel Wilkinson placed them in confinement, 
and sent them towards Negapatam under a guard of 200 
men H.M.'s 30th, with instructions to liberate them at 
Tanjore provided they would engage to proceed quietly to 



their destination. Of the officers thus removed, 7 belonged CHAP, 
to the 6th regiment of cavalry, 1 to the artillery, and 8 
to the 2nd battalion 13th regiment. 

About the 12th of August Colonel Wilkinson, at the Dindigoi. 
head of a strong ^ detachment, left Trichinopoly by order 
of Q-ovemment for the purpose of enforcing obedience 
thronghoat the division. He arrived at Dindigul on the 
17th, bat none of the officers of the 2nd battalion 16th 
regiment would sign the declaration with the exception 
of Major McDonell, the Commandant. The rest, eleven 
in number, were sent off to the coast. 

The officers of the 2nd battalion 6th regiment, then at Palamoofctah. 
Palamcottah,had been extremely violent in their language 
for some time, and on two occasions they had gone the 
length of seizing and opening the mails, from which they 
abstracted despatches destined for the officers command- 
ing in Travancore, and in Malabar. Colonel Wilkinson 
reached the station on the 30th August, and found the 
officers prepared to submit, with the exception of four, 
who were consequently removed from the battalion and 
sent to Ouddalore. Captain Townsend and two others, 
who were charged with having seized the mails, were sent 
to Madras for trial under a guard of the 6th cavalry. . 

Procbedings nv Travancori, Malabar and Cahara, 


On the 9th July orders were issued for the march of 
three battalions of native infantry from Travancore, but 
the officers refused to obey, on the ground that it was 
the intention of Government to separate the native corps, 
so as to place them under the control of H.M.'s regiments, 
and the excitement was so gpreat at Quilon that picquets 

1 6th regiment cavaliy; flank oompanies H.M.'b 12th, H.M.'e 80th, 
Snd battalion 19th, 2nd battalion 24th, and 1 oompany of artmery. 




Cochin and 

CHAP. XX. of 100 men each, under Eoropeon officers, were regularly 
detailed from each native battalion to gaard against 
sarprise. Lieutenant-Colonel the Honorable P. Stuart^ 
ELM/s 19th regiment^ then commanding in Travancore, 
not being sufficiently strong to coerce the native troops, 
remained passive. 

The declaration was tendered to the officers of the Ist 
battalion 2nd, 1st battalion 4th, and 2nd battalion 9th 
regiments at Quilon about the 1 6th August, but they all 
refused to sign with the exception of four, amongst 
whom were the Commandants of the 4th and 9th. A few 
days later, viz., on the 22nd August, the officers of the 
4th were prevailed upon to submit. 

The officers of the 1st battalion 17th regiment at 
Cochin, and those of the 2nd battalion 14th, and 2nd bat- 
talion 18 th regiments stationed at Alleppy, all signed the 

Major Gulbraith Hamilton commanding the 1st batta« 
lion 13th regiment, then in the fort at Oodagherry, and 
all his officers, refused to sign. 

The garrison at Cannanore was composed, in addition 
to European troops, of the 2nd battalion 12th, and 2nd 
battalion 22nd regiments. The officers of the 22nd, with 
the exception of those on detachment at Tellicherry^ 
signed the declaration. The officers of the 12th refused. 

The officers of the 1st battalion 5th regiment at Mang- 
alore, while professing their loyalty, refused to sign 
because '' Colonel Wilkinson commanding the Southern 
Division, has adopted the most violent and unprecedented 
measures, by insulting and degrading the officers of the 
Honorable Company's service ; these measures, having of 
course been sanctioned by Government, must affect the 
feelings of every officer who holds a commission in the 







The officers of the 2nd battalion 2nd^ 1st battalion 14th, chap. xx. 
and Ist battalion 18th regiments then forming part of q^^ 
the Aaxiliary Force at Goa, do not appear to have taken 

any active part in opposition to Ooyemment. 

Ceded Districts. 

Most of the officers in the Ceded Districts having 
ref ased to sign the declaration^ were removed from their 
respective corps by Major-General Croker of the Madras 
army commanding the Division. 

Major Keasbury, and 10 officers 1st battalion 9th, Major Bellaiy. 
Wright commanding 2nd battalion 7th, and 11 officers 
of that corps, 3 officers of artillery, and 3 Staff officers, 
all belonging to the garrison of Bellary, were sent off to 
the sea coast. Lieatenant-Golonel Sir D. Ogilby Bart., 
commanding the 9th, and 1 Captain and 1 Subaltern 
of Engineers, were the only officers at Bellary who were 
not removed. 

Lieatenant-Colonel Bowness, commanding the 1st bat- Gooty. 
talion 25th regiment at Gooty, signed the declaration. 
The Major and 1 1 officers, as well as the artillery officer 
at the station, refused. 

All the officers of the 1st battalion 22nd regiment then Cambum. 
stationed at Cumbum, refused to sign, and were sent to 
Sadras, as soon as arrangements could be made to supply 
their places. 

Analysis of the Dsclaration. 

Although the number of officers who consented to sign 

'the test bore a very small proportion to the whole, yet 

the minority comprised, with a few exceptions, all the 

senior and most distinguished officers, such as Colonels 

Close, Lang, Malcolm, and Barclay. 

The parts taken by the Field officers of cavalry, and 
infantry, so far as they can be ascertained, are given 
below : — 

VOL. nx* S6 


CHAP. XX. Cavalry. 

Adhered to Qovernment, Regimental. 

Do. Staff 

Mutinied, and refosed to sign 
Under suspension 

Lieut. - 











Total Field Officers of cavalrj ... 8 8 


ColoneU. Majors. 

Adhered to Goyemment, Regimental. 19 15 

Do. Staff ... 8 3 

. Mutinied, and refused to sign ... 2 17 

Under suspension ... ... ... 1 2 

Furlough ... ... ... ... 18 5 

Not ascertained ... ... ... 6 

Total Field Officers of infantry ... 48 48 

There were only four Company's officers of the rank 
of Lieutenant-Colonel doing duty with the troops in 
actual mutiny^ viz., one at Masulipatam^ one at Jaulna, 
and two at Seringapatam. Of these^ Colonel Innes alone 
was an avowed supporter of Government. Colonel Munro 
was active in the mutiny. Colonel Bell pleaded that he 
had not been a free agent, and Colonel Doveton defended 
the abandonment of his post at Jaulna on the ground 
that he accompanied the troops solely for the purpose of 
preventing excesses. 


Lord Minto^ the Governor- General^ had intended to 
go to Madras in July, but he unfortunately postponed 
his departure on being assured by the Madras Govern- 
ment that the agitation was rapidly subsiding^ an assor- 


ance which showed how little that Government under- CHAP. XX. 

stood the nature of the indignation which had been 

created by their hasty and indiscriminate proceedings. 

It was not until the 5th August, when, alarmed by the 

eyents at Masulipatam, his Lordship sailed from Calcutta^ 

but having been delayed by bad weather^ he did not 

arrive at Madras until the 11th September. 

Lord Minto had supported the Madras Government Confidence 
throughout from the first, and in an elaborate despatch of ji^tice of 
95 paragraphs^ dated 27th May, he discussed, and entirely ^^ Minto. 
condemned the memorial ^ which had excited the wrath 
of Sir George Barlow who had sent him a copy thereof 
on the 1st April. Nevertheless, there was a general 
feeling of confidence, throughout the army, in the justice 
and moderation of His Lordship, which was justified by 
the result, and it seems probable that had he arrived at 
an earlier period, the disastrous affair at Seringapatam 
would not have taken place, and the impolitic measure of 
separating the European officers from tbeir men would 
not have been attempted. 

On the 25th September a general order was published, Amnestj. 
in which the Governor-General, after having dwelt upon 
the criminal, and desperate character of the contest in 
which the ofiicers had been engaged, granted a general 
amnesty to all concerned, with the exception of the 
undermentioned, viz. : — 

Garrison of Seringapatam. 

Lieutenant-Colonel John Bell, Commandant. Exceptions 

Captains DeHavilland Engineers, and Cadell 2nd bat- ^^J^^ ''™' 
talion 12th regiment. Staff Officers. 

^ It wonld seem to have been the policy of both Governments, to 
disregard, if not to ignore, the fact that the transmission of the memo- 
rial had been given np bj the authors as far back as the month of 


CHAP. XX, Lieutenant-Colonel R. Munro^ and Major D. C. Kenny^ 
commanding the native battalions in the garrison. 

Captains Mcintosh, and Aiskill who commanded the 
battalions from Chittledroog. 

Captain Turner 2nd battalion 15th regiment who Iiad 
taken a prominent part in the proceedings, and in a saJly 
from the fort. 

Garrison of Masulipataic and Niighbouring Posts. 

Major J. Storey 1st battalion 19th, Captain Andrews 
European Regiment^ Captain J. Sadler 1st of 24th, 
Captain J. Patterson 1st of llth^ and Captain G. Wahab 

FiBLD Force at Jaulna. 
Lieutenant-Colonel John Doveton Commanding. 
Captains J. L. Lushington, and A. McLeod of the 

Captains-Lieutenant Hopkinson, and Poignand of the 

Major Mathew Stewart, and Captains G. M. Gibson, 
and T. Pollock of the infantry. 

The three Commandants, viz., Lieutenant-Colonels 
Bell and Doveton, and Major Storey, were ordered to be 
tried by Court Martial. The remaining officers were 
allowed the option of standing their trial, or of being dis- 
missed from the service. 
Officers at Although the officers at Hyderabad had been the 

J era a . jg^^j^pg Qf \\^q mutiny, they escaped punishment in consid- 
eration of the importance attached by Lord Minto to 
their submission at a critical period. 
The soBpend- On the 80th September an order was issued by which 
turn to doty, all officers who had been removed from their military 
functions, were permitted to rejoin their respective corps 
on signing the declaration, a proffer which was universally 


Trials of ths Officsbs. CHAP. xx. 

On the 1st November, a General Goart Martial^ of which 
Major-General Warde^ H.M. Service, was President, and 
which was composed of an equal namber of officers of each 
service, assembled at Bangalore for the trial of Lienten- 
ant-Colonel Bell and others. 

Colonel Bell was f oand guilty on the 9th December CqIodaI Bell* 
1809, and sentenced to be cashiered.' The Proceedings 
were returned for revision, but the Court adhered to their 
original sentence. The Commander-in-Chief, when con- 
firming it, remarked that the punishment awarded to the 
prisoner bore no proportion to the atrocity of the crime. 

Major Storey was sentenced to be cashiered. This Major Storey, 
sentence was also returned for revision, but the Court 
having declined to make any alteration, it was confirmed 
by the Commander-in-Chief without remark. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Munro was sentenced to be Colonel 
cashiered, which sentence was duly confirmed. ^"""^' 

Major Kenny was also sentenced to be cashiered, and Major Eennj. 
the sentence was confirmed. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Doveton was charged with having Colonel 
marched from Jaulna without authority, and with nmtin- ^^®*^»* 
OU8 designs, with having endeavoured to excite the troops 
under his command to mutiny against the Government, 
and with having affixed his name to a mutinous and sedit- 
ious paper. 

The Court were of opinion that Colonel Doveton was Aoqaitted hj 

til A Qj^upji- 

not guilty of any of the charges, and therefore acquitted 
him in the " most full and honorable manner. '' 

The proceedings having been returned for revision, the 
Court sent them back on the 13th February 1810, with a 
remark to the effect that they saw no reason to alter their 
former opinion. 




Suspended by 
the Gtovemor- 




of the Court. 

Assembly of 
a new Court. 

The Commander-in-Chief disapproved of the finding, 
and recommended that Colonel Doveton should be sus- 
pended until further orders, but that he should continue 
to draw his pay and allowances. 

This recommendation was approved of, and acted upon 
by the Governor-General in Council on the 21st March 

Colonel Doveton had rested his defence partly on the 
plea that he accompanied the troops with the object of 
preventing them from the commission of excesses, and 
partly on the strength of a private and confidential letter 
from the Resident at Hyderabad in which that line of 
conduct had been recommended. Neither of these pleaa 
were considered admissible either by the Commander-in- 
Chief, or the Governor-General, who pronounced it to 
have been the duty of Colonel Doveton to leave the 
mutinous officers so soon as he found himself unable to 
control them. 

The Court Martial of which Major-General Warde was 
President was dissolved on the 4th April 1810, and an 
order was published at the same time in which, while the 
Governor- General admitted the '^ upright and honorable 
motives of the respectable officers who composed the 
Court/' he took exception to their judgments as having 
been erroneous in some points. 

It is conceivable that this Court may have been con- 
* sidered not sufficiently plastic, and too favorably disposed 
towards the accused officers. 

Neither of these objections could be urged against the 
members of the fresh Court Martial which was ordered 
to assemble at Wallajahbad for the trial of the remain- 
ing officers. The President of this Court was Colonel 
Wilkinson H.M. 30th Regiment, a firm and uncompro- 


mising > adherent of Sir George Barlow; and two-thirds of CHAP. XX. 
the members belonged to H.M. Service. The Court was The ^,fficerg 
consequently believed to have been packed^ and the f^^^^ *?. ^ 
accused officers having preferred the alternative of dis- 
missal to that of trial, they were dismissed accordingly 
on the 5th April 1810. The name of one officer, viz.. 
Captain McLeod 8th regiment cavalry, having been 
inserted in the order by mistake, his dismissal was can- 
celled on the 26th April. 

Case of Colonel the Honorable A. Sentleqer. 

During, and after, these troubles, many complaints 
were made of the harsh and degrading treatment to 
which a number of officers had been subjected after the 
suspension of Colonel Capper, and Major Boles ; but it 
will be sufficient to mention two instances, one of which 
is a striking example of insubordinate and intemperate 
behaviour on one side, and undignified retaliation on the 

* This officer in a letter to the Military Seoretaiy, dated 18th July 
1809, reported that he had no reason to believe that any officer nnder his 
command meditated any hostile measure against Government, but he 
added that, in event of " any wretches so far forgetting themselves 
as to be taken in arms against Government, it would be desirable to 
know if the punishment due to rebels might not be inflicted on them 

On the 21st of the same month, he offered to make prisoners of the 
European officers of the native corps at Triohinopoly, and to appoint 
King's officers tliereto — Letter to Lieutenant-Colonel Barclay, 21st July 

Shortly after the arrival of the Governor* Gtoeral, charges were pre- 
ferred against Colonel Wilkinson for unnecessary severity in carrying 
out the orders of Government with respect to the declaration, but his 
acts were held to be covered by the general amnesty. In these circum- 
stances, although Colonel Wilkinson had probably acted honestly 
according to his convictions, he could not be considered as unbiassed, 
and was therefore not a fit and proper person to have been selected as 
the President of the Court Martial. 


GHAP. XX. Lieutenant-Colonel the Honorable A. Sentleger of the 
6th cayalrj was an officer who had served with distinc- 
tion nnder Goote, Comwallis^ and Wellesley, and had 
recently received the thanks of Government for distin- 
gfuished service in Travancore. Nevertheless^ his con- 
duct on some occasions had called forth the displeasure of 
Government, who, in a despatch to the Court of Direc- 
tors, written in October 1807, before the arrival of Sir 
George Barlow, reported that '* a very dangerous spirit 
of cabal has shewn itself among several officers of your 
army. This feeling has been greatly inflamed by the 
impunity with which the Honorable Lieutenant-Colonel 
Sentleger has hitherto been enabled to brave and insult 
the authority of this Government, Every means of the 
most public nature have been taken at some of the princi« 
pal military stations to hold up Lieutenant-Colonel 
Sentleger as the champion of the rights of the Com- 
pany's army, and as one whose example calls for general 
imitation. " 

On the 7th April 1809, the Government, having re- 
ceived information that Colonel Sentleger had been con- 
cerned in the preparation of the memorial to the Governor- 
General, sent a letter to the Resident at Travancore, 
desiring that the Colonel should be relieved from the 
command at Oodagherry, and desired to return to hia 
regiment at Trichinopoly. 

It so happened that in this letter, which was not re- 
ceived until the 2dth April, the title of " Honorable *^ had 
been omitted, upon which Colonel Sentleger addressed 
the Chief Secretary in the following terms : — 

'' That the letter, I have herewith the honor to enclose, 
was intended by the Honorable the Gbvernor in Goancil to 
hurt my feelings, I am fully satisfied ; that he has succeeded, 
I am unable to deny ; but although it may be in the power of 
the Honorable the Governor in Council to wound my feelings. 



and degrade me from command, I am ignorant of any power CHAP. XX. 
or anthoritj vested in him to annul that title to which my 
birth has elevated me." 

" Am removal from command is generally conceived a 
pnnishment for an offence committed, I am relieved from 
mnch anxiety as to the caase of my removal, by having 
received officially the copy of a letter addressed by the present 
Commander-in-Chief to the Officer commanding in Travan- 
core respecting the expression of the general sense of the 
army on the unfortunate situation of Major Boles, a paper 
to which I affixed my name as being purely expressive of 
my sentiments on the subject to which it relates ; and 
further, I have no hesitation to declare that, had I been 
appointed to sit as member of a general Court-martial to 
investigate the conduct of Major Boles, as having refused to 
sig^ and puUish the orders of his immediate Commander* 
in-Chief on a subject so purely military, I should have 
awarded cashiering as a punishment only adequate to such 

This letter did not reach Madras until after the publi- 
cation of the order of the 1st May^ in which Colonel 
Sentleger and others had been suspended, but the instant 
it had been received, the permission which had been 
granted Colonel Sentleger to visit Trichinopoly for the 
purpose of arranging his private affairs before proceed- 
ing to Madras was revoked, and Colonel Wilkinson was 
ordered to send an officer to meet him on his way from 
Travancpre, to desire him to march to Poonamallee by 
the sea coast, and to await final orders at that station, 
which at that time was the depdt for foreign prisoners. 
Failing an assurance on the part of Colonel Sentleger 
that he would obey these orders, he was to be sent to 
Poonamallee under a guard. The Colonel arrived at 
Poonamallee in due course, having given the promise 
required, and soon afterwards he was allowed to go to 

VOL. in. 37 



CHAP. XX. Madras^ where he filed an affidavit in the Supreme Court 
preliminary to an action in the King's Bench^ which he 
proposed to bring against Sir G^rge Barlow for unjust 
suspension^ and slanderous and malicious libel. In this 
affidavit, which was sworn to about the middle of June, 
the Colonel denied having circulated^ or promoted the 
circulation, of any memorial to the Govemor-Qeneral, 
or that he had employed his influence for the purpose of 
subverting the authority of Government. On the 18th 
of June he applied for permission to remain at Madras 
in order that he might be present at the next session of 
the Courts but this was refused, and he embarked for 
England a few days afterwards. During October two 
witnesses, viz., Lieutenant-Colonel Vesey Madras army, 
and Lieutenant-Colonel McLeod H.M.'s 6dth regiment, 
were brought forward to rebut the statements of Colonel 
Sentleger, and af t-er having given their evidence before 
the Judges, they were cross-examined by the Colonel's 

Colonel Vesey deposed that the memorial had been 
sent to him at Palamcottah some time during Maruh by 
Colonel Sentleger, and that he had immediately written 
to him to the effect that he had destroyed it as being 
an improper document, of which action the Colonel had 
afterwards approved, because the intention to forward 
the memorial in that shape had been abandoned. 

Lieutenant-Colonel McLeod stated that the memorial 
had been brought to him in Travanoore by the Colonel, 
.who requested him to sign it, and also to procure the 
sig^tures of his officers thereto; both of which he 
refused to do, and also told the Colonel that if he did 
not succeed in turning out Sir George Barlow, he, the 
Colonel, ought to be turned out himself. This testi- 
mony was not shaken in cross-examination. It may be 


presumed that the removal of Sir George Barlow^ and CHAP. XX. 
the sabversion of Government were not considered as 
synonymous terms by Colonel Sentleger. 

Officebs AT Trichinopolt. 

The other instance was the treatment of the officers at 
Trichinopoly by Colonel Wilkinson^ who was said to have 
marched them to the barracks surrounded by a detach- 
ment of H.M/s 80th regiment, with loaded muskets^ 
and fixed bayonets, and with orders to shoot them all 
in case of a rescue being attempted. 

There is reason to believe that this complaint was 
true, but there must have been considerable difficulty in 
knowing how to deal with a set of officers ^ who would 
neither sig^ the declaration of fidelity, nor promise to 
abstain from communicating with the men of the regi- 
ments from which they had been removed. Officers, in 
making such complaints, forgot the manner in which 
they had themselves behaved in arresting and confining 
their lawful commandants. 

Debatbs at thi India House, 1810-12. 

The measures of Government were attacked at the 
India House by Sir Francis Baring, Sir Hugh Inglis, 
Messrs : Bannerman, Hudleston, and others, and defended 
by the majority, led by Messrs : Grant and Astell, the 
Qiairman and Deputy Chairman. Long and angry de- 
bates followed. It was maintained by one party that the 
mutiny had been entirely caused by the inveterate spirit 
of insubordination which prevailed among the officers; 
whereas it was contended on the other side that all the 

> Many of them belonged to the oavalry, the officers of which ha4 
been mnoh irritated by the Boapension of Colonel Sentleger, and tb» 
removal of Colonel Bumley from hig command. 




CHAP. XX. evils which were to be lamented in the disgraceful, and 
*"* guilty state of the army of Port St. George, were, in a 
great degree^ to be ascribed to the acts of Goyemment. 
Mr. Banner- The following is a summary of some of the principal 
atrictnres on objections taken by Mr. Bannerman in his dissent^ dated 
the oondnct 23rd April 1810 :— 

of Grovem- *^ 

** The rejection of the memorial ^ of officers commanding 

corps forwarded by the Commander-in-Chief on the 28th 

January 1809, on the ground that it was objectionable and 

improper ; by which rejection the door of appeal was shut, 

and authority interposed, to stop, not only the regular course 

of justice, bnt the ultimate appeal against oppression. 

'* The suspension of Colonel Capper and Major Boles for 
the strict performance of their military duty ; an act unsound 
in its principle, and rash and unnecessary in its application, 
and which may be considered the chief ground of discontent 
in the army, and by the subsequent measures growing out of 
this fatal error* to have been one of the leading causes of the 
late unfortunate rebellion. 

*^ The promulgation of the General Order of the 1st May 
1 809, which saspended and degraded, wiikout trial, officers 
whose characters, in the order, were publicly stigmatised on 
private examinatiofi and private information, withholding frow^ 
the accused the detail of the accusation, the name of the accuser ^ 
or any of those circumstances which justice ejtacts for the pwr^ 
pose of enabling the accused to repel imputed guiW^ 

The contest at the India House continued for about 
three years, when the attacking party having acquired 
the majority, orders were sent out in December 1812, 
nominating Lieutenant- General the Honorable John 
Abercromby to be Governor of Fort St. George, and 
annulling the provisional appointment of Sir George 

' The Court of Directors in para. 99 of their general letter, dated 15t]i. 
September 1809, expressed their disapproval of the refonal to tranamii 

this memorial. 


Barlow to succeed to the office of Govemor-Oeneral. CHAP. XX. 
These orders haying been received at Madras in May g^,. q g 
1813, Sir George Barlow vacated office on the 21st of ^^'^^^ 

° yacates 

that month. office, 1818. 

Pardon of thb Officbks, 1811-16. 

With the exception of Lieutenant-Colonel John Bell, 
and the Commandants of the battalions which had 
marched from Chittledroog, every surviving officer who 
had either been suspended, dismissed, or cashiered, was 
ultimately restored to the service. This was an act of 
grace in the cases of most, but the few who' had been 
unJQStly treated had reason to complain of the continu- 
ance of their suspension by the majority of the Court, 
who were desirous to avoid any thing having the appear- 
ance of reflecting upon any of the actions of the Madras 
Government. On this plea, Major Boles, and Captain 
Marshall were not relieved from suspension until October 
1811, although a large body of officers, who had been 
engaged in actual mutiny, had been exempted by the 
amnesty from any punishment whatever. 

Lieutenant-Colonels Doveton, and Kobert Bell were 
restored to their respective commands in January 1813. 
With respect to the former, the Court observed that 
although they doubted whether his acquittal had been 
justified by the evidence, they would not deprive him of 
the benefit thereof. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Munro, Majors Kenny and Stewai*t, 
and Captains Sadler and Poignand were not restored until 
April and June 1814, and Major Storey not until two 
years later. All the others were restored during 1812 
and 1813. 

The bad feeling, and dissension engendered by these Bad feeling 
lamentable events did not subside for many years. Several *° ® army, 
courts- martial were held upon officers during 1809-10 


CHAP. XX. for insulting others who had sided with the GoVern- 
ment, and in 1812^ an officer was suspended for having 
refused to dine with Colonel Conran Cbmmanding &e 
Hyderabad Subsidiary Force, or to make any apology 
for his refusal. £ven so late as ISSS, an officer of rank, 
then holding an important staff appointment at the 
Presidency^ was still in bad odour with his surviving 
contemporaries for alleged treachery towards the officers 
of his own regiment. 

BmnArks. Although the motives which led the Commander-in- 

Chief to take action against Colonel Munro may have 
been questionable, yet it must be admitted that his pro- 
ceedings were regular, and consistent both with military 
law, and the usages of the service ; whereas those of 
Government, besides being severe and arbitrary in the 
extreme, were, in some instances, positively unjust. It 
is now conceded that Major Boles ought not to have 
suffered for his obedience to the Commander-in-Chief, 
more especially as he only signed the order in conse- 
quence of the temporary absence of his superior, who, on 
his return, assumed the responsibility ; but this avowal, 
instead of having the effect of leading to the restoration 
of Major Boles, only involved Colonel Capper in the same 
predicament. Again, supposing an example to have been 
necessary, the removal of these two officers from their 
important situations on the staff would have been suffi- 
cient to mark the displeasure of Government without the 
infliction of the additional cruel punishment of suspen- 
sion. This punishment, followed immediately afterwarda 
by the refusal to permit Major Boles to return home 
in the '' Lushington,'^ was one proximate cause of the 
mutiny, for, had not that officer been detained in India, 
no subscriptions fur his maintenance would have been 
required, and the addresses to him, for being concerned 


in which, several officers of rank were removed from CHAP. XX. 
their commands, would never have been framed. 

In reading the correspondence of the time it is impos- 
sible not to be struck by the exaggerated and violent 
language in which the officers described their grievances 
and fears. The former, with the exception of the unfair 
preference shown to the officers of the Royal army in 
respect to commitnds, and appointments on the staff, 
were more imaginary than real, and not sufficient to 
account for any violent agitation^ far less for the mutiny, 
the principal cause of which must be sought for in the 
severity of the local Grovemment; for although the feeling 
of alarm and insecurity, which pervaded all ranks subse- 
quently to the suspensions and removals ordered on the 
1st May, seems at first sight to have been out of all pro- 
portion to the importance of the circumstances so far as 
they affected the general body of officers, yet it must be 
remembered that in those days of slow communication 
with England, suspension meant being reduced to a bare 
subsistence for an indefinite period, certainly for a year 
at least, and that the Madras Government had shown 
themselves disposed to make an ansparing use of . that 
severe, and theretofore exceptional method of punishment, 
without trial, and without disclosing the evidence upon 
which they acted. No man felt safe, and no relief could 
be expected from the Supreme Government, which had 
committed itself to an unqualified approval of the pro- 
ceedings of Sir George Barlow. Nothing can justify the 
misguided and guilty conduct of the officers, but the 
arbitrary closing of the door of appeal in India, and the 
unfortunate procrastination of Lord Minto in delaying 
CO proceed to Madras, must be held as important factors 
in their continued insubordination, and the culmination 
thereof in mutiny. 




OF JAVA, 1812. 


Ameer Khan 


of the British 

Advance to 

Occupation of Serongb, 1810. 

A soldier of fortune named Ameer Khan^ who had 
attained some distinction in the service of different 
princes in Central India, at last attached himself to 
Jeswont Rao Holkar, and ultimately became independent. 
In January 1809, taking advantage of the insanity of 
Holkar, he entered the territories of the Rajah of Nagpore 
at the head of a large force estimated at 40,000 horse 
and 34,000 Pindarics, and took possession of the city of 
Jubbulpoor, and the surrounding country. 

The interests of the British Government being supposed 
to be injuriously affected by this movement, an army was 
assembled at, and in the neighbourhood of, Jaulna 
during November, and placed under the command of 
Colonel Barry Close, who was invested by the Governor- 
General with the entire control of all the British troops 
serving in the territories of the Nizam, the Peishwa, and 
the Rajah of Berar* 

Encouraged by these preparations, the Nagpore troops 
attacked Ameer Ehan,and drove him into Bhopal ; but the 
advance of Colonel Close being still considered necessary, 


he marched^ from Janlna aboat the middle of November CHAP. XXI. 
by Amrawutty, ABhty, and BUlsay and on the 10th Febra- 
ary 1810, he arrived at Seronge/ the capital of Ameer 
Khan, after a long and difficult march. 

The place had been evacuated on the 9th by the last Occupation 
party of Ameer Khan's troops, he himself having previ- igio.'*'''^' 
ously taken refuge at Indore. On the 11th, Colonel 
Close placed himself in communication with Lieutenant- 
Colonel Martindale commanding a detachment of Bengal 
troops, which had been ordered to co-operate from 
Bundlecund, and which was then encamped about 45 
miles from Seronge. 

All apprehensions of a further invasion of Berar being Breaking np 
over for the time. Colonel Close was soon recalled. He ^ *^® "^^' 
reached the Nerbudda on the 8th March, and from thence 

^ The army was brigaded as follows in December 1809:— 
Cavalry divisioii, Lieutenant-Colonel Hare, H.M. SSSnd Dragoons. 

Ist brigade. Major Keale, 
Ist cavalry. 
H.M. 22nd Ligbt Dragoons. 
Ist Begiment Cavalry. 
7th do. do. 

2ad brigade, Major Lewis, 
2nd cavalry. 
2nd Regiment Cavalry. 
4th do. do. 

8th do. do. 

Infantry division, Lieatenant-Colonel Conran, Boyals. 

Bight brigade. Major Brace, 
20th native infantry. 
1st battaUon 16th N.L 
2ad do. 17th do. 

Centre brigade, Lieutenant- Colonel 
Irton, 12th native infantry, 
let battalion lOth N.I. 
H.M. 34th Begiment. 
1st battalion 12th N.L 

Left brigade, Lieutenaat-Colonel Trotter, 20th native in&ntry. 

Ist battalion 9th native infantry. 
1st do. 20th da 

2Dd do. 7th do. 

Major Crossdill to command the artillery. 
Captain Bowes (6th N.I.) to command the pioneers. 
Europeans 1,507, natives 7,590. 
Nizam's troops 2,078, Mysore Horse 1,600, Salabut Khan's contingent 

' In the province of Malwa, Lat. 24-5 N. Long. 77-41 B., about 450 
miles from Jaulna in a north-easterly direction. 

TOL. III. ^ 38 



OHAP. XXL proceeded to Amrawuttj, where the army was broken 
ap on the 24th ApriU A detachment under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hewitt of the 17th was sent to Hyderabad. -A 
brigade under Lieutenant-Colonel Conran marched to 
Jaulna, which had recently been fixed upon as the Head 
Quarters of the Hyderabad Subsidiary Force, and the 
remainder of the army, under Colonel Close, followed to 
the same station, from whence the regiments, under orders 
for cantonments in the Bouth, proceeded to their several 

Colonel Close returned to England in September, upon 
which occasion the following order was issued by (rovera* 
ment :— 

of Colonel 

*' Fort St, Georgb, 6th Sbptsmbbk 1810. 

''Colonel Close is permitted to proceed to Europe on 
furloagh. The important services rendered by Colonel Close, 
in the high and confidential situations which he has held 
under the OoYemment of this Presidency, have so frequently 
received the testimony ' of pubHc approbation that it would 

^ Bztraot of a letter to the GoYemor-General from General Haxris, 
Seringapatam, 13th May 1799. 

"In ereiy point of view, I must call jcmr Lordship's partionlar 
attention to the Adjatant*Genenil of the army*. Hie general obaraoter 
as an officer is too well established by a long and distinguished course of 
the most meritorious service to require my testimony. • • • The 
ability, zeal« and energy displayed by him in superintending the variona 
operations of an arduous jnege, where he wi^ ever present, stimulating 
the exertions of others, or assisting their judgment and labor with his 
own, claim from me to be stated to your Lordship in the most forcible 
terms. It is my earnest wish that my sentiments on this subject may 
be publicly recorded, and it is my firm opinion that, if the suoceea of 
this army has been of importance to the British interests, that succeaa 
is to be attributed, in a very considerable degree, to Lientenant-Goloiiel 

Extract trom General Orders by the GoTemor-General, Fort Bt.t}eorge» 
24th May 1799. 

"The oondnot of the A^ntant- General, Lieutenant-Colonel Close, 
has amply Justified the implicit confidence reposed by the Gk^vemor- 
General in Council in his extenstTe knowledge, approved experience, 
superior talents, ardent valor, ftnd indefatigable activity." 


be superflaons to reeapitalaie them.. The Oovemor in CHAP. XXI. 

Council, however, cannot allow that officer to depart without """^ 

again expreasing the high sense which this GK)yemment must 

ever entertain of serTioes bo eminent and distinguished, 

which have contributed so essentially to the prosperity of 

the British interests in the Deccan, and which so justly entitle 

him to the strongest expressions of gratitude and esteem/' 

Colonel Close becanie a Major-General in July 1810. He returns to 
He was created a Baronet soon af terwards^ and died in °^ 
England in 1813, aged 56. 

The Court of Directors sent out a handsome monument 
to his memory ^' in testimony of their gratitude for his 
ardent zeal, and entire derotion. to their service, equally 
manifested in the application of high military attainments> 
and of profound political knowledge.'^ This monument 
is now in St, Mary's Church, Port St. George. 

Expeditions against thb French Islands, 1809-10. 

Occupation of EodHgues, 1809. 

Between 1792, and 1809, the trade of the East India 
Company suffered severely from the attacks of French 
men-of-war, and of privateers sent from the Mauritius 
and Bourbon, but the British Government was long 
averse to undertake any expedition against these islands 
on account of the expense which it would involve. At 
last our losses became so serious that it was determined 
toestablish a blockade^ and in furtherance of this object 
it was resolved to take possession of the small island of 
Rodrigues ^ as a depdt for stores and provisions, and as 
a station for the squadron. This island, almost uninhab- 
ited, was occupied accordingly by a detachment from 
Bombay consisting of about 200 of H.M.^s 56th foot, and 

^ About 800 miles east of the Mauritiiu or Isle of France — Lat. 

19* 41' s., Long, earec E. 


CHAP. XXI. an equal number of men from the 2nd battalion 2nd regi^ 
ment Bombay native infantry^ all under the command of 
Lieutenant-Colonel H. S. Keating of the 56th. 

During August, and the early part of September 1809^ 
ordnance, stores, and provisions were landed, roads 
were made leading to the interior of the island, and the 
troops were exercised preparatory to an attempt to sur- 
prise the town of St. Paul's situated on the west coast 
of Bourbon. 

Capture of St. PauVs, 

On the 16th September, a detachment, consisting of 
868 officers and men, embarked on board H.M.'s ships 
'^Nereide '^ and '* Otter'' and the East India Company's 
cruiser "Wasp." On the morning of the 19th, they 
fell in with H.M.'s ships "Raisonable" and "Sirius" 
off the Mauritius, and on the same day the troops and 
seamen destined for the attack, consisting of 604, were 
put on board the "Nereide," and the squadron sailed 
for Bourbon that evening. 

About 6 o'clock on the morning of the 2l8t, the troops 
landed a short distance to the south of Point de (Calotte 
on the north-western coast of the island, about seven 
miles north of the town of St. Paul's. Colonel Keating 
moved rapidly forward, and by 7 a.m. he was in posses- 
sion of the first and second batteries. 

The enemy made a stand belund a stone wall near the 
third battery, but they were soon forced from that posi- 
tion. The remaining batteries were then taken, and the 
guns turned upon the shipping in the harbour, the whole 
of which surrendered shortly afterwards to the British 
squadron which stood in at this time. 

By half past 8 o'clock, the town, batteries, magazines, 
and public stores were in our possession. The Fpench 
frigate ^' La Caroline," of 46 guns, was taken, and several 



mercltantmen belonging to the ESast India Company, were OH AP. XXI. 
recaptored, also the brig " Grappler '' of 18 gnns. ^""^ 

After this brilliant exploit. Colonel Keating retnmed to 
Rodrignes, where he arrired on the 25th October, and 
immediately began to bnild store-hoases, barracks, and 
houses for the officers. 

Expedition to Bourbon, 1810. 

On hearing of the saccess which had attended the 
efforts of so small a detachment, the Supreme Govern* 
ment resolved to attempt the complete reduction of the 
French islands, and they sent instructions to Madras, 
in conformity with which, a force,^ consisting of 1,650 
Europeans, and 1,900 Natives, embarked at that place for 
Rodrigues on the 8th May 1810, under the command of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hastings Fraser, H.M.'s 86th regi- 

The troops arrived on the 20th June, and Colonel Arrives off 
Keating having assumed command, the expedition sailed ^' l)eiu». 
on the 3rd July for St. Denis, the capital of Bourbon, 
and approached the place of debarkation on the 6th 

The first br^^^e, under Lieutenant-Colonel Fraser orderRtotha 
composed of H.M.'s 86tb, the 1st battalion 6th Madras ^'''^op^- 
native infantry (6th M.N.I.), with a party of artillery 

Madras artillery ... ... ... 100 

Flank companiefl, H.M.'a 12th and 83rd 400 

H.M.'8 69th regiment 730 

f, 86th do. ... ... ... 420 


Ist battalion 6th Madma native infantrj ... 860 
2nd do. 12th do. ... 860 
Detaohment 2nd battalion pioneers 200 

Total rank and file ... 3,660 


CHAP. XXI. and pioneers, was ordered to land at Grand Chaloupe, 
^"" aboat six miles west of St Denis, which is situated on the 
northern coast of the island. 

The remaining three brigades, under the general com- 
mand of Colonel Keating, were ordered to land near the 
*^ Biyiere de Pluies/' about three miles east of the town, 
. viz. :^— 

The second brigade under Lieutenant-Colonel Drum- 
mond/H.M.^s 86th, composed of a party of Royal marines, 
and the 2nd battalion 12th regiment Madras native infan- 
try (24th M.N.I.). 

The third brigade under Ldentenant-Golonel. McLeod, 
H.M.'s 69th, composed of H.M.'s 69th, and a detachment 
of Bombay native infantry. 

The fourth brigade under Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell, 

H.M.'s 33rd, composed of the flank companies H.M.^s 

12th and 33rd regiments, a detachment H.M.'s 56th, and 

a party of pioneers* 

Diflkmltjin The disembarkation began at 2 p.m. on the 7th, and 

^' about 300 men of the third and fourth brigades under 

Colonel McLeod, together with a few seamen under 

Captain Willoughby, had landed, when the surf became 

so heavy that nothing more could be done. Upon this 

Colonel McLeod moved a short distance to the eastward 

as far as St. Marie, where he took possession of a battery 

and remained during the night. 

Snooenofthe The first brigade succeeded in lauding at Orand 

"*^*' Chaloupe without loss, and Colonel Eraser, pushing on 

towards the town, occupied the western heights above it 

with the view of preventing the entrance of any succours 

from St. Paul's. Early on the morning of the 8th, the 

Colonel, leaving the 6th battalion to protect his rear, 

descended the hill towards the town with the Europeans, 

and attacked the enemy, who were drawn up in two 



columns on the plain with two field-pieces^ and supported OHAP. XXI. 
on the flank by a redoubt. They were quickly driven * 

back by the bayonet, broken, and pursued so closely that 
they retreated into the town, leaving the redoubt in our 
possession. The guns .were then turned upon the place^ 
and the rest of the troops coming up about 4 o'clock in 
the afternoon, the commandant surrendered, and a capit- Surrender of 
ulation was signed by which the whole island, together 
with all public property, was ceded to the British. The 
troops became prisoners of war. Our loss was incon- 
siderable, viz., 18 killed ^ and 79 wounded, exclusive of 5 

Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell was detached to St. 
Paul's with his brigade on the 10th, and took possession 
of that place, where 1 ,500 men laid down their arms. 

145 pieces of ordnance of various calibres, 195,000 lbs. Captured 
of gunpowder, and a quantity of small arms, and military 
stores fell into our hands. 

Captain Moodie of the 6th regiment. Captain Lambert nianka to 
2nd battalion 13th regiment, acting Aide-de-Camp to flnrteigade^ 
Colonel Fraser, Lieutenant Davies Engineers, Lieutenant 
Abdy artillery, and Lieutenant Scouler of the pioneers 
(1st battalion 22nd regiment) received the thanks of 
the brigadier. 

The services of the several brigadiers, and of the andstatf. 
officers on the staff, were duly acknowledged by Colonel 

/•H.M.'8 86th ...11 
1 let brigade, j eth H.N.I. ... 1 

C PioneerB 
2iid „ .k. Marines 
8rd ,, ... H.M.'s69th 

-^, j Flank corps 

^^ " •• lH.M.*8 56th 


, ^ . ^ rH.M.'8 8eth, 58 
l8t brigade, [eth M.N.I.... 7 

/-Flank corps . 7 
4th ,. ... )H.M.'s66th . 8 
C Pioneers ... 4 





OHA^. XXI. Keating in his report to the Goyemor-General, dated 

2l8t July, which was conveyed to Calcutta by Lientenant- 

Golonel Campbell H.M/s 33rd regiment. 

Thanks of the On the 34th Aagust an order was issued by the 

General. ~ Oovemor-General in Council in which the officers and 

men engaged in the expedition were thanked for the 
zeal, courage, and perseverance, by which a conquest of 
so much importance to the national interests had been 

Capture of the Isle de la Passe. 

On the night of the 13th August the ''Isle de la Passe/' 
situated at the mouth of the harbour at the south-eastern 
extremity of the Mauritius, known as the " Grand Port,'^ 
was attacked by a small ^ party of marines and seamen 
in the boats of the ^' Sirius'' and '* Iphigenia'' and carried. 
Lieutenant Norman of the " Sirius " and 6 men were 
killed, and 18 men wounded. A garrison of 130 men was 
placed in the island, and Lieutenant Davies of the 
Engineers was entrusted with the duty of improving the 
Attacks on the Captain WiUoughby of the '^Nereide^' having been 
^^^ ^ placed in charge of the island, made preparations for 
attacking some of the enemy's posts on the mainland, and 
leaving Captain Todd H.ll/s 33rd, in command, he 
embarked a small detachment ^ in the boats of the 
«' Nereide '' and " Staunch " at 1 a.m. on the 17th^ and 
assaulted and ca^rried the fort at '^ Point de Diable,'' which 

^ Seventy-one in all. — James* Naval History, Vol. V, p. 146. 

' 170 officers and men, vis., Lientenant Aldwiokle ICadras artillery, 
and 12 men ; Lientenant Morlett H.M's 33rd, and Lieutenant Needhall 
H.M*B 69th, with 60 men ; Lieutenants Pye and Coz Royal marines, with 
50 men ; and Lieutenants Deacon and Wiess B.K., with 50 men. 

Lientenant Daries Madras Engineers, accompanied the party and 
was slightly wounded. — James' Naval History, Vol. V, and Madras 
Army List for 1810. 



commanded the north-eastern entrance into the " Orand CHAP. XXI. 

Port/* Having spiked the gans, destroyed the carriages, 

and blown np themagazine. Captain Willoughby advanced 

to the town of ^' Grand Port/' distant about twelve miles, 

after having dispersed a party ot the enemy by which he 

was opposed on the march. He returned to his ship the 

same evening. 

The next day he landed again with the same force, 
and destroyed the signal-house at the port of '' Grand 
Riviere/' about five miles north of " Point de Diable/' 
to which place he then returned, and after having 
destroyed the works, he went back to the ^^ Isle de la 

Disastera of the Squadron. 

These successes were quickly followed by a series of Attaok on the 
disasters to the squadron. On the 22nd August the 86-gun <« QnxA ^ 
frigates ** Sinus/' and " Nereide " made an attempt to P®«^-" 
attack the French vessels in the '^ Grand Port/' but the 
'^ Sirius " having grounded near the entrance, nothing 
was effected. The '' Iphig^nia/' and ^' Magicienne," 
also of 36 guns each, having arrived the next day, the 
attempt was renewed by the four ships, but the *' Sirius '^ 
and " Magicienne " both took the ground, and the Lom of three 
other two vessels were unequal to contend against the ' *^ 
combined fire of the enemy's ships and batteries. The 
'' Nereide," which had grounded after standing into the 
harbour, was obliged to strike her flag about 10 p.m., 
after having had 230 seamen, marines, and soldiers killed 
and wounded out of a total of 281. Amongst the killed 
were Lieutenant Morlett H.M.'s 33rd, and Lieutenant 
F. Aldwinkle 1st battalion Madras artillery. Lieutenant 
Needhall of the 69th was wounded. 

The *' Magicienne" was abandoned, and set on fire at 
7 P.M. on the 24th, and blew up at 11 p.m. On the 25th 
the *' Iphigenia " endeavoured to get the " Sirius " off, 

VOL. III. 39 


CHAP. XXI. but finding this impracticable, she took the crew on 
board. The " Sirins *' was set on fire, and blew up 
about 11 A.M. 

The ^* Iphigenia '' then began to warp herself out, but 

the wind against her was so strong that she did not 

get back to the '' Isle de la Passe '' until the night of the 

26th, when she anchored about three-quarters of a mile 

from the island. 

Surrender of On the 27th the French were reinforced by four shijps 

la Passe ^' to* ^^ ^^ from Port LouiSy and on the same day Captain 

the French. Lambert of the " Iphigenia " was called upon by Captain- 

Greneral Decaen to surrender the officers and crews of the 

squadron within one hour, together with his ship, and 

the batteries, arms, ammunition and troops upon the 


He was also summoned by Commodore Hamelin of the 
40-gun frigate ^'Yenus,'' who commanded the French 
squadron, and after some correspondence the surrender 
took place at 10 a.m. on the 29th. 
The French The English squadron being reduced to Commodore 
B^n. Rowley's ship " Boadicea '' of 38 guns, the sloop "Otter " 
of 16 guns, and the gun-brig ^'Staunch,'' the French 
turned the tables, blockaded the island of Bourbon, and 
captured some transports carrying troops and proyisions 
for the projected expedition against the Mauritius. 
Baising of the This blockade was maintained until the 12th September, 
on which day the '' Africaine'^ frigate of 38 guns, Captam 
Corbett, arriyed off St. Denis, when the Conmiodore with 
the "Boadicea," "Otter,'' and '• Staunch" put out from 
13t. Paul's to meet it, having received information of its 
arrival from Colonel Keating. The blockading ships at 
this time were the " Astree" of 44 guns, the "Iphigenia'' 
(captured at " Isle de la Passe)," and the brig " Entre- 
prenant," which last, apparently in consequence of a signal 
from the others, made sail to the north-east soon after the 



appearance of the ^'Afrioaine/' and was qnickly ont of CHAP. XXI. 

sight. The Commodore then endeavonred to bring the 

frigates to action, bnt the ^' Boadicea'^ was a bad sailer, 

and at 2 A.m. on the 13th, when the "Africaine '' had got 

close to the "Astrfe/* the "Boadicea" was still four or 

five miles to leeward, and the '* Otter '' and ^* Staunch ^* 

out of sight. 

Captain Corbett, knowing that the frigates were within Capture 
a few hours run of Port Louis in the Mauritius, and «Afrioaine." 
expecting that the ^' Boadicea^' would come up, deter- 
mined to engage notwithstanding the disparity of force, 
but he was overmatched, and the '* Africaine ** struck 
her colors about 4-45 a.m. with the loss of 49 killed, and 
114 wounded. Captain Corbett was mortally wounded at 
the commencement of the action. 

Out of a detachment of 25 men and one officer H.M.'s 
86th which had been taken on board at St. Denis, 5 were 
killed and 18 wounded, including the officer. Captain 
Bobert Elliot 5th Bombay native infantry, who had 
volunteered at St. Denis, was killed. 

About 7 A.M. the '^ Boadicea ^* was joined by her two Her 
consorts, and the wind having freshened, the Commodore ^^^ 
bore up for the frigates, which were making slow progress 
owing to the crippled state of the prize, which had been 
much damaged both in her masts and hull. They deserted 
her about 3-30 p.m., and the ''Boadicea" coming up 
about 5 o'clock, towed her back to St. Paul's, where she 
arrived on the 15th. 

On the morning of the 18th three ships having appeared Capture of 
in the offing, the Commodore made sail after them, ^dreoaptoe 
They turned out to be the French frigate *' Venus" and ^ t^« 

, "Ceylon." 

the corvette '^ictor,'^ the latter having in tow the British 
frigate " Ceylon " ^ of 32 guns, which they had captured 

> An Indiaman of 672 tons, which had been bought by the British 
Goremment in 1805 and armed as a^frigate. 



CHAP. XXI. on the preceding day. The ^' Victor " cast off the prifse 
about 8 P.M. and stood off to the eastward. The ^'Boadi- 
cea^' came up with the ''Venus'^ about 5 p.m. and com* 
polled her to strike her colors in about ten minutes. She 
had lost her mizen mast and topmasts in the action with 
^e '' Ceylon^'' and consequently made a poor defence. 

Lieutenant-General the Honorable John Abercrombie, 
Commander-in-Chief at Bombay, who had recently been 
appointed to command the troops destined for the Mau* 
ritius, and Major Caldwell of the Madras Engineers, were 
both on board the " Ceylon.'* 

Lieutenant-Qeneral Sir Samuel Auchmuty succeeded 
Major-Greneral Oowdie in command of the army of Fort 
St. George on the 27th September 1810. 




Capture or the Mauritius, 1810. 

The embarkation of the troops ^ from Madras destined 
for the expedition against the Mauritius^ began on the 




^ • 

rank and 


rank and 




Detachment H.M.'s 26th dra- 

Detachment 1st battalion artil- 

H.if.'s i2th reimnent 

H.M.'s SOth do. 

Detachment H.M.'s 22Rd regi- 

Detachment H.M.'s eoth regi- 

Detachment H.M.'s 86th ragi- 

Detachment H.M.'s 89th regi- 

Madras volunteer battalion 

Details 1st of Oth, and 2nd of 12th 


Detachqpent let battalion pio- 
neers ... ... ... ... ,., 

Total ... 





















• • • 

 • > 

• • • 

•  • 

• • • 

• •• 

• •  


• « • 

• . a 
«  • 



a • « 

• • • 

• • • 






3r.B.— Besides the above. Major-General Warde second in command. 1 D.A.6. 
King's troops. 1 D.Q.M.O. King's troops. 8 Aidee-de-Camp. 1 Ensign of Bnsi- 
neer8,-8 Conductors. 

The whole were embarked by the 24th, eicept 400 M.V.B. detained for want o( 


17ih September, and was concluded by the 24tli. On CHAP. XZI. 

the 6th November the squadron, and transports reached 

Bodrigues, where they found the Bombay contingent, but 

that from Bengal did not arrive until the 21st. The 

whole anchored in Grand Bay on the northern extremity 

of the Mauritius on the 29th idem, and the troops were Landing of 

landed without opposition on the afternoon of the same ^ ^' 


The following distribution of the force was made : — Formation of 

First hrigade,^IdtnaenatU- Colonel PtctonH.M.' 9 I2th. 

H.M.'s 12th and 22nd, and right wiog Madras volonteer 

Second brigade.'-^Lieutencbnt' Colonel Gihhs n.M.*8 b9ih. 

H.M.'s 59th, 800 89th, one company 87tb, left wing 
Madras volunteer battalion. 

Third brigade^ — LteatencmU Colonel Kelso- 
H.M.'6 14th, and 2nd Bengal volonteers. 

Fourth brigade. — Lieutenant- Colonel McLeod H,M.*8 69tK 

HM.'s 69th, Boyal marines 300, flank companies 6th and 
12th M.N.I. 

Fifth brigade. — lAeiutenanU Colonel Smith H.M.*8 6bth* 

Troop H.M.'s 25th dragoons, H.M.'s 65th, and Ist Bengal 

Reserve brigade. — LieutenanUOolonel Keating. 

Flank companies H.M.'s 12th and 33rd, H.M.'s 84th, two 
companies H.M.'s 56th. 

One company H.M.'s 14th and 89th, and a detachment 
of Bombay native infantry under Captain Imlach. 

The troops in Fort. Malartic near the head of the bay 
had quitted the place on the appearance of the fleet, and 
retired to Port Louis. 



Advanoe of 

CHAP. XXI. The fifth brigade was left to secure the landing-place, 
"""^ with orders to follow next daj with the ammunition and 

The remainder of the force moved on at once alon^ 
the coast for about five miles, after which it bivouaced 
for the night. 

During this march the reserve brigade, which was in 
advance, was fired upon when emerging from a wood 
into the plain, but the enemy retired without making any 

Colonel Keating, and Lieutenant Ashe of the 12th were 
wounded, and two men killed at this place. 

The march was resumed on the morning of the 30th, 
but the heat was so great that the force was obliged to 
halt and encamp at *^ Moulin a Poudre,'' about six miles 
from Port Louis. 

During the afternoon a reconnoitring party under 
General Decaen attacked our pickets and compelled them 
to retire, but being reinforced they rallied and drove 
back the enemy with some loss. 

Before day-light on the 1st December Colonel McLeod 
was detached with his brigade to take possession of the 
batteries at the bays of Tortue, and Tombeau, about a 
couple of miles to the right of the line of march, which 
service was successfully performed. 

About 5 o'clock the main body moved on towards 
Port Louis for about two miles, when it found the 
passage of the river Tombeau disputed by about 300 of 
the enemy with two field-pieces. They were soon driven 
back, and the troops crossed the bridge, but it would 
not admit of the passage of the guns, having been partially 
destroyed. This caused some delay, as the guns had to be 
sent to a ford lower down. Major O'Keefe H.M.'8 12th^ 
was killed in this affair. 

Affairt at 
the riren 


The troops were again opposed abont two miles further CHAP. XXI. 
On at the river Sdche, where Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell^ 
oommanding the European flank battalion, was killed. 
The enemy were driven back with the loss of about 100 
men^ and pursued to the river Lataniers near the out- 
works of the town. The troops were then withdrawn 
beyond the range of the batteries^ and encamped for the 

A flag of truce was sent to the camp by the enemy the Surrender of 
next morning, and terms of capitulation having been 
agreed upon, they were ratified on the 3rd December^ 
when the whole island was surrendered, together with a 
large quantity of military and naval stores and ammuni- 
tion. 209 pieces of heavy ordnance were found upon the 

The frigates ''Bellone," "Minerve/' *'Manche/' Captured 
** Astr^ '' and (late British) " Iphigenia,'' the corvettes ^^ 
" Victor*' and '* Bntreprenant/' with a new vessel of the 
same class, were taken in the harbour^ besides twenty- 
four merchant ships, some of which were of large burden. 

The English Indiamen '^ Charlton/' " Ceylon/' and Britiah ahips 
" United Kingdom " were recaptured, and about -2,000 '^P*"^ 
English seamen and soldiers, who had been taken pri- 
soners, were rescued from confinement. 

The French troops and seamen were not made prisoners Enemy's 
of war, but were sent to France with their arms and toF»noe! 
colors, and all their personal effects, at the expense of the 
British Government, far more favorable conditions than 
the enemy had any right to expect^ considering the great 
disparity of force. 

Our loss was only 28 killed, 94 wounded, and 45 miss- Casnaltiet. 
ing, 167 in all. Major Taynton of the Madras artillery, 
Lieutenant Eeappock H.M.'s 12th, and Lieutenant Jones 




Force of tiie 

Thanks to 
the troops. 

Thanks to 
the Madias 
troops, 1812. 

H.M/s 84tli^ were wounded, besides the two officers pre- 
vionsly named. 

The French regnlar troops did not exceed l^SOOy of 
whom abont 500 were Irish, chiefly recmits taken out of 
captured Indiamen. 

The native militia were computed at about 10,000 men^ 
but they did not render any assistance to the French, 
haying been deterred, it was believed, by proclamations 
distributed by Captain Willoughby in Augpist at the time 
of his incursion from the *' Isle de la Passe/' 

The services of Major-General Warde, of the officers 
commanding brigades, of Major Taynton senior officer of 
artillery, of Major Caldwell Madras Engineers, and of 
the officers and men generally, were duly acknowledged 
by General Abercrombie in his report to the Gfovernor^ 
General, and on the 9 th February 1811 the force was 
thanked by the Governor-General in Council. 

The Madras troops returned early in 1812, when the 
following order was issued at Fort St. Greorge, dated 11th 
February 1812 :— 

** The whole of the native troops employed on the late expe- 
dition against the Islands of Bourbon, and Mauritius having 
returned to Fort St. George, the Honorable the Gbvemor in 
Council performs a satisfactory part of his daty in requesting 
that His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief will be pleased 
to convey to the several native corps and detachments which 
served at the conquest of those islands, the public thanks of 
the Government for the alacrity with which they embarked 
on that service, for the gallantry which they displayed when 
opposed to the enemy, and for their uniform good oonduct 
on all occasions during the period of their absence firom the 

Medals were granted shortly afterwards to the native 
troops, gan lascars included, but it was not until late 


in 1838 that they * were permitted to carry the word CHAP. XXI. 
'* Bourbon'' on their oolors and appointments.* 

The island of Bourbon was restored to the French after DiBposal of 
the peace in 1815. The Maaritios still remains in oar ® " 

A noticeable feature of this expedition was the prompti- Volnnteering 
tude with which the native troops volunteered for the Mrvi^^*^ 
service the moment they heard it was in contemplation. 
The undermentioned corps are specified in the report 
which was made by the Commander-in-Chief to Gk>vem- 
ment on the occasion^ viE.> the 3rd and 6th cavaliy, the 
Ist battalion 5th, 1st of 6th, 2nd of 3rd, 2nd of 12th, 2nd 
of 21st, and the 2nd battalion of pioneers. The 2nd of 
the 20th, and 2nd of 25th volunteered at the same time 
to form a battalion which it was proposed to raise for 
duty at the settlement of Bencoolen ^ in Sumatra. The 
Gk)vemor-Generalj who was then at Madras, thanked the 
troops in an order dated 6th April 1810 for the *^ zeal, 
fidelity, and military spirit by which their conduct has 
been distinguished on this important occasion.'' 

Expeditions against thb Moluccas, 1809-10. 

Capture of Amhoyna^ 1810. 

In October 1809, the frigate '' Dover " of 38 guns, the 
'^ Comwallis " of 44 guns, and the sloop ^' Samarang " of 
18 guns, sailed for the Dutch settlements in the Eastern 
Islands, having on board a detachment of Madras artil- 

' 6th and 24th regiments M.N.I., and the " Sappers and Miners '* as 
representing the *' pioneers." The word *' Boorbon " had been granted 
to H.M.'s 69th, and 86th some years earlier. No honorary distinction 
was conferred for the oaptnre of St. Panl's, which, considering the 
smaU force at the disposal of Colonel Keating, was the most dadiing 
affair daring the expedition. 

' Szchanged with the Dutch in 1824 for their possessionB in Malacca. 

VOL. III. 40 


CHAP. XXI. lery under Captain Conrt^ and one of the Madras Euro* 
pean regiment nnder Captain Phillips. Captain Tacker 
of the '* Dover'' was in command of the whole. 

The expedition arrived at Amboyna on the ISth or 
14th February 1810^ and anchored at some little diBtaiice 
from the land in order to reconnoitre the defences^ the 
principal of which was Fort Victoria with a battery on 
each flank. There were also two batteries on the heights 
above the town, with an interval of about 1^500 yards 
between them^ one named Wanitoo, and the other Battoo- 
Grantong. About 215 pieces of ordnance were mounted 
in the fort and lower works, and 21 in the hill batteries. 
The garrison consisted of ISO Europeans, 220 officers 
and seamen, and 1,000 natives. 

' The boats left the ships with the troops about 1 a.x. 
on the 15th, but they missed the landing-plaoe in the 
dark, and a discharge of rockets from the fort indicating 
that the enemy were prepared, the attempt at a sorpriae 
was given up, and the boats returned to the squadron. 

About 2 P.M. on the 16th, after a further reconnois- 
sance had been made, the troops ^ landed under oover of 
the fire of the ships. One party, composed of 80 artillery- 
men, 85 seamen and marines from the '' Dover,^' and a 
company of the European regiment, all under Captain 
Phillips, advanced against the battery at Wanitoo, which 
was soon carried, and three of the guns turned against 
Battoo-Ghmtong under the direction of Lieutenant Duncan 
Stewart,' who, although wounded, continued his exer- 
tions. Captain Phillips, leaving a small party in Wani- 
too, proceeded to attack Battoo-Gantong, but finding 

' Ariilleiy 46^ Madras Snzopeaii regiment ISO, seamen and ma riae s 
225, totol 400. 
' 1st battaUon 25th regiment MJ^.I., doing dnty with the artiUeiy. 


the approach barred by an impracticable ravine^ he was CHAP. XXI. 
obliged to desist. 

In the meantime the other party, led by Captain Coart, 
composed of 15 artillerymen, 140 seamen and marines 
from the '^ Comwallis ^' and ^^ Samarang,'' and a company 
of the European regiment under Captain Forbes, turned 
the position at Battoo-Gantong, and having gained a 
height which commanded it, the enemy retired about 
sunset and left it in our possession. 

During the advance of the troops against the batteries 
on the heights, a heavy fire was kept up by the fleet on 
the fort and shore batteries, and during the night the 
party in possession of Battoo-Gantong was reinforced by 
40 men under Captain Spencer of the '* Samarang/' 

. Early on the 17th fire was opened from the heights 
on the fort and town, and the commandant, having been 
called upon to surrender, forwarded articles of capitula- 
tion,^ and the place was given up the next day. 

The capitulation included the whole island, and the Capitnlation. 
dependencies of Saparoua, Hila, Haroeko, Laricque, 
Bouro, andManipa. 

Five armed ships, and six merchant-men, fell into our Prise, 
hands, and the value of the public property captured was 
estimated at * £300,000. 

The Dutch and Javanese troops were sent to Java, and 
the Amboynese,' who were well disposed towards us, were 
taken into our service. 

Our loss was extremely small, viz., 1 seaman, 1 marine, 

> Oeneral Daendeli, Governor «nd Commaoder-in-Ghief of the Datoh 
■ettlementSy adopted veiy aoFere meaenrea agaiast the principal ofBoetv 
eonoemed in the capilnlalion. Golonal Fita, the Gommaadaat, waa 
ezeonted, and the Ciril Qovenior diimJMed and diifraoed. 

' Appendix F. 

* Appendix G. 





CHAP. XXI. and 2 privates of the Earopean regiment killed ; 1 Lieuten- 
ant and 1 corporal of artillery^ 4 seamen, 1 marine, and 
4 privates of tlie European regiment wounded. 

The Dutch settlement at Manado, on the north-eastern 
coast of the island of Celebes, was taken possession of by 
Captain Tucker about the end of May, in order to pre- 
vent the supply of provisions from thence to the islands 
of Banda-Neira and Temate, which it was intended to 
attack on the arrival of reinforcements expected from 

Lieutenant Nelson of the European regiment, with a 
few of his own men, and a party of Amboynese, was left 
in charge of the post. 

The conduct of the troops received the special commend- 
ai|Jon of the Oovemor-General, who caused the report of 
Captain Court to be published at Fort St. George on the 
6th May 1810. 

Thanks to 
the troop*. 

Capture of Banda-Neira^ 1810. 

On the 6th May 1810 two companies of the Madras 
European regiment under Captain Nixon, with Lieuten- 
ants Brown and Dacre, sailed from Madras for Amboyna 
in the frigates '^ Caroline^' and ^* Piedmontaise ^' of 36 and 
38 guns respectively, and the 18 gun brig ** Barracouta.'' 
Captain Cole of the ''Caroline,'^ who commanded the 
squadron, having received permission from Admiral 
Drury to attempt the reduction of the Banda group of 
Spice Islands, touched at Penang, where he took in some 
military stores and a number of scaling ladders. The 
''Barracouta'' was detached to MfiJacca, where she 
embarked 20 men of the Madras artillery and a couple of 
field-pieces under the command of Lieutenant Yeates. 
These preparations having been completed, the squaSbron 


proceeded on the voyage^ and after having taken in water CHAP. XZI. 
and provisions at the Snla Islands it arrived off Gb^at 
Banda on the 8th Angnst. 

Banda-Neira^ the principal island, separated from Great 
Banda by a narrow strait, was selected for attack. Abont 
two miles long, and three-quarters of a mile broad, it was 
defended by two strong forts, Belgica and Nassau, and 
by several detached batteries. The number of guns in 
the several works amounted to 138, of which 52 heavy 
pieces of cannon were in Fort Belgica. 

Captain Cole having determined to attempt a surprise, 
a party of 200 men, composed of seamen, marines, artil- 
lerymen, and infantry, left the ships at midnight. The 
boats assembled under the bluff point of Qreat Banda 
abont 2 a.m. on the 9th, and then pushed off towards 
Banda-Neira, where the men landed in a heavy squall an 
hour and a half before day -light. 

A battery close to the beach was instantly attacked, and 
carried by a party of seamen armed with pikes, under the 
command of Captain Kenah, and Lieutenant Carew of 
the *' Barracouta.^^ The sentry was killed, and an officer • 
and several men taken prisoners without creating any 
alarm in the other works. 

Leaving a small guard in the battery, the detachment 
advanced against Fort Belgica with the ladders and 
seamen in front, and^ although the enemy were on the 
alert, the assault was made with such speed and resolu- 
tion that the place was esoaladed and taken by 5-30 a.m. 
without the loss of a man. The colonel commandant, 
and 10 of the garrison were killed, 4 officers and 40 
artillerymen were taken prisoners ; the rest made their 
escape. Shortly after day-light the men-of-war stood into 
the harbour, and as Fort Belgica commanded the town 
as well as the other works, the enemy, finding them- 
selves between two fires, surrendered the settlement 


CHAP. ZXI. nnoonditionallyy together with the several islands ^ depen- 
^~^ dent thereon. The garrison consisted of 700 regular 
troops and 800 militia. 

Thanks to This brilliant and sucoessfal, although extremely haz- 

^ ardoas enterprise, was daly appreciated by the Gh>Temor- 
Oeneral^ who^ in an order dated at Fort William on the 
16th February 1811^ thus expressed himself : — 

" His Lordship in Gouncil considers the rapid conqnesi 
of a place so strongly fortified by nature and by art as the 
island of Banda, in the face of a superior force, without the 
loss of a man, as forming a singular event in the annals of 
British enterprise, and the Goyemor-Oeneral in Council has 
great pleasure in recording a public testimony of the appro- 
bation and applause with which he contemplates tbe distin- 
guished zeal and gallantry of the Commanding Officer of the 
troops. Captain Nixon, and the courage, discipline, and firm- 
ness of the general body of the officers and troops under his 
direction, in carrying into effect, with such signal and rapid 
success, the plan of operations for the reduction of that settle- 
ment, concerted by Captain Cole of His Majesty's Ship 
« Caroline.' " 

Lieutenant Yeates ' doing duty with the artillery, and 
Ensign Allen ' who had volunteered from Penang^ also 
received the thanks of the Governor-General, conveyed 
in a separate letter to Captain Cole, dated 23rd Novem- 
ber 1810. 

Caftube of Ternatb, 1810. 

On the 21st August 1810 a detachment under the com- 
mand of Captain David Forbes of the Madras European 
Begiment, with Lieutenants Charles Forbes, andCursham 
of the same corps^ embarked on board H.M/s ship 

> Greftt Banda, Goonong Api, Boienflgeii, Polo Ay, Polo Bhoii, 
* ftid battftlion 18th MN.I. 
s 2ik1 bftttaUon 2lBt ILK.I. 


*' Dover'' at Amboyna on the requisition of Captain CHAP. XXL 
Tucker, for an attempt npon the island of Temate, the 
last remaining possession of any consequence in the 
Molucca seas still in the hands of the Dutch. The town 
was defended by Fort Orange, and the detached works of 
Kayo-Meira, and Kota-Barro. 

The garrison was composed of 500 disciplined infantry^ 
203 European inhabitants and seamen, and 500 native 

The island was sighted on the 25th, and the troops ^ left 
the ship on the night of the 27th, but the landing was not 
effected until 7 a.m. on the 28th, when Captain Forbes 
marched inland with the object of gaining a hill which 
was supposed to command Kayo-Meira. The hill was 
reached about noon, but nothing could be seen fix>m it 
owing to the thickness of the forest. After resting his 
men, Captain Forbes proceeded in the direction of the 
fort for a short distance, when, finding the road rendered 
impassable by large trees which had been cut down and 
thrown across it, he turned to the right and made his 
way, with much difficulty, along the course of a stream, 
to the beach, which he reached about 10 p.m., and he then 
found himself within about 800 yards of the fort. 

He immediately advanced, but had not gone above 
fifty yards, when he was discovered by an outlying picket, 
which opened fire. Captain Forbes, however, pressing 
forward, crossed the ditch, and the fort was speedily esca- 
laded and taken with trifling' loss owing to the darkness 
of the night, and the rapidity of the advance. One officer, 
and sixty-eight men were taken prisoners. A number 
made their escape. 

1 European infantry, and artillery 74, maxines 86^ seamen 82, Axnbqy- 
nes 32 ; total 174. 
' Killed 8, wounded 14. 



CHAP. XXI. The wind and current were so strong against Captain 
Tucker that he did not succeed in laying the '* Dover " 
opposite the battery at Kota-Barro (between Kayo-Meira 
and Fort Orange) until about 2 p.m. on the 29th, when 
he quickly silenced it^ and passed on towards another 
shore battery, in doing which he became exposed to Fort 
Orange; and .the gunners in Kota-Barro reopening firo. 
Captain Tucker was obliged to return, and had nearly 
regained his former position when Eota-Barro was 
attacked in rear and taken by Lieutenant Gursham, who 
had been sent from Eayo-Meira by Captain Forbes for 
that purpose. The guns of the battery were then tamed 
upon the town, and the ** Dover '' coming to close action 
with Fort Orange, the place surrendered about 5 p.m. 

Ninety mounted, and twenty-nine dismounted guns, 
and mortars were found in the several works. 

The colors of the Fort Kayo-Meira, and those of the 
European regiment in garrison at Fort Orange were sent 
to Amboyna for transmission to India. Captain Forbes 
remained in command at Temate. 

The Gk)vemor-G-eneral thanked the detachment in t&e 
same general order which was published regarding the 
capture of Banda* 

'* The Governor-General in Council considers the expression 
of his high commendation to be equally due to the gallantry 
and exertions of Captain D. Forbes, and of the officers and 
men under his command, so conspicuously displayed in the 
^ attack of the fortified places on the island of Temate, under 
the general superintendence, and authority of Captain Tucker 
of H.M.'s ship " Dover/* the success of which was followed 
by the surrender of that important possession to the British 



Thanks to 
the troops. 



Bestoration Amboyna and the other islands remained in our posses* 
181^"^"^*' sion until 1816, when they were restored to the Dutch in 


conformity with the terms of the Convention of August CHAP. XXL 
1814. "~ 

Daring the interval between their capture and restora- European 
tion, the detachment of the European regiment was em- e^^^^ - 
ployed on several occasions against pirates in the island 
of Celebes and elsewhere^ and some of the officers were 
employed in political situations of importance. Captain 
D. Forbes was appointed Deputy Governor of Banda^ and 
while holding that office, he quelled/ with a party of his 
regiment, at the requisition of Mr. Martin, the Governor 
of Amboyna, an insurrection in the island of Poran, which 
the Bengal troops had &iled to suppress. Lieutenant 
C. Forbes, Assistant to the Resident at Palembang in 
Sumatra^ was permitted, at the special request of the 
Resident, to retain his appointment after the return of his 
regiment to India. Captain Richard FhiUips, Resident, 
and Commandant at Macassar under the Government of 
Batavia, received the acknowledgements of the Supreme 
(Government for his valuable services, and on the receipt, 
at Batavia, of the intelligence of his death at Macassar 
on the 8rd December 1814, a general order was published 
by the Lieutenant-Grovemor in Council, expressing their 
sense of his great merits, and of the loss sustained by the 
public service owing to his premature decease. 

Several officers,^ and a number of the men of the regi* 
ment died in the islands owing to the unhealthiness of 
the climate. 

Northern Ciacabs, 1810-12. 

During 1810 detachments of the 1st battalion 11th, Gk>kxmd«h, 
1st of the 16th, and 2nd of the 21st regiments were 

1 Servioes of the First Madras Buropean BegixnoBt, page 408. 

* Lieatenant Davenant died at Baada 1811, Captain Phillips at Macas- 
sar, 1814. Lieatenant Daore at Banda Neira 1814, Captain Forbes at 
Banda 1816. Lieatenant Carberry at Temate 1815, and Assistant 
Bozgeon Milne at Banda 1811. 

VOL. 111. 41 

322 HisTOBT or thi kadras ABmr. 

CHAP. XXI. freqaently employed against refractory zemindars in Ae 
hill districts of Vizagapatam, and also against freebooters 
in the neighboarhood of Bajahmnndry. 

Reddy Norsimha Deo, one of the principal insurgents^ 
was taken in Golcondah daring September, and Naganah 
Dorah, and other leaders having fled, that part of the 
ooontry became quiet for the time. 

Palooodah, Early in 1811 Yiziaram Bauze, ex-Zemindar of Pal- 

condah, assembled a body of men near Veeragottum^ 
about 13 miles from the town of Palcondah, and began 
to collect the revenue from the adjacent villages, and to 
commit depredations. Martial law was proclaimed ; a 
brigade under Lieutenant-Colonel Fletcher, composed of 
the 1st of the 10th, the 1st of the 11th, and a couple of 
guns, was sent into the zemindary, and after a harassing 
service which lasted for about a year, Viziaram Bauze 
escaped into the Nagpore country, and order was re- 

The 1st of the 10th suffered very severely from ferer, 
having had upwards of 500 men in hospital.. The Ist of 
the 11th, having been more accustomed to the climate of 
the Circars, was comparatively healthy. 


On the SOth January 1810, the Auxiliary Force at Groa, 
composed of H.M.^s 78th regiment, the 2nd battalion 2nd, 
2nd battalion 10th, and 1st battalion 18th M.N.I , with 
detachments of artillery and pioneers, was transferred 
from the Bombay establishment to that of Fort St. 

In May 181 1 the command of this force devolved upon 
Lieutenant-Colonel A. McCally of the 10th, in successioii 
to Lieutenant-Colonel Adams, H.M.'s 78th, ordered on 
service to Java with his reg^iment. 

The Madras troops, which had been £rst sent to Groa 
in 1809 to assist the Portuguese in event of any attack 


on the part of the French, were recalled within the limits OHAP* XXI. 
of their own Presidency in April 1813. 

Conquest or Java^ 1811-12. 

The practicability of the conquest of Java, which^ 
together with the other settlements of the Dutch in the 
Eastern seas, had been incorporated into the French 
Empire, had, for some time, been under consideration by 
the Bengal Government, but the undertaking was post- 
poned until after the capture of the Mauritius, when 
preparations were made both at Madras, and in Bengal, 
which were completed early in 1811, and Lieutenant- 
General Sir Samuel Auchmuty, Commander-in-Chief at 
Madras, was appointed to command the expedition. 

The force from Madras sailed in two divisions, ^ one on 
the 18th April under Colonel Gillespie, H.M.'s 25th 
dragoons, and the other on the 29th under Colonel Gibbs, 
H.M*'8 59th foot. The last division was accompanied by 
the Commander-in-Chief. The whole, amounting to about 

> Firtt 2>»vmon.--Hor8e artillery 152, 22iid dragoons 2€0, 14Ui Foot 
920, 59tli 476, 89th 549, Madras Europeans (as pioneers) 87, gon 
lasoars 106, tent lasoars 122, Dooly corps 97, artificers 45, pnokallies 
56 ; total, with officers, 2,926. 

8ee4md DitnMon. — Horse artillevy 7, 22nd dragoons 154, Boyal 
artiUery 94, 14th Foot 10, 69th 530, 69th 858, 78th 1,054^ Ist battalion 
pioneers 144^ 2nd battalion pioneers 166, gan lascars 99, tent lascars 
210; total 8,325. Grand Total, with officers, 6,251. 


Major-Cfeneral F. A. Wetherall, Second in command. 

Colonels Gillespie, Gibbs, and Lieutenant-Colonel Adams, H.M.'s 78th 
regiment, commanding brigades. 

Colonel P. A. Agnew, 21st M.N.I., Adjutant-General. 

Colonel Bden, 84th Foot, Quartennaster-General. 

Mi^or P. VansAgnew, 24th M.N.I., Deputy Adjutant-General. 

Major Burslem, 14t)i Foot, Deputy Quartermaster.General. 

Captain Carroll, 69th Foot, Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Lieutenant Hanson, 14th M.N.I., Assistant Quartermaster-GeneraL 

Lieutenant.Colonel Colin Mackenzie, Madras Engineers, Chief Engi- 


CHAP. XXI. 10^800 men inclading the troops from Bengal> anchored 

off the nortli coast of Jaya on the 2nd Aagnst. 
Landing of The village of Chillingsi in the bay of Batavia, about 
ten miles east of the town of that name, having been 
fixed npon for the disembarkation of the troops, the fleet 
ran for that place^ and the landipg was effected before 
dark on the 4th without opposition. 

The army then moved on about two miles and halted, 

one division being on the road to the town of Batavia^ sod 

the other fronting in the direction of the lines of Comelisi 

situated about eight miles south of the town. 

Ooonpation A general advance towards the capital was made on 

^d of ^^***^ the 5th, and on the 8th the town was occupied without 

Weitevreedea opposition, having been abandoned by the enemy. On 

the 10th the army took possession of the cantonment at 

Weltevieeden, about four miles direct south of the town, 

and half way to Comelis. About a mile beyond the 

Action on cautonmeut there was a strong position, defended by a 

division of French and Dutch troops under General Jumel* 

This division was attacked and speedily driven back in 

disorder to the defences at Comelis. Lieutenant Driffield, 

Captain Farqohar, Lientonant Garrard, Ensigns Follerton, Sin, 
OoTentry, Anderson, and Proby, Madras Engineers, doing duty nndflr 
the Chief Engineer. 

Doing duty vyiih Corps and Departments. 

Captains Dnrand, 6th M.N.I., and Mears, 17th M.N.I. LientenaDte 
Stewart, 16th M.X.f., Low (Lientenant-General Sir John Low, k.cb.), 
24th M.N.I. Bayley, nth H.N.I., Joordan, 10th M.N.I., Clode,25lh 
M.N.T., Dalgaims, 7th M.N.I., and Marr, 8rd M.N.I. 

Two Surgeons, and eleven Assistant Snrgeons * attached to the Staff* 

Bengal Division, 

GoTemor*General's Bodj-goard 107, two oompanies Bengal artillerj 
160, six battalions of Native infantry, vis., Ist battalion 80th regi- 
ment 1,601 (afterwards 26th B.N.I.), four battalions of yolnnteers 8,58S 
and a light infantry battalion 676, pioneers 861. 

* John Leyden, the poet, an Assistant Sorgeon on the Madras Estab- 
lishment, but doing dnty in Bengal, died on this servioe. 

the 10th. 



Madras horse artillery, died on the 28th of wounds CHAi*. XXI. 

received in this action. This corps was highly praised 

by Colonel Qillespie in his despatch of the 11th : ''I 

cannot say too much of Captain Noble, ajid the officers 

and men under his command, who so gallantly fonght the 

two guns that drew a most terrible fire from the enemy ; 

indeed the zeal and ability displayed by Captain Noble 

throughout this service demand my particular commend* 


The force of the enemy was estimated at about 17,000 Entrench, 
men, European and native, of whom 13,000 were in the comelis. 
lines at Comelis under the Qovemor, GeneralJansens. 
The position was extremely formidable, being an eur 
trenched camp between the unfordable river Jacatra^ and 
the Slokan canal, defended by redoubts and batteries 
containing about 280 guns and mortars mounted on the 

The army broke ground before Comelis on the 14th, 
and the batteries were completed on the 21st. Early on 
the morning of the 22nd the enemy made a sortie but 
were repulsed. 

The preparations for the assault were completed on 
the 26th, by which time our casualties amounted to 
about 200 officers and men killed and wounded, amongst 
whom were Captain-Lieutenant Shepherd of the Madras 
European Regiment, serving with the 1st battalion 
pioneers, killed during the sortie of the 22nd, and Ensign 
Norman McLeod, 1st battalion 6th regiment N.I., also 
doing duty with the pioneers, who was mortally wounded 
at the same time. 

The troops marched soon after midnight, and the ABnanitand 
assault began at daybreak on the 27th. The principal ^^^.° 
attack was made by the column under Colonel Gillespie, 
supported by a brigade under Colonel Gibbs. This 




CHAP. XXI. colamn was headed by a company of the 14th Foot under 
*^~" Lieutenant Coglan, followed closely by a detachment of 
Madras pioneers under Captain Smithwaite (1 st battalion 
19th M.NJ), commanding 2nd battalion pioneers. The 
second attack was under Lieutenant- Colonel McLeod 
of the 69th^ the third under Lieutenant-Colonel Wood, 
Bengal Volunteers^ and the fourth under Major Yale of 
the 20th B.N.I. 

After a severe struggle the enemy gave way^ were 
forced from all their entrenchments, put to total rout, 
and pursued for about ten miles by the oavalry^ under 
Major Travers of the 22nd dragoons, and by the 
Madras horse artillery under Captain Noble. 

Great numbers were killed, and 6,000 taken prisoners, 
amongst whom was a regiment of Voltigeurs recently 
arriyed from France. Our loss amounted to about 648j 
killed, wounded, and missing. Fifteen officers were 
killed or died of their wounds, thirteen of whom 
belonged to the Boyal, and two to the Bengal army. 

Besides the 280 pieces of ordnance mounted on the 
works, 150 were found in the entrenched camp. The 
whole number captared at Comelis, and at the citadel of 
Batavia, amounted to 204 brass, and 504 iron guns and 
mortars, and a very large quantity of ammunition and 
stores fell into our hands. 

General Jansens fled to the eastward, and was followed 
to Gheribon^ by part of the fleet with a Bengal Volunteer 
battalion under Colonel Wood. The place was surren- 
dered, but the General having escaped to Samarang,' he 
was followed early in September by Gteneral Auchmuty. 


Pannit of 



1 On the northern coast of the iBlandt about 198 miles eaat-oont^* 
east from Batavia. 
>0u the northern coast of the island, Lat. ^ 6ff S., Long. IIO" 2r B. 



The troops landed on the 12thj and on the 16th they CHAP. XXI. 
came in sight of the enemy in a strong position at Jata, ~" 

six miles from Samarang. They were about 8,000 
strongs principally natives^ with 20 gans. The detach- 
ment under General Anchmuty, composed of a few 
companies of the 14th and 89th foot, one company of 
Bengal volunteers^ and a party of artillery and pioneers^ 
did not exceed 1,200 men. 

This small body advanced without hesitation^ but the 
enemy made no stand, and retreated upon the fort at 
Onarang^ about four miles further on. Being pursued 
at once, they dispersed. 

General Jansens^ finding further resistance hopeless^ Surrender of 
proposed a capitulation, and on the 17th September a *^®"^«^^* 
treaty was sigDed, by which the island and dependencies 
were surrendered to Great Britain. 

Colonel P. A. Agnew, Adjutant-General to the expedi- General 
tion, was sent to England with the despatches early in retnrnB^to 
October, and the Commander-in-Chief, having made India, 
arrangements for the transport to India of part of the 
cavalry and artillery, H.M.'s 69th, and the head-quarters 
and a wing of the 89th, made over the command of the 
' remaining troops to Colonel GHUespie, and embarked for 

On the 14th January 1812, a letter from the Governor- Thankg of 
General in Council, dated 26th December 1811, was g:^^^ 
published to the army, in which His Excellency the 
Comniander-in-Chief was thanked for his eminent 
services during the expedition. Those of the officers 
and men were also duly acknowledged in the same 

On the 2Srd May, a general order was issued by the Prmoe 
Commander-in-Chief, in which he communicated to the ^^®'**» ^®^** 
troops the approbation of His Royal Highness the Prince 
Segment for the distinguished gallantry, and spirit dis- 
played during the several operations in Java, more partic- 

328 HISTORY or thk icadbab AEirr. 

CHAP. XXI. tilarly at the assault and capture of the entrenchmentB. 

Medals^ were granted to all thenatiye troops, and to such 
of the superior European officers, as had disting^iahed 

Lord Minto, the Governor-General, was raised to ao 

ExpxDiTioN TO Palsmbako, 1812. 

The Sultan of Palembang' in Sumatra having destroyed 
the Dutch factory at that place, and murdered the people 
belonging to it duriug September 1811, a detachment' 
under Colonel Gillespie proceeded against him in March 
1812. The Colonel arrived off the Palembang river by 
the middle of April, and the troops went up it in boats 
towards the town, distant about sixty miles. On the 
morning of the 25th, when close to the place, intelligence 
was received of the flight of the Sultan, upon which 
Colonel Gillespie, pushing on with a few officers and men, 
landed about 8 o'clock at night, when he found the town 
in a state of tumult, the troops of the Sultan being engaged 
in firing the houses, and plundering the inhabitants. 
Passing quickly through the excited crowds, he reached 
the palace unmolested, and was joined, soon after mid- 
night, by a party of the 89th under Major Trench. The 
next day an investigation was commenced, which resulted 
in the confirmation of the accusations against the Sultan, 
upon which he was formally deposed, and the sovereignty 
conferred upon his brother. Colonel Gillespie returned 
to Java about the end of May, having taken possessioa 
of the island of Banca on his way, and placed therein a 

> On the 26th Deoemher 1830 the corps of ICadns Bnginaem, tke 
Horse Brigade of artillery, and the 2nd Battalion Fioneen wars per- 
mitted to bear the word " JAVA '* on their appointments In oominent^ 
ra^on of their services in the reduction of that island. 

'A ICalay principality at the sonthem end of Snmatra, opposite tka 
island of Banca, from which it is separated by a strait. 

' Detachments Madras horse and Bengal foot artillery, 68tb wai 
89th, and Bengal Volnnteers. 



detachment under the command of Captain Mears,^ 17th CHAP. XXI. 
M.N.I.y who had raised a native battalion in Java. 

Further Opxbatiohs in Java, 1812. 

The Sultan of Mataram, one of the aouthem districts of 
the island, having called upon other native chiefs to assist 
him in expelling the British, a force ' was sent against 
him under Colonel Gillespie, which came before the 
capital at Djojo-carta' on the 17th June 1812. 

The principal fort, called the Kraton or palace, was an Biorm of the 
oblong quadrangular, enclosed by a good rampart with 
a bastion at each angle, the whole surrounded by a 
broad wet ditch. It was garrisoned by about 15,000^ 
men, and defended by nearly 100 guns. 

The place was attacked and carried on the 20th, with Baoognition 
the loss of 99 killed and wounded, after a contest of ^ ■®'^®*"' 
three hours. Great numbers of the enemy were killed. 
Captain Budyard, and Lieutenant Black of the Madras 
horse artillery were amongst those thanked for conspic- 
uous gallantry. 

During the advance of the second detachment of the 
force into Mataram, Lieutenant«'Colonel McLeod, who 
was in command, found it necessary to communicate 
with Captain Byers of the Boyal artillery, who was a 
day's march behind. This service, which was extremely 
hazardous, owing to the numerous scattered parties of 
the enemy, was performed by gunner John O'Brien, 
Hadras horse artillery, who was thanked in general 
orders and rewarded with a gold medal. 

1 Thia officer was killed on the 15th September 1812 in the attack on 
a stockade held by the ez-Saltan of Palembang. 

* Detachments H.M.'b 22nd dragoons, Boyal, Bengal, and Uadrat 
artillery, 14th, 59th and 78th foot and Bengal volunteers. 

> Also called Todhja-carta and Taghya-carta. . 

* Some writers say 17,000 ; Sir T. Stamford Baffles says from 10,000 
to 15,000. 

VOL, III. 42 



aiy orden, 

H.H.*i 89Ui. 

CHA.P. XXI. Hostilities ceased with this capture. 

The following orders were afterwards issaed regarding 
the services of certain corps and individuals during the 
expedition, and our subsequent occupation of the islaiicL 

In a general order published at Fort St. (George on 
the 10th October 1812, the detachment of H.M.'s 89tli 
under Major Trench, which had recently returned to 
Madras, was thanked for the exemplary zeal, gallantrjj 
and subordination which it had displayed since being 
separated from regimental head-quarters. 

On the 22nd July 1813 the following order by Colonel 
Gillespie was published at Fort St. George by the 


** Head Quarien, WeUe Vreeden, 27ih May 1813. 

'' On the return of the Madras horse artillery to ik&r 
Presidency, the Commander of the forces cannot better evince 
the high opinion he entertains of their merit, than bj ft 
short review of the active services in which they have bea 
engaged under his personal command. Placed in the advance 
of the army, Major-General Gillespie had early an oppor- 
tunity of discerning the character of the corps, and their 
conduct on every occasion confirmed his first impression of 
the value of their services. In the successive achievements 
of the 10th, and the memorable 26th of Aug^t 1811, their 
exertions, directed by that experienced officer Captain Noble, 
eminently contributed to the glory acquired to the British 
arms ; and the brigade employed under Captain Budyard at 
Palembang, and Djojokarta were conspicuous for the gaUani 
conduct which so honorably marked their first career. 

'' The Commander of the forces also ofEers his thanks to 
Captain Budyard and the officers, for the discipline and 
highly creditable appearance the corps has uniformly main- 
tained ; and will perform a pleasing duty in communicating 
these his sentiments to the Commander-in-Chief, and to the 
authorities undef whom they will eventually be placed* 


*' The Commander of ihe forces regrets that the medal CHAP. pcxi. 
"which it was his intention personally to present to John 
O'Brien in commemoration of his gallant conduct near 
I>jojokarta has not yet been received from Bengal ; it wHl, 
however, be forwarded to Madras throagh the regular 

The detachment H.M/8 23nd dragoons, when about to h.m.'s 22nd 
return to India in June 1818, were thanked for their "•*^'"- 
services by the Major-General, more especially for '' that 
gallant and decisive charge, which, by overthrowing the 
retro^ting columns, occasioned the final dispersion of the 
army at CorneUs, and secured an earlier termination to 
the campaign." 

The same order concluded with the following para* 

'* The Commander of the forces has equal pleasure in pioiMcrt. 
recording his sense of the conduct of the detachment of the 
Madras pioneers commanded by Lieutenant Stuart,^ who have 
been uniformly distinguished by a seal and steadiness, and 
patient enduring under trying circumstances, which have 
rendered their services eminently useful, and themselves 
deserving of particular regard and consideration." 

On the departure of Lieutenant-Colonel Mackenzie of Colonel 
the Engineers for India, an order, from which the follow- chief 
ing are extracts, was issued by the Lieutenant-Governor *"»«»»••'• 
in Council at Batavia, and republished at Fort St. George 
on the 10th September 1813 :— 

** The Honorable the Lieutenant-Governor in Council 
avails himself of the opportunity afforded by the approaching 
departure of Lieutenant-Colonel Colin Mackenzie, Chief 
Engineer on the expedition to Java, to render to that distin- * 
gnished officer his peculiar acknowledgments, and to testify 

> LimienMit O. M . Steaart lit battalkm 24th H.I., doing duty with 
t he 2nd battalion pioneers. ' 


CHiiP. XXL his nnreserredapprobiktioii of the seal, ability, and luiwearied 
applicatioii which he has displayed on this iBland. 

'* Lientenaat-Golonei Mackensie has, since the conquest of 
Java, been employed, under the sanction and authority of 
the Bight Honorable the (Jovemor.Oeneral, in collecting sod 
arranging the topographical and military reports and 
surreys of the former goyenunent^ in inrestigating ilio 
history and antiquities of the island, and in ascertaining 
the state of the landed tenure, and the general condition of 
the inhabitants." 

• • • • 

^ Under his superintendence, a general statistical table d 
the population and produce of the island has been compiled 
on principles which ensure its near approach to accuracy, 
and the answers which have been giyen to the queries, histor- 
ical, literary, and economical, circulated through the island 
at his suggestion, afford information of considerable interest 
and importance.*' 

• • • • 

'^Java must ever be considered as a great agrionltnnJ 
country, and as the granary of the Eastern Islands. To 
remove eyery restriction on the agriculture and toommeroe 
of the country is alike conduciye to the hapinnees of the 
people and to the interests of Qoyemment ; and the informa- 
tion and opinions furnished by Lieutenant-Colonel Mackenzie 
will enable the (Joyemment, in ameliorating and improying 
the general condition of the colony, to establish a more 
enlightened and adyantageous system of internal adminie- 


• • # • 

Jftvm restored -^ conyention was entered into by Lord Gastlereagh 

tothe Dutch, during August 1814, restoring to the Dutch all their 

former possessions in the Eastern Islands, but Java was 

not actually made oyer until the 19th August 1816, when 

the flag of the Netherlands was hoisted at 



Cavalry, 1810-11. 

On the 2lBt April 1810 orders were issued for the Yeterinary 
formation of a Yeterinary Establishment at the Presi- m^tyisio. 
dency under the immediate direction of the Commander- 
in-Chief, for the purpose '* of educating and instructing 
in the yeterinary art, a number of boys not exceeding 
48, who will ultimately be posted to regiments of cavahry 
with the rank and pay of European Farriers.'' 

'' The boys to be educated at the Madras Yeterinary 
Establishment are to be enlisted for the service of the 

The establishment was to be recruited from the '' Mill* 
tary Male Asylum and the Charity School, as far as those 
institutions can supply the number of boys required, or 
from such sources as he may deem most advisable in the 
event of those institutions not furnishing the required 
number of boys." 

A Yeterinary Surgeon was placed in charge of the 

During October of the same year the manner of wear- Swordi and 
ing the swords, which, up to that time, had been carried ^^^ 
in a shoulder belt, was altered. '* The swords of all ranks 
in the horse artillery and cavalry are to be carried in a 
waist belt of the breadth of 2^ inches, and the cartouch 
boxes over the left shoulder in a belt 3 inches in breadth." 






Abtxllbbt, 1810. 

In March 1810 the troop of Natiye horse artillexy 
disbanded, and the sqoadron of European horse artillery 
was augmented to the undermentioned establishment, 
which was formed into two troops. 

1 Captain Commanding.*' 

2 Captain-Lieutesanta. 
10 Sabaltenuk 

1 Adjutant. 

1 Quartermaster. 

1 Burgeon. ^ 

2 Qaartermasters. 

1 Sub-AssiBtant Burgeon. 

16 six-pounders with carri- 
ages and 16 tumbrils. • 

1 spare carriage and 1 

spare tumbril. 

2 forges. 

2 Artificer's carts. 

1 Serjeant-Major. 

1 Quartermaster-Ser- 

1 Bidingmaster Ser- 

1 Drill Corporal. 

4 Bough Riders. 
12 Serjeants. 

8 Farriers. 

4 Trumpeters. 
12 Corporals. 
24 Ounners. 
240 Matrosses. 
450 saddles and bridles. 
820 sets of harness. 
28 Officers' horses. 
450 Regimental horses. 
1 Conicopoly. 

9 Packallies in 



Artificen in the FiM. 

2 Maistry Carpenters. 
2 Maistry Smiths. 
8 Carpenters. 
8 Smiths. 
8 Armourers. 

8 Bellows Boys. 
8 Hammermen. 
4 Cbickledars. 


Artificers in Canionmeni. OHAP. XZI. 

1 Maistrj Carpenter. 

1 Maistry Smith. 

2 Oarpentere. 
2 Smiths. 

2 Armourers. 

2 BeUowB Boys. 
2 Hammermen. 
1 Chnckler. 
1 Cbickledar. 

- The officers and men of the native troop were drafted 
into the cayalry from the Ist of May. 

During October of the same year a Farrier-Major and 
a Tnunpeter-Major were added to the squadron. 

The Court of Directors in a general letter to the Madras Addiaoombo 
Grovemment, dated 4th May 1810, announced the estab- ^®'^8®* 
lishment of a College at Addiscombe for the education 
of Officers intended for the corps of Artillery and Engi- 
neers ; and in a subsequent letter, dated in November of No offioen to 
the same year, they pronounced the appointment, to com- i^ ^^e********* 
missions in these branches of the service, of persons other Artillery or 
than those properly educated and qualified, to be incon- except from 
sistent with their views. They at the same time directed coUeflm!"' 
the Oovemment to cancel certain commissions in the 
artillery, which had been granted to men in the inferior 
ranks. It appears that up to this time most of the Officers 
in the artillery had been educated at Woolwich at the 
expense of the Company, but in January 1811 the Court 
of Directors informed the Madras Grovemment that in 
future, all Officers of Artillery and Engineers would 
be sent from their own College ; that the selection for 
these corps would be made in England ; and that those 
appointed to the Engineers would be permitted to re- 
xnain at College for some time after their examination for 
the purpose of receiving further instruction. 

This pcurt of their general letter concluded as follows : — 

** It is therefore our express desire that you should, in no 
case, fill up from the inferior ranks of the artillery, or from 


OHAP. XXI. the c^yalry or infantry, the ▼acancies which may occar 
among the Oommissioned Officers, either in your artillerj 
or engineer corps, but that npon the receipt of the list of 
Cadets intended for the latter service, yon do immediatelj 
post them to such vacancies as shall appear to have existed 
at the time when the said list was dated." 

fitore UMcars, On the 19th July 1811 it was ordered that the laacan 


in the Store Department should be formed into thirty- 
two companies, each company to consist of 1 syrang, 
1 first tindal^ 1 second tindal, and 50 iascars. 

The following distribution of these companies was 
ordered at the same time, viz. : Presidency Division ll. 
Centre 2, Northern 3, Southern 3, Mysore 3, Ceded Dis- 
tricts 2, Hyderabad Subsidiary Force 3, Gun Carriage 
Manufactory 3, Malabar and Canara 1, Goa i, Quilon i 



Enoiksebs, 1810. 

On the 6th November 1810 the following extract from 
a letter of the Court of Directors was published in 

general orders : — 

" We have taken into coDsideration the memorial of the Augmenta- 

tioxii 1810. 
Engineer Officers, and being satisfied by their representation 

that the promotion in that corps has not kept pace with 

that of the other branches of the military service, we have 

resolved upon the following establishment for the Engineers : 

Veu) Estahlishment. 

1 Colonel. 

2 Lieutenant- Colonels. 
2 Majors. 

9 Captains. 
8 Lieutenants. 
8 Eosigns. 

Present Estahlishment, 

1 Colonel. 

1 Lieutenant-Colonel. 

2 Majors. 
4 Captains. 
4 Captain-Lieutenants. 
8 Lientenants. 
8 Ensigns. 

This establishment to be considered as having effect 
from the 1st January 1806. 

On the 9th October 1810 it was determined that the Department 
several officers then in charge of surveys should be 
placed under one superintending authority^ and with this 
view Lieutenant-Colonel Mackenzie of the Engineers was 
appointed Surveyor-General on a monthly salary of 400 Surveyor- 
pagodas (Rs. 1^400) with an allowance of 200 pagodas 
for draughtsmen^ clerks^ and office rent. The office of 
Surveyor-Greneral was placed immediately under Govern- 
ment^ but subject to the inspection of the Commander- 
in-Chief. The Surveyor-General was charged with the 
direction and superintendence of all surveys, and his 
office was made the repository of all geographical, sta- 
tistical, and topographical maps and plans, routes 
and memoirs, or reports connected with the state of the 

VOL. in. 43 

338 msTOBT Of the madbab askt. 

CHAP. XXI. joonntry^ and all maps and papers of tliat descriptio& 
then deposited in other public offices were ordered to 
be transferred to the charge of the Sarveyor-Genenl. 

The Quartermaster-General was authorized to recei^ 
from the Snryeyor-General^ on application^ any maps vi 
papers that might be required from time to time, sad 
maps and papers to be returned at the earliest practi- 
cable period. 

Officers commanding troops in the field were, on 
application to Government, to be supplied with maps bj 
the Surveyor-General. 

Progress Reports of surveys were to be submitted to 
Government quarterly, and retm*ns of maps, planSj «^ 
instruments were to be made half-yearly. 

The appointment of Inspector of Revenue Surveys ^ 

discontinued, and the records and establishment of tltf^ 

office were made over to the Surveyor-General. 

Yoang A certain number of young officers attached to tk 

employed on Military Institution, not exceeding twenty, to be selecteJ 

■™^^^^J»* by the Commander-in-Chief, were ordered to be pl«^ 

under the immediate direction of the Quartermaster- 
General for the survey of routes, passes, fortresses, m* 
the military objects of sach provinces as might b^ 
been the least explored. 

The maps and reports of these officers, and of tlu^ 
charged with the survey of the marches of detachmenA 
were to be sent to the Quartermaster-General, by wboi 
they were to be transmitted to the Survey Office ^ 
such parts of them as might seem to be required had beei 



European Infantry, 1810-11. 

The formation of a Commissariat Department, the Commlsflariat 
functions of which were to come into operation on the igxa " 
Ist December 1810, was ordered by Government in 
October. The Commissary-General was charged with 
the entire control and management of the several depart- 
ments theretofore conducted by Garrison Storekeepers, 
and also with that of certain details formerly managed by 
the Quartermaster-General. 

On the Ist December all previous orders and regulations Beg^iiatioiui. 
relating to the branches of the service placed under the 
Commissariat were annulled, and a new Code was pob- 
lished to the army, consisting of the undermentioned 
sections, viz. : — 

Section I. Grain and Provision Department. 
„ II. Victualling European Troops on the march 

from station to station, or in the field. 
„ III. Sapply of Military Stores. 
„ IV. Supplies for Cavalry. 
„ V. Barrack Department. 
ff VI. Supply of Bemount Horses. 
J, VII. Regulations for the Dooley Corps and Bearers. 



Captain W. Morison of the artillery was appointed Officers. 
Commissary-Generaly with the official rank of Major 
and a seat at the Military Board. Seven officers were 
appointed Assistants, and four officers Sub-Assistants 



Public Cattle. 



Hired Cattle. 



Military Bazars. 



The Grain Department in the 



Provision do. do. 


CHAP. XXI. The undermentioned redactions in the General Staff 

Redactions in were ordered to have effect from the 1st November, via.: — 

fita«L^^^^^ ^^® appointments of Assistant Adjutant^ and Assistant 

Qaartermaster-General of Divisions were abolished, and 

officers of the grade of Brigade Major^ and Brigade 

Quartermaster were nominated to perform the duties. 

The situations of Brigade Major in the Centre^ and in 
the Southern Divisions were abolished. 

The appointments of all Deputies Judge Advocate, 
with the exception of that at Hyderabad, were abolished. 

The proceedings at courts-martial were to bo conducted 
by officers specially selected for that purpose when re- 

Field Officers were not to be considered eligible in 
future for the situation of Barrackmaster^ except at the 
Presidency^ and at Bangalore. 

The appointments of Town Major at Seringapatam, 
and of Fort Adjutant at Bangalore^ and at Cannanore, 
were to be discontinued from the 1st December. 

The situations of Superintendent of Bazars in Travan- 
core, at Goa^ and at Secunderabad^ were to cease from 
the same date. Arrangements for the performance of 
the duties of these officers were left to be made by the 
officer at the head of Commissariat. 
Tenare of Orders regarding the tenure of certain appointments 

pointmenti. ^^ ^^® General Staff were published on the 9th October. 

No officer to be eligible for the appointment of Adju- 
tant-General, or of Quartermaster- General^ unless holding 
the rank of Major in his regiment, or in the army by 

No officer to be appointed Deputy Adjutant-General, 
or Deputy Quartermaster-General^ under the rank of a 
Captain of two years' standing. 

No officer to be appointed Assistant Adjutant-G(eneral, 


or Assistant Qaartermaster-General^ under the rank of a CHAP. XXI. 

No officer to hold any Staff appointment, except that 
of Aide-de-Camp, until after a service of four years in 

No Subaltern to be Aide-de-Camp until after a service 
of one year with his regiment. 

During October the Commander-in-Chief issued an Dress of ih» 
order prescribing certain alterationn in the dress of the *'™^' 
army. With the exception of the following, none of these 
seem to require any particular notice. 

" 2Dd. Clubs and Queues are abolished in all ranks, and the 
hair is, in fa tare, to be oat close to the neck — no powder to 
be worn on duty." 

" 5th. All Field Officers, whether by Brevet or otherwise, 
are to wear two epaulettes." 

" Captains of flank companies, who have the Brevet rank 
of Field Officer, are to wear wings in addition to their 

" Captains and Subaltern officers are to wear one epaulette 
on the right shoulder, excepting those belongiug to flank 
companies. Captains and Subaltern officers of flank com- 
panies are to wear a wing on each shoulder, with a grenade, 
or bugle horn on the strap, according as they belong to the 
grenadiers or light infantry. 

^ Surgeons and Assistant Surgeons are not to wear either 
epaulettes or wings. They are to substitute a waist belt 
instead of the shoulder belt at present worn, and are not to 
wear a sash. 

" 9th. In lieu of pantaloons and half boots ; wide trousers 
with gaiters, or gaiter pantaloons, are permitted to be worn 
in the Engineers, artillery, infantry, and pioneers, bat all 
Field Officers in fall dress will still wear full boots and chain 
•purs. Regimental mounted Staff Offioers fall boots and 
plain spurs." 


CHAP. XXI. ^ 12th. The non-commissioned offioero and privates of Enro- 
""^ pean artillery and infimtry are to wear white trousers and 
white gaiters." 

*' 18th, The very onmilitary practice of offiotrs appearing 
ont of quarters without their swords and uniform is stricUy 

Military In the month of November a letter was reoei^ed firom 

^^^^' tbe Court of Directors in which they approved of the 

establishment of a Military Fund^ and authorised the 
Government to pay on that account an annual subscrip- 
tion of 5,000 pagodas. 
Royal On the 9th June 1810 His Majesty was pleased to issue 

gronted^to"* ^ warrant, by wbicli rank in the Royal Army in India 
Company's ^{^ ^ranted to officers in the Company's service. The 

offioen, 1811. . . i * 

commissions to bear the same date as those held by 

officers from the Company. 

The Commander-in-Chief in India, for the time being, 

was vested with the power to issue these commissions- 
The warrant in question was published to the army of 

Fort St. George on the 30th March 1811. 
Hedalfl for The following extracts from a letter from the Court of 

patam. * Directors, regarding the medals granted for the captore 

of Sering^patamj were published to the army on the 6th 

July 1808 :— 

** Some time ago we caused a medal to be executed by one 
of the most eminent artists in this country, in commemoration 
of the brilliant success of the British arms in Mysore in 1799» 
for distribution amongst the officers and soldiers (European 
and Native) employed on that glorious occasion. On one side 
of it is represented the storming the breach of Seringapatani 
from an actual drawing on the spot, with the meridian sun 
denoting the time of the storm, with the following inscription 
in Persian underneath : The Fort of Seringapatam, the Gift 
of Ood, the 4th May 1799. On the reverseside is the Britiah 
Lion subduing the Tiger, the emblem of the late Tippoo Sol- 


tan's Qovernment, witli the period when it was effected, and CHAP. XXI. 
the following words in Arabic on the banner : * As8ad-oollah*nl "^^ 
Ohalib,' ^ flignifying the Lion of Qod is the Conqaeror, or the 
Conquering Ldon of Gt>d. 

'' Of these medals, gold ones have been stmck for His 
Majesty, the Right Honorable Lord Melville, theOovemors in 
India at the time, Marqtds Comwallis, the Nisam and his two 
Ministers, the Peshwa and his Minister, the Nabobs of 
Aroot and Onde, aind the Bajahs of Tanjore, Travancore, 
Mysore, Ooorg, and Berar, Dowlnt Bow Scindiah, the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, General Officers on the Staff employed on 
the service, and the Oriental Mnsenm. 

*^ Silver gilt for the Members of Council at the three Presi- 
dencies, the Residents of Hyderabad and Poonah, the Field 
Officers, and the General Staff on the service. 

**' Silver for the Captains lind Subalterns on the service* 

'< Copper bronze for the Non-Commissioned, and pure 
gravin tin for the Privates.'* 

The medals were not receired at Madras until January Distributed, 
1811, when orders were issued for their distribution to ^^^^' 
survivors^ whether effective or otherwise, and also to the 
heirs of deceased persons who had been entitled. 

On the 5th April 1811 the undermentioned detail from Detail f6r 
tlie Madras European Regiment was warned to serve as g^^ 
pioneers with the expedition about to sail for Java, viz., 
1 subaltern, 3 Serjeants, 3 corporals, and 30 privates. 

During the same month it was ordered that the three Vetera 
companies of European invalids should be embodied as ^^^ 

the nucleus of a Veteran battalion, to be denominated the 
" Camatic European Veteran Battalion/' to be paid and 
mastered as such from the 1st May. 

The battalion was to be divided into five companies, the Estabtish- 
strength of which was to be determined by circumstances, '"®"*' 

> Literallj " Lion of God, the Conqueror." 



CHAP. XXI. bat the number of non-commissioned, corporals, Ac., was 
fixed at 5 Serjeants, 5 corporals^ 1 drummer^ and 1 fifer. 
60 men, viz., 10 for each company, were to be selected 
from the invalids of artillery, and armed and clothed as 

The staff and artificers attached to the battalion were : 




Increase to 

Boon to 

1 Adjutant. 

1 Surgeon. 

1 Surgeon-Major. 

1 Quartermaster-Serjeant. 

1 Drum Migor. 

1 Fife Major. 

5 Puckallies. 

2 Armourers. 
1 Carpenter. 
1 Smith. 
1 Hammermau. 
1 Bellows Boy. 
1 Chickledar. 
1 Chuckler. 

4 Lieutenant-Colonels, 4 Majors, 12 Captains^ 12 
Lieutenants, and 1 Ensign, all of the invaUd establish- 
ment, were posted to the battalion, and Lieutenant- 
Colonel F. Aiskill was appointed to command. 

The clothing was ordered to be red^ with grey facings 
and silver lace. 

The head-quarters were fixed at Masulipatam ; two 
companies, each of 50 men, being detached, one to Yizaga- 
patam and the other to Ganjam. 

In May of the same year the pensions of European 
non-commissioned, rank and file, were increased to the 
following rates from the 1st of the next ensuing month, 
viz. : — 

Pags. Fan. Cash. 

To a Serjeant 4 11 83 

Bank and file 8 26 40 

It was resolved at the same time that on the transfer 
of any European or native soldier to the non-effective 
establishment, he should be allowed his effective pay and 
batta until he joined the corps or station to which he had 
been appointed. 


On the 10th September His Majesty's regulations CHAP. xxi. 
regarding gratuities for the loss of limbs in action, and Gratuities for 
those granted to the widows or children of officers killed, J^•^J^ ^^ 
or who might have died of their wounds within six action, Ac. 
months, were extended to the officers of the Company's 
service. The following are the particulars : — 

1. For the loss of an eye, or a limb, or the total loss 

of the use of a Umb — One year's full pay 
according to regimental commission. 

2. To the widow of a commissioned officer killed in 

action — A full year's pay {i,e.^ subsistence) 
according to her husband's regimental commis- 

3. To each child under age and unmarried — One- 

third of what is allowed to the widow. 
Posthumous children to be included. 

During the same month a table, showing the proper- Grataittea for 
tion of the gratuity payable to the several ranks of the T*^J2nTOre 
troops which had served in Travancore and Cochin and Cochin, 
between the 30th December 1808 and the 24th February 
1809, was published to the army. 

The following selections have been made from General 
Orders by the Commander-in-Chief during the expedition 
to Java, 

'^Jlead Quarters, Wdtevreeden, ISih August 1811." 

'* The good conduct of the troops having merited every Extra 
practicable indulgence, the Commander-in-Chief has directed ^^*®"*« 
one ounce and a-half of oofFee and two ounces of sugar per 
man, to be added to the daily ration of the European troops, 
and this is to be indented for accordingly." 

'' 2nd September 1811. 

" Captain Phillips of the Madras European Regiment (Act- Sniigtment 
ing Major of Brigade) is authorised to enlist Europeans from °^ Priaonors. 
VOL. in. 44 



CHAP. XXI. the prisoners, for that Corps, agreeably to instmciioBS he has 
"""" receiyed." 

Carrenoj of 

** Notice is hereby given, that from and after this date, 
Sioca rupees shall be taken and given in exchange for Spanish 
Dollars, at the rate of 2 Bicca rupees, and 1 Stiver for 1 Span- 
ish Dollar Silver^the value of the Sicca rupee being fixed at 
81 Stivers and a-half, and the Batavian, Surat, and Aroot 
rupee, continuing to circulate as heretofore at the value of 
30 Stivers only." 

"The following table showing the current value of the 
different coins circulating in Java, is published for general 
information : — 













4 Doits make one Stiver. 
10 do. da one Dablichi. 
do. one Shilling. 

do. one-half BataTian, Surat, or Aroot Bnpee. 
do. one-half Sicca rupee, 
do. one Batayian, Surat, or Aroot Bnpee. 
do. one Sicca rupee. 

48 Stivers make one Bix Dollar (nominal). 
60 do. do. one American, or Austrian ]>bl]ar. 
do. do. one Spanish Dollar, 
do. do. one Old Ducatoon. 
do. . do. one New do. 
do. do. one Bupee Mas, or Gold rapee. 
Spanish Dollars equal to one American Gold Ka^le. 
Do. do. do. one Doubloon. 






do. or 

do. or 

do. or 64 

do. or 78 

do. or 80 

do. or 480 

Discontinu- '' "^0 rations of sugar and coffee ordered to be issued to 

anoe of Bxtra ^jj^ European troops, being considered as no longer neceasarj 
in their present situation, they are to be discontinued from 
this date." 
Bifles. Rifles appear to have been coming into use with the 

Madras army at this period^ for on the 9th December 
1811^ Colonel Gillespie, then in command of the troops 
in Java, made a requisition on the Arsenal at Fort St 
George for 500, which was duly complied with. 



Native Infantry, 1810-11. 

On the IStli Febmary 1810, orders were issued for the Madras 
formation of a Battalion of Volunteers to be denominated Battalion, 
the "Madras Volunteer Battalion," and to be of the ^®^^- 
undermentioned strength, viz. : — 

1 Captain Oommandant. 
3 CaptaiDB. 
10 Lieutenants. 
5 ESnsignB. 

1 Adjutant. 
1 Surgeon. 
1 Assistant Surgeon. 
1 Serjeant-Major. 
1 Quartermaster-Serjeant. 

10 Sabadars. 20 Drummers and i^ers. 

10 Jemadars. 12 Puokallies. 

50 Havildars. 50 Naiques. 

900 Privates. 

Captain W. Munro of the 15th Regiment was appoint- 
ed to command. 

This regiment ^ was raised for foreign service to the 
eastward, but the intention was given up, and it was 
first employed on the expedition against the French 
islands in 1810. 

On the 9th March, the native troops about to embark Arrange- 
on foreign service were informed that their absence would ^o^ '^ 
not exceed the period of three years, and that the families Serrioe. 
of all the fighting men and camp-followers who might 
either die or fall in battle during the absence of their 
Corps from the Presidency, would be pensioned on the half 
pay of the rank of their deceased relatives. An advance 

1 It became the ** Madras Rifle Corps " in March 1814, and was 
highly distinguished during the Mahratta War of 1817-18. It was 
broken np in 1880, and the companies were then attached to certain 
regiments on the permanent establishment, viz,, the Ist, 6th, 16th, 24th, 
26tb, 86th, 38th, and 49th. These Rifle companies were abolished in 
January 1869. 



CHAP. XXI. of two months' pay^ exclasive of arrears and pay for the 
carrent months was made to all ranks^ and the issue of 
woollen cloaks and pantaloons to all the native troops 
employed was authorised at the same time. Full batta 
and rations were also granted to the native troops and 

On the 3rd April fonr Bheesties^ in .lien of Packaliies, 
were allowed for each company of native infantry and 
Pioneers under orders of embarkation. 

During October, men of the undermentioned ranks 
were admitted to the benefit of the Hutting regulations 
on the following scale^ viz. :— 

Drum Majors 4 Rupees. Vakeels and Dressers 3 
Rupees. Drummers, Fifers^ Puckallies> or Bheesties 2 

On the 12th of the same month the establishment of a 
battalion of Pioneers, to consist of eight companies^ was 
fixed as follows : — 

Bhaeatiet for 





3 Captains. 

4 Subalterns. 

1 Assistant Surgeon. 
8 Jemadars. 

1 Serjeant-Major. 
24 Havildars. 
24 Naiques. 
700 Privates. 

Baanad local 

Rewards for 
profidenoy in 

9 Pnchallies. 

The Ramnad local battalion^ long commanded by Colo- 
nel Martinz, was disbanded on the 1st December. In 
consideration of the long and fiiithfal services of the 
Corps^ the officers and men were permitted to enter llie 
regular battalions with the same claims on the Invalid 
and Pension Establishments as if they had been employed 
in the infantry of the line. Such officers and men as 
were no longer fit for duty were transferred to the noa- 
effective establishment. 

On the 2nd November^ an order of Government was 
published to the army in which it was announced thai 


a reward^ to the extent of 500 Pagodas^ would be given CHAP. XXL 
to every yonng officer^ or gentleman Cadet, who, on 
due examination, should be found to have made himself 
master of the Hindostanee language. All Cadets arrived 
at Madras since the 1st May 1809 were considered eligi- 
ble for this reward, but no Officer or Cadet who had not 
passed the necessary examination within the period of 
three years from the time of his landing in the country, 
was entitled to benefit thereby. 

On the 15 th January 1811, the provision for the Familieeof 
families of Native Soldiers killed, or dying when on followers 
Foreign Service, as set forth in general orders of the 5th J^"? °" 
November 1799, was extended to the families of tent, Serrioe, 1811. 
and store Lascars, and other public followers of the army. 
This order was to have retrospective effect from the date 
of that quoted above. 

350 aisTosT OP thb madras armt. 


— MsmcAL^ 1810. 

InamM of On the 9tli October 1810^ the salaries of the members 
B4iAne0,i8lO. ^jf ^jj^^ Medical Board were increased, and fixed as follows : 
—viz., Ist Member 800, 2nd Member 700, 3rd Member 
600 Pagodas per mensem. 

The salaries of staff Surgeons were raised to 450 

Pagodas per mensem. 

Difltribntion Although at this time there were upwards of 60 foil 

CMfiom^ Surgeons on the establishment, only 9 were doing regi- 

thearmy. mental duty, an arrangement which the OovernmeDt 

considered to be incompatible with the efficient mediosl 

treatment of the sick, for which reason they determined 

to assign a larger proportion ot junior medical officers 

for the performance of Civil duties, such as the charge 

of Zillah stations, and the undermentioned distribation 

was ordered : — 






35 62 


Horse Artillery 






European Infantry 


Native do. 



• • • • • < 



I WAB IN 1817. 

LisuTENAKT-GiNiBAL the Honorable John Abercromby CHAP.XXII. 
took command of the army on the 12th February 1812. CoiondT" 

A considerable extent of territory in the southern PiiT^',"**"^* 
Mahratta country ivas held on condition of military service 
to be rendered to the State of Poonah, but the several 
chiefs^ taking advantage of the weakness of that Govern- 
ment^ had not only long omitted to furnish their contin- 
gents^ but had taken possession of lands not included in 
their grants* On the other hand^ they suffered much 
oppression from the Peishwa. So much confusion ensued 
that the Governor-General considered it necessary to 
direct the assembly of a force to act under the immediate 
instructions of the Resident at Poonah^ for the purpose 
of compelling the restoration of all usurped lands, and 
the fulfilment of the obligations of the service due to 
the Peishwa^ while the possession of the Serinjanmy^ 
lands was to be guaranteed to the holders so long as they 
adhered to their engagements. 

In compliance with this order troops ^ were assem- 

^ These lands were hereditary in a few instanoes, bnt, as a rule, they 
were only granted for the lifetime of the holder, and were resumable 
at his death. However, they were generally renewed in favor of the 

' H:M.'b 25th light dragoons, one sqnadron, and the gun troop ; 8rd 
regiment cavalry ; H.M.'s Seth regiment ; Ist battalion 12th, 1st battalion 
Idth, Ist battalion 22nd, and 1st battalion 24th N.I. s detachments of 
artillery And pioneers. The 2nd battalion 2nd NJ. joined the force 
in Jnne 1818, and the 1st of the 12th then marched to Bangalore. A 
detachment of the Royal Scots, nnder Lieatenant-Colonel McKellar, 
joined in October of the same year. 


CHAP.Xxn. bled in tbe Ceded Districts about the end of Aagnst 

1812, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Dowse, 
which crossed the river Toombuddra at Humpsag^ar, and 
arrived at Guddak in the Mahratta country on the 28tli 

The force was actively employed until early in 1814, 
when it was withdrawn, the objects for which it had been 
called out having been successfully accomplished. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Dowse died at Gh>a on the 27th June 
1814, shortly after which the following general order 
was published to the army :— 

" 0.0.0., FoH Si. Oeorge, Uh July 1814. 

Compliment- *^ The Honorable the Governor in Gounoil had directed 
181^^^^^ that the sentiments of approbation expressed by the Supreme 
Oovemment in the following letter from the Secretary at Fort 
William should be communicated to Lieutenant-Colonel Dowse 
on his recent return from field service, hot the lamented 
death of that highly deserving officer having occurred before 
the communication could be made, the Qovemor in ConncQ 
is desirous of manifesting his respect for the memory of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Dowse by publishing them to the army in 
general orders." 

*'Sir, — The Resident at Poonah having reported to the 
Gk)vemor- General in Council that the services of the detach- 
ment under the command of Lieatenant-Colonel Dowse is no 
longer required in the Mabratta oountiy, and that he had 
requested that officer to direct the troops to retnm to the 
stations allotted to them by the Government of Fort St. Geot^e, 
1 am directed to take this opportunity of conveying to you, for 
the information of His Excellency the Governor in Council of 
Fort St. George, the sentiments of the Governor-General is 
Council relative to the conduct of Lieutenant-Colonel Dowse, 
and the officers and troops under his command, during the 
period of their employment in that quarter. 


*' 2. The Gbiremor-General in Oonncil has great saiaBfaotion CHAP. xxn. 
in transmitting to the .Governor in Conncil of Fort St. George 
the enclosed copy of a letter addressed to lieutenant-Colonel 
Dowse by the Resident at Poonah, and in adding the expres- 
sion of his own sense of their exemplary conduct, founded 
on the uniformly favorable report which has been made by 
the Resident under whose immediate observation they were 

" 3. The Governor-General in Council has, in the course of 
his correspoudence with the Elesident concerning the affairs of 
the Southern Jaghiredars, had frequent occasion to mark his 
approbation of the seal, judgment, and ability of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Dowse in the exercise of his command, and His 
Excellency in Council has great satisfaction in conveying this 
sentiment, as well as his approbation of the conduct of the 
detachment generally, to the Gt>vemment of the Presidency 
to which it belongs." 

" Port William, 
« 20th May 1814." 

The efficiency of the Commissariat Department^ which Enquiry 
had been organised in 1810, was first put to the test ^^^^of 
with Colonel Dowse's field force, and was very favorably ^^^ Coinmii. 
reported npon by that officer; but complaints having the force, 
been made by Major Sir Charles Bordett, H.M/s 56th 
regiment, who attributed the sickness of his men to the 
bad quality of the meat issued to them daring the service, 
a Court of Inquiry, composed of Lieutenant-Gteneral Pater 
of the cavalry, Lieutenant-Colonel Everard H«M/8 34th, 
Major Fraser Boyal Scots, Major Mnnro Madras rifle 
corps, and Captain Budyard horse artillery, was assem- 
bled in November 1814 to investigate the subject and 
report thereon. The Court were of opinion that the sick* 
ness and mortality in the 66th had not heea owing to the 
bad quality of the animal food served out to them, but — 

VOL. III. 45 



CHAP. XXII. To the immoderate use of spirits^ and exposxure to ykx^ 

flitude of climate ; 
To the large proportion of recruits recently joined ; 
To the men failing to report themselves when taken ill; 
To the very wet weather at the commencement of the 
service^. and the loss of baggage and bedding in oon- 
seqnence of the failare of a private bnllock contractor. 
The Commander-in-Chief and the Govemment con- 
cnrred in this opinion, and Captain Josiah Stewart,^ lltii 
native infantry^ the senior Commissariat officer with the 
force^ was thanked in general orders for the ability and 
attention with which he had conducted the duties of his 
department in the field. 

It appears from the correspondence of Colonel Dowse 
that several men of the 2nd battalion 2nd regiment were 
employed by him in the Intelligence Department daring 
the continuance of the service^ that they acquitted Uiem- 
selves to his satisf action, and were handsomely rewarded. 


in the 

Wtoaad, 1812. 

A rebellion having broken out in the Wynaad in March 
18129 troops entered the country early in April from 
Cannanore, and Seringapatam,* for the relief of our de- 
tachments at Manantoddy and Sultan's battery^ which 
were threatened by the insurgents. 

The troops from Cannanore under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Webber 2nd battalion 3rd^ consisted of a oompany of 
H.M/s 30th regiment^ the 2nd battalion Srd» and a detach- 
ment 1st battalion 6ih native infantry. Thoae from 
Beringapatam under Major Welsh 1st battalion 3rd, con- 
sisted of the light company H.M.'s 80th regiment^ Iphto 
companies 1st of the 3rd, and two companies lat of tlw 
13th, formed into a light battalion. 

^ Afterwards Besident at Hyderabad. 


Colonel Webber's detachment was attacked when CHAP.xxn. 
ascending the Gotiaddy Pass. Captain Hunter, Lieutenant 
Inyerarity, and 17 or 18 men of the 2nd battalion 3rd were 
wounded, the two former severely ; but the rebels were 
dispersed, and the post at Manantoddy, which was held 
by two companies 2nd battalion 8rd under Captain Tagg, 
was relieved on the 9th April. The detachment under 
Major Welsh arrived next day ; parties were then sent 
out in several directions, and by the end of the month 
the principal rebels had been taken, and the disturbances 

The detachment at Sultan's battery, under a native 
officer, had expended most of its ammunition, and was in 
danger when relieved by Major Welsh on the 18th ; but 
we suffered nothing except from the climate, a great 
number of officers and men having been prostrated by 

The European companies marched for cantonment on the 
23rd April, and the native troops followed early in May, 
after a chain of posts had been established at Panamurta* 
oottah, Porakaudy, Pbukum, Moodramoly and Sultan's 
battery, garrisoned by detachments of the 2nd of the 3rd 
and 1st of the 13th, each under the command of a Euro- 
pean officer, with the exception of the last, which was 
held by a native officer with 30 men. 

Mutiny at Quilon, 1812. 

On the night of the 24th May 1812, the existence of a 
conspiracy at Quilon, having for its object the destruc- 
tion of the European officers and men of the subsidiary 
force in Travancore, was brought to the knowledge of 
Lieutenant and Adjutant Cox 2nd battalion 14th regi- 
ment, by Jemadar lyaloo of the same battalion, to whoia 
it had been revealed by a private ol his conqpany* 





noQ of the 


of the ring- 

other triali, 

The sabsidiary force, at this time under the command 
of Colonel Hamilton Hall, was composed of a oompany of 
Eoropean artillery, the 2tfd battalion 9th, 2nd of the lltli« 
3nd of the 14th, and 2nd of the 18th r^ments of natiTe 

On the morning of the 25th, CSolonel Hall, and ilie 
officers in oommand of battalions, met at the Beaidencj, 
and it was there arranged that a general parade of the 
troops shoold be ordered for that afternoon, and that the 
principal conspirators shoald then be seized ; iprhile the 
Resident, Lieutenant-Colonel John Manro, took steps 
for the apprehension of such inhabitants of the town and 
Ticiniiy, as were beb'ered to be implicated. 

These measures were successfully carried out. Jemadar 
Shaik Hoossain of the 14th, together with 2 harildan 
and 22 men of that battalion, were called oat of the 
ranks, and placed in confinement, the troops behaying 
with perfect steadiness. 

Womanah Tumby ex-Dewan of Travancore, an indi- 
vidual claiming to be the nephew and representative of 
the late Pychy Bajah, and several religious mendicsants, 
were seized at the same time by the Resident's people as 
being the chief instigators. 

Jemadar Shaik Hoossain, and Private Salabut EZhan of 
the 14th were tried in a summary manner by a board of 
officers, of which Major Fraser 2nd battalion 9th^ was 
President. Both were convicted, and sentenced to be 
blown from a gun, which sentence was carried into exe- 
cution on the evening of the 28th May at a general 
parade of the whole force. 

Two havildars, one naigne, and twenfy-six privatee oi 
the 14th, of whom 19 were ICahomedans, and 10 Hindoos, 
were tried by ordinary court-martial, and sentenoed to 
death. Of these, two privates were pardoned^ the rest 

HI8T0BT or THB MADBAfl ABM7. 857 

were either flhot or hanged^ the sentences being carried Ofi AP. XXIL 
into execution at Qiulon^ Cannanore, Seringapatam, Tri- ' 

chinopoly, Yelloroy and St. Thomas' Mount respectively* 

Six native officers, and one havildar of the 18th, two Pardon of 
native officers of the 9th, and one native officer of the offioen. 
14th, were also tried and sentenced to death, but it was 
subsequently discovered that they had been &lsely 
accused, and they «were consequently pardoned and 
released, full belief in their innocence being expressed by 
the Commander-in-Chief in general orders. 

Nothing transpired to prove that the conspiracy ex- Good oondnot 
tended beyond the ^Jnd of the 14th. The 2nd of the 11 th ^^ xith. 
(22nd M.N.I.) was specially reported as having " mani- 
fested distinguished attachment and discipline '' through- 

The result of the enquiries made by the Resident, Onginaton 
which occupied some time, led him to the conclusion that ?!™._^ 

^^ ^ ' coiupirsoy 

Womanah Tumby, the psevdo Pychy Aajah, and Jemadar M^d their 
Shaik Hoossain of the 14th, had been the origiziatorB of 
the conspiracy. 

The design was to confer the sovereignty of Travancore 
upon the Pychy Bajah. The Jemadar was promised the 
office of Dewan, but this, in all probability, was really 
intended for Womauah Tumby. The pay of all sepoys 
as might join in the plot was to be raised to Bs. 10 per 

The chief body of conspirators consisted of discharged 
sepoys, fakeers, and disaffected natives of the province. 
The European officers were to have been attacked while 
at dinner, and the barracks set on fire at the same time 
in order to distract attention, after which the public 
treasury was to have been given up to plunder. 

On the 1 8th February 1813 Jemadar lyaloo of the Bewardt. 
14th was promoted to be Subadar, and presented with 



OHAP. xzn. 

of Womauali 

snd Com- 

a pslankeen, and an allowance for bearers. He abo 
receired a gold medal^ and a donation of 1^000 rapee& 
On his decease, his Nearest heir was to be allowed » 
pension of 35 rupees per mensem. 

Vencatram, the sepoy who had informed the Jemadsr 
of the plot, was pensioned on the pay of a Jemadar, and 
receired a donation of 600 rupees. 

Priyate Hoossain Khan, who had •given information to 
Captain lyes of the same battalion on the 24th May, hoi 
in rather an incoherent manner, was pensioned on tke 
pay of a Havildar- 

Womanah Tumby, and the Pjrchy Rajah were tried by 
the Court of the Travancore Gbvernment. The fonner 
was sentenced to death, but this sentence was commuted 
to banishment, and he was removed to Nellore. The 
Fychy Bajah was banished to Chingleput, but he was 
released from confinement in 1815. 

GFeneral Abercromby relieved Sir George Barlow aa 
Governor pn the Slst May 1818, and continued to hold 
the office of Commander-in-Chief in addition, -until the 
3rd December of the same year, when Lientenant- 
General Sir Thomas Hiislop Bart., arrived firom fhigland, 
and assumed command of the army. 

The Bight Honorable Hugh Elliott arrived at Madias 
in June 1814, and assumed charge of the G-ovemmeut 
on the 16th of that month. 



Towards the end of 1813 disturbances were com- 
menced in Kimedy at the instigation of the widow of the 
Zemindar Gujputty Deo ; and the civil authorities being 
unable to quell them, five companies of the Ist battalioa 
10th irom Vizianagrum under Captain Fraser, and three 
companies 2nd battalion 21st item Berhampore under 


Major Wahaby entered the Zemindary about the middle OHAP.XXII. 
of Mardi 1814. 

The 1st battalion 3rd regiment, and a detachment of 
pioneers were sent up from Madras abont the end of 
April, and Lieutenant-Colonel Fletcher was appointed to 
command, but tranquillity having been restored before 
the arrival of these reinforcements, the 3rd battalion was 
kept for a time at Teckely as a corps of observation, and 
Colonel Fletcher remained on the coast. 

The Zemindar of Ooomsoor having been guilty of severe Goomtoor, 
al acts of cruelty and oppression about this period, and 
having resisted the authority of Government when called 
to account. Colonel Fletcher marched against him from 
Berhampore in April 1815, and took possession of the 
fort at Kolada on the 20th May without opposition. 

The Zemindar having fled towards the hills, he was 
followed by Colonel Fletcher, and surprised near Gullery 
on the 27th, but he made his escape. Ultimately he gave 
himself up on the 24th June, and the troops returned to 

It was afterwards discovered that Colonel Fletcher had Chross 
received 7,000 rupees from the Zemindar for the purpose of Colonel 
of securing his good offices with the authorities, and of ^^«*<^«'' 
delaying the advance of the detachment. It was also 
ascertained that treasure, jewels, and other property to a 
very considerable amount had been taken at Gullery, 
20,000 rupees of which the Colonel retained for himself, 
and divided the remainder amongst the detachment, 
making no report whatever of the transaction. He was 
tried for these acts of misconduct in November 1816, 
and sentenced to be cashiered, which sentence was con- 
firmed in July 1817. 

Troops were again sent into Eimedy in October 1816, Kimedrt 
in consequence of disturbances created at the instigation 



OHAP.XXn. of PadmftnabhA Deo^ a landholder on the borders of tk 
'^~' Eemindary^ who was discontented at his remoY&l from die 
office of manager. He was apprehended by order of the 
Magistrate^ and tried before the ciyil conrt, but escspri 
punishment for want of sufficient evidence. Doorgamue, 
his less guilty instmmenti was captured and execnted ia 
April 1817. The troops were then withdrawn with& 
exception of detachments at Eimedy and Bageereddj- 
pooram, a large Tillage on the Palcondah river about li 
miles south-west of Kimedy. 

EuBNOOL^ 1813-16. 

When the Nizam transferred Bellary and CnddapA 
to the East India Company in 1800, the suzerainty of tk 
principality of Eumool^^ which had been tributary to tbs 
Nizam, became vested in the Company. 

In October 1813 the Collector of Bellary was sent to 
Eumool to enquire into the state of the inteUect of 
Munawur Khan, the eldest son of the then Nawaub AliC 
Ehan, to remonstrate against the unjust preference ol 
the Nawaub's sixth son Qholam Basool, and to signifj 
the wishes of the British Government with respect to the 
Buccessionj viz., that it should devolve upon the eldeit 
legitimate son. This mission having f ailed^ a foroe,* of 
such strength as to preclude any attempt at resistance^ 

in the 

^ Bounded on the north by the riverB Toombnddra and S^istna, and m 
the east, west, and aouth by the Ceded Dutrieta. The revenae at tki 
end of laat oentary was eatimated at 20 lakhs of mpeea, bat owing m 
mismanagement the collections gradually diminished, and by ISIS tkij 
had fUlen to about half that amount. 

*rirBt cavalzy, H.H.'s 66th foot, 1st battalion Snd, lat N>ttmlinn 7kk 
2nd battalion 18th, 2nd battalion 17th, detachments of artilleiy a^ 
pioneers. The flank companies of the 2nd, 7th, and 18th tg be farmd 
into a flank battalion. The force to be divided into the tid^mno^wd 
reserve brigades, the former under Lientena»t-Colonel H^rtin of tk 
18th, the latter under Lieutenant-Colonel Barclay H.M.'s 66t|i, the wfek 
under Ma]or-Qeneral Aldwell Taylor, commanding in the Cedad 


was sent from Bellary in December with the view of CHAP.xxil. 
releasing Munawor Khan from the confinement to which 
he was subjected^ and of causing his formal recognition 
as heir. These objects having been satisfactorily accom- 
plished, the troops returned to cantonments. 

Alif Khan died about the end of September 1815, upon Moznffer 
which Munawur Elian was immediately set aside by his ^^i^q Uv^ad 
next brother Mozuffer Khan, who took possession of the ^®^^* 
town and district. 

Oovemment, on receiving intelligence of this occur- OoTernment 
rence, directed the assembly of a field force ^ at Gooty, and ?^^ 
on the 14th October they appointed Colonel Marriott to 
the oommandy associating with him Mr. Chaplin of the 
civil service for the purpose of installing Munawur Khan 
in his rights and dignities. 

The troops marched in November, and on arriving at Surrender 
Kumool, MozufEer Khan was called upon to submit, but, ^ '^^^^ * 
being confident in the strength of the fort, which was 
defended by a numerous garrison, he held out, and 
obliged us to lay regular siege to the place. 

Fire was opened from the batteries on the 14th De- 
cember, and Mozuffer Khan surrendered the next day. 
MunawarKhan was then duly installed, and agreed to 
permit the British troops to occupy his fort until matters 
should have settled down. 

Colonel Marriott and the troops were thanked in gene- I^eld force 
ral orders of the 1st January 1816, and on the 29th June isie. °^' 

' Squadron H.M.'b 22nd dragoons, 4th regiment cavalry, H.M.'b 84th 
foot, Madras Ehiropean Begiment, one company Madras Rifle corps, Ist 
battaUon 8rd, 2nd battalion Oth, 1st battalion 12th, one and a half 
pompany of artillery, three companies Ist battalion pioneers. 

The Assistant Adjutant-General^ and Assistant Qnartermaster-Qeneral 
yt the army to join the force. 

VOL. III. 46 


CHAP. XXII. the force was broken ap^ and ihe Colonel refcomed to hs 

own command at Bangalore. 

Omtuoh An ordinary garrison, composed of the Eniopean regi- 

1817. ment, the 2nd of the 9th, the 2nd of the 14thy and 

detachments of artillery and pioneers, was placed in 
Komool, as a temporary measure, under the command of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Thompson of the European refrimeiit 
This Goyemment command was abolished on the 7tii 
April 1817, and the troops were then withdrawn. 

PiACB WITH France. 

Intelligence of the conclusion of the Treaty of Puis 
on the 30th May 18 14 having been receiyed at Madras is 
January 1815, it was ordered that royal salatea^ witt 
three volleys of musketry, should be fired at ali the prin- 
cipal stations of the army in honor of the events and 
that batta should be issued to the European and NatiTS 
troops, as on other occasions of extraordinary rejoiciBg. 

Thanks to the Troops. 

On the 7th February of the same year the following 
extract from a despatch from the Court of Directorsi 
dated Srd August 1814, was published to the army : — 

" His Royal Highness the Commander-in-Chief bavxag 
transmitted to us the following Besolutions of the SoMUfnhk 
House of Commons^ we feel great satisfEUstion in tranacribiBf 
them for your information, and we desire that the same wsj 
be communicated in the most public manner to the wbdle if 
the troops serving in your Presidency-" 

*' Mercurie, 6th Die Julie 1814 

" Resolved — Nemine cantradicente : 

'' That the thanks of this House be given to the oOLoeBtaJ 
the Army (including the troops employed in the service 


I the Bast India Company) for the meritorions and eminent CHAP. XXII. 
Beryioes whioh they have rendered to their king and country 
daring the oonrse of the war. 

'' Besolyed— '^dmuid eoniradicente : 

" That this Honse doth highly approve and acknowledge 
the aerrioes of the non-commissioned officers and men em- 
ployed in the Army during the oonrse of the war, and that 
the same be communicated to them by the commanders of 
the seyenJ corpe, who are respectively desired to thank 
those under their command for their exemplary and gallant 

His Royal Highness the Dake of York^ then Oom- Letter from 
mander-in-Chiefy when transmitting copies of these York. ^ 
resolutions to the Court of Directors, concluded his letter 
with the following sentence : — 

" It is with peculiar saids&ction that I avail myself of the 
opportunily to express, through the channel of the Court of 
Directors^ the high sense I entertain of the universal good 
conduct displayed by the Company's European and Native 
troops during the course of the arduous services upon which 
they have been employed." 


The following order was published to the army on the 
retnm of the Madras troops from the Moluccas in Novem- 
ber 1816 :~ 

G.O.C.O., dOih November 1816. 

'* The Commander-in-Chief has great satisfaction in publish- 
ing to the army the following extract of a letter from the 

of Fort Victoria addressed to the Government of« 
Fort St. George. 

'' Sach testimonials of the sealous and valuable services of 
the officers of this establishment, and of the orderly and good 



GHAP.XXn. oondnct of their detacbments, reflect the highest honor oq 
themaelyesy and are creditable to their respective corps." 

Serricea of 
the Madias 
troops in the 
to their 

** Extract of a letter to the Government of Fort St. George 
from the Resident at Fort Victoria, Ambojna, dated 19tk 
Angost 1816. 

** I have the honor to acquaint jon that under the expect- 
ation of the speedy restoration of these islands to the Datdi, 
I have judged it proper to take immediate measnreB for send* 
ing to Fort St. George as large a proportion of the troops 
belonging to that establishment which are now employed al 
the Moluccas, as can be conveniently removed. 

*' On the occasion of the final departure, for the Presidency 
to which they belong, of the officers and troops prooeedingoa 
the ** Laurel," I consider it to be a duty incumbent on me to 
oommunicate to the Government of Fort St. George tbe 
sentiments of cordial esteem, and approbation which tiw 
invariable tenor of their conduct, and their eminent profes- 
sional services, and merits, have indelibly impressed on my 
mind. In the exigencies of every public crisis, and on evecj 
occasion of difficulty and danger which has occurred during 
my administration at the Moluccas, they have always been 
distinguished by their eminent alacrity,zeal, and promptxtnde; 
and by their uniform skill, activity and courage they haw 
confirmed those claims to public approbation and gratitude, 
which they had previously estabb'shed by their servioes in the 
capture of the island.'' 

Lieutenant Kyd of the European regiment^ and Lienten- 
ant Nelson of the artillery^ were specially thanked fsa 
their services while in civil employ under the Resident 
•for the period of five years ; and the skilfal execatioa 
of topogpraphical military charts^ and plans of the fortifi- 
oations at Banda^ and Amboyna by Lieutenant Gtsde cl 
the European regiment^ was also duly acknowledged. 


PlNDABIBS^ 1812-17. CHAP.XXn. 

The Pindaries/ ori^nally obscure freebooters^ grad- 
ually became aoxiliaries to the several Mahratta powers 
to whom they attached themselves^ and by whom they 
were granted anlimited Ucense to plunder, besides being 
occasionally rewarded by grants of land. Their head- 
quarters were in. the province of Malwa, where they' lived 
under the protection of Scindia, and of Holkar. Their 
numbers, periodically increased by success, and dimin- 
ished by misfortune, were continually fluctuating, but 
were generally estimated at about 25,000 horse, of whom 
some 6,000 were good, 4,000 fair, and the rest indifferent. 

The leaders appear to have been generally, if not 
always, Mahomedans, but the men were of every caste 
and religion, and natives of every province in Central 
India, the Deccan, and the Southern Mahratta country, 
united only by their common love of plunder, and a law- 
less life. The following extract from Sir John Malcolm's 
report on the province of Malwa describes^ their com- 
position and method of warfare : — 

*' When they set oat on an expedition they placed them- Method of 
selves under the guidance of one or more chosen leaders, ^^"^'®* 
called Lubbireahs,* who were selected on account of their 
knowledge of the country they meant to plunder ; they were 
neither encumbered by tents nor baggage; each horseman car- 
ried a few cakes of bread for his own subsistence, and some 
feeds of gram for his horse. The party, which nsuaUy con- 
sisted of two or three thousand good horse, with a proportion 
of mounted followers, advanced (as secretly as they could, 
and without plundering) at the rapid rate of forty or fifty 
miles a day, neither turning to the right nor left till they 

^ BuppoMd to be derived from Pinda, an intoxicating drink to which 
they were addicted. — Malcolm's BeiXNrt on Malwa, page 286. 

* Selected for their intelligence and activity ; their moring oat with 
the standard was the signal for march. 


CHAP.ZXII, arriyed at the oonntry meant to be attacked. They then 

divided, and made a sweep of all the cattle and property they 
oonld find ; committing at the same time the most horrid atroc- 
ities and destroying what they oonld not carry away. They 
trusted to the secrecy and suddenness of the irruption for 
ayoidingthe troops who guarded the frontiers of the coan tries 
they invaded, and before a force could be brought against them, 
they were on their return. Their chief strength lay in their 
being intangible. If pursued they made marches of extra- 
ordinary length (sometimes upwards of sixly miles) by roads 
almost impracticable for regpilar troops. If overtaken, they 
dispersed and reassembled at an appointed rendezvoos; if 
followed to the country from which they issuedi they scat- 
tered into small parties. 

*' Their wealth, their booty, and their fiunUies, were dis- 
persed over a wide region, in which they found protection 
amid the mountains, and in the &8tnesses belonging to them* 
selves, and to those with whom they were either openly or 
secretly connected ; but nowhere did they present any point 
of attack ; and the defeat of a party, the destruction of one of 
their cantonments, or the temporary occupation of some of 
their fastnesses, produced no effect beyond the ruin of an 
individual freebooter, whose place was instantly supplied by 
another, generally of more desperate fortune, and therefore 
more eager for enterprise." 
Thay enter The Pindarics do not appear to have made any inroad 

^312^ ^'^ into the territory of the Company until 1812, when they 

entered the district of Mirzapore, and carried off their 

plunder through Rewah, in consequence of which a treaty 

was entered into with the Rajah of that province, who 

undertook to guard the passes, and to allow our troops 

to occupy such posts in his country as might be suitable 

for the purposes of observation and defence. 

They plunder About the 10th March 1816, a numerous body crossed 

Q^^|^[!!|^^ the Eistna, and entered the district of Guntoor, which 

1816. ^\^Qj plundered for seven successive days^ after which they 


passed into Cuddapah, and making a detonr, recrossed the OH AP. XXll. 
river on the 21 st^ just aa a party of British troops came 
in sight. The detachment in the town of Gnntoor was 
quite inadequate for its protection^ consisting only of a 
few invalid sepoys, and peons, employed to gnard the 
treasury and the jail. 

A Board of Commissioners appointed to inquire into EstimAted 
the nature and extent of the losses and injuries sustained, ^^''®** 
reported that 269 houses had been burnt, 6,203 houses 
plundered, 183 persons killed, 505 wounded, 3,603 sub* 
jected to torture ; and property to the value of £250,000 
carried off or destroyed* 

In December 1816 another body of Pindarics, esti- They plunder 
mated at about 5,000 men, entered Purlakimedy through ^ 6««ia»- 
the zemindary of Jeypoor, burnt the town, and destroyed 
a number of villages in the neighbourhood. The town 
of Qanjam was plundered about the same time, and the 
taluks of Itchapoor, Munsoorcottah, and others in that 
part of the district were laid waste. 

The celerity of the movements of the marauders, and 
the quickness with which they broke up into small 
parties, saved them from sustaining any considerable loss 
from the detachments of native infantry stationed at 
Kimedy, and at Berhampore, but the officers at those 
places acquitted themselves as well as the means at their 
disposal would admit, and they received the thanks of 
Government fSr their exertions. 

The following is an account of the attack upon Eimedy Defeated at 
as reported by Major Oliver 1st battalion 6th regiment, ^15^^' 
who commanded the detachments ^ at that place, and in 
the neighbourhood : — 

^ Three oompanies of the Gth at Kimedy, and one at an ontpoet under 
Lieutenant Jackson } one company 8nd battalion 2nd under Lieutenant 
H. Tweedie. 


CHAP. ZXn. " I hMve ihe honor to aoqii»iiii yoa, for the inf onnaiioii of 
the officer oommanding the diviaion, that about 5 o^okick 
yesterdaj evening we were sorpriaed by the Mahiatta horn 
entering this town« Having only Lieutenant Tnllob with me, 
I sent him to take poet at the other end of it, and firom botli 
onr divieions parties were sent ont to the different streets 
to endeavour to keep them ont of the town. We had a oon- 
tinned skirmishing for aboat two honrs, and some nien and 
horses were killed in the streets. 

" A little after 6, Lieutenant Tweedie, who had retreated 
upon my detachment, arrived, having marched all night 
and that day, having been surrounded by them from 11 
o'clock in the morning. I found it impossible to save the 
town as they galloped through, and set fire to it in several 
places. At 11 o'clock p.m. Lieutenant Jackson, who had been 
stationed with his company about 16 miles off, arrived, when 
oonsidering myself strong enough to give them an alert, I 
left Lieutenant Tweedie with two companies in a strong^ posi- 
tion, and having procured two peons from Mr. Spottiswoode,' 
who promised to show me the road to their camp about a 
mile off, I put myself under their guidance, and am happy to 
say we succeeded beyond my expectation. We were actually 
in the middle of their camp before they discovered ns, and 
we gave them two volleys from the companies within ten 
yards, which did great execution, and caused such confusioB 
among them that they fled in every direction. 

*^ We traversed their camp, and killed, I should imagine, 
from twenty to thirty of them. They left the greatest part 
of their baggage on the gpround, and this morning there were 
about a hundred horse running loose about the town, and we 
have killed and taken about seventy horse. Lieut^aaiit 
Tweedie, when he heard the firing, detached Lieutenant 
Tulloh with a company to take post on the bank of a tank 
for which they appeared to be making. This was such an 

^ The Collector of the district. 



unexpected measure that a party of them galloped up close to OH AP. XXII. 

Ideatemmt Tulloh. witiiont diBOoveriag liim, when he gave "" 

them a vollej and killed some men and horses. They have 

been drawn np in front of us this morning. I should suppose 

there are about 5,000 of them, and they are now moving off 

in the direction of Jemboor and Sericottah.^ I shall march 

this evening for Ohicacole as I conceive it probable they wiU 

move in that direction. We have taken a standard and a j 


** ElMBDT, 

" mh Decwnber 1816." 

The Bight Honorable the Governor in Council j when Thanks to the 
publishing this letter in general orders, requested the ^etaohment, 
Commander-in-Chief to " signify to Major Oliver, and to 
the officers and troops who served nnder his command, 
the high 8pprobati<m of the Government, for the ezem-> 
plary discipline and gallantry which they displayed in 
their attempt to defend the town of E[imedy, and in their 
subsequent att^K^k on the camp of the Pindarics.'' The 
officers and men of the detachment were thanked accord- 
ingly by the Commander-in-Chief in an order dated at 
Fort St. George on the 17th January 1817. 

The troops in the north of the district of Ganjam, con- Detachments 
sisting of the head-quarter wing of the 2nd battalion ^^^B®'^"^- 
2 nd regiment at Berhampore^ and of the other vnng at 
Aska^ were quite inadequate to protect the country against 
a nnmerous body of predatory horse, but Lieutenant- 
Colonel Steele, who was in command at Berhampore, 
made the best dispositions in his power to prevent the 
Pindarics from entering the province of Cuttack, in which 
object he was successful. 

^ Direct soath of Pnrlakimedy, and on the way to the town of Chica< 

VOL. III. 47 



del eata the 

CHAP. XXII. The first notice of the irmption was giren by tbe 
bnming of Itehapoor^ a thriving town about 18 mikB 
south of Berhamporey which took place about the 20lit 
December^ upon which Colonel Steele sent off an express, 
desiring Major Monin to march from Aska to Ghmjam, 
after having detached a party into the zemindary of 
Calicote ^ to close the road into Cnttack from that direc- 
tion* Lieutenant Bym, with 50 men^ was sent from 
Berhampore on the 25th to hold the narrow strip of land 
between the southern extremity of the Chilka Lake^ and 
the sea at Priaghee, while Lieutenant Borthwick^ witli 
another detachment^ marched towards Hautg^hnr with 
instructions to act according to his discretioa. 

Lieutenant Borthwick lef); Berhampore early on fke 
37th, and having received iuformatioii while on the mardi 
that a body of about 1,000 horse were in the neighbour- 
hood of ELautghur, he surprised them near the village of 
Bagwanny ' about 1 1 o'clock the same night when in camp, 
killed 20 men, and captured 50 horses, together with i 
number of spears, swords, and shields, and all their 

heavy baggage. 

He followed them up into Qoomsoor the next day, and 
about 4 a.m. on the 29th he again surprised them when 
encamped in the open paddy-fields near the village cf 
Nowgaum,' killed the leader and a number of lua men, 
and took 19 horses, the weakness of his ytatj having 
prevented him from securing more. A considerable 
quantity of plunder was taken by the villagers. After 
this defeat the Pindarics retreated north in great haste, 
and left the district by Bodingy and Chokapad. 

1 On the western shores of the Chilka Lake. 

> Between Aska and Hantghnr, or Aatagudda. Probably the ptaee 
marked '* Boiranny " in the map. 
* About four miles soath of Kolada, and close to Bassellconda. 


Major Monin having nuBsed the express from Berham- GHAP.XXII. 
pore, did not reach Ganjam until about noon on the 23rd, Major Monin'a 
a few hours after it had been plundered, but he was in movements, 
time to secure the passes in Calicote. He then marched 
into Goomsoor to support Lieutenant Borthwick, but the 
Pindarics had fled before his arrival. 

The exertions of Lieutenant Borthwick and his detach-' 
ment were handsomely acknowledged by the GoTemor 
in Council in the following general order, dated 27 th 
January 1817 r — 

" The Bight Honorable the Goremor in Council having Thanks of 
received the satisfactory inteUigence of the complete expul- Ctovemmeot. 
sion of the numerouA body of predatory horse which lately 
penetrated the Company's territory in the Ganjam District, 
deems it proper to express in the most public manner his 
high sense, as well of the zeal, judgment^ and enterprise 
displayed by Lieutenant Alexander Borthwick of the 2nd 
battalion 2nd regiment of native infantry throughout the 
operations which have led to this decisive and important 
result; as of the exemplary perseverance, exertion, and 
gallantry of the native officers and men of the detachment 
under his command, whose conduct equally in their unwearied 
pursuit of the enemy, and in every attack on their camp, 
reflects the highest credit on the discipline and efficiency of - 
the corps to which they belong, and has entitled them to his 
unqualified approbation." 

Two other successful attacks upon the Pindaries were other aifaun 
made about the same time, one by Major Lushington,^ with f^^ldwries 
the 4th light cavalry, in the territories of the Peishwa^ 1816-17. 
the other by Major Robert McDowall commanding a 
brigade in the Hyderabad country. 

On the night of the 25th December Major Lushington, Their defeat 
then at Peepulwarrie, having received information that L^^^SLm* 

^ Afterwards General Sir James Law LoBhington, a.c.B. 


CHAP.Xxn. the Pindariea had appeared at the village of Sogamn, 
distant about 22 miles, marched for that place at 1 a.m. 
on the 26th. Before he had gone abore a few nulea both 
of his galloper guns broke dowD^ and he was obliged to 
leave them. On arriving at Soganm about 7 aan., he 
found that the Pindaries, about 2,500 strong, had gone 
off the day before in an easterly direction. Leaving die 
recruits, baggage, and followers at Sogaum under the 
protection of the gun troop and rear guard, he continued 
the pursuit as far as Kami 20 miles further on, at which 
place he arrived about noon, having with him 350 rank 
and file. He there halted for nearly an hour to water 
the horses and refresh the men, after which he went ob 
to Peepry, distant 7 miles, where he was told that the 
whole body of Pindarics, after having plundered a number 
of villages, had halted at Cowah about 3 miles from 
Peepry, and were engaged in preparing their food. Major 
Lushington then pushed on at a brisk pace, and came 
upon the plunderers without having been discovered. 
The rest of the account shall be given in his own vrords. 

Defeat of the *^ The surprise was complete, the success proportionate, 
jriuaonw. ^^^ though the Piudaries were not two minutes before Hxbj 
were on their horses, flying in various directions, yet the 
ground was so favorable to pursuit, and it was kept up bj 
the pursuing divisions for 10 miles with such ardor, that I 
cannot estimate their loss, from the several reports I have 
received, at less than 700 or 800 killed and wounded, togrether 
with a great number rendered incapable of pursuing their 
plundering excursion by the loss of their horses. "R^i^^ji^^ 
the person who was at the head of the party, escaped with 
about 200 of the best mounted, and went off in a aontherlj 
direction. I am of opinion that he will scarcely be able to 
reassemble, at the utmost, more than 400 or 500 of hia late 
party, and which I learn was estimated at 3,000. Including 
the pursuit and return to Oowah, I estimate the distance gooe 


over hj the regiment from 1 in ihe morning to 6 at night on CHAP. XXII. 
the 26th at 70 miles. 

*' Though I have only one casnaltj to report to yoo, yet I Death of 
feel it a most painful duty, for in Captain Darke the service j^)^ 
has lost a gallant and most excellent officer, and the regiment 
has heen deprived of a brother officer, highly respected and 
esteemed. He fell, shortly after I ordered the pursuit to 
oommencey by a thrust from a spear which proved almost 
instantly fatal. 

" 1 enclose a return of the killed, wounded, and missing 
horses^ which is very inconsiderable." 

This affair having been communicated to the Madras CompHment- 
Gt>vemment by the Resident at Poonah, a general order ^y^*^^' 
was published at Fort St* George on the 27th January 
1817, in which Major Lns^ngton was thanked for the 
judgment, activity, and professional ability which he had 
displayed ; and the officers, native officers, and men of the 
regiment were also thanked for their exemplary conduct* 

Early in November 1816 a body of Pindaries, computed The Pindariee 
at about 2,500 men, under the command of one of their ^L„ ^^d 
principal leaders named Buksoo, left Nimawar ^ in Malwa, Hyderabad, 
crossed the Nerbudda, and advanced in a south-easterly 
direction by Seonee and Bamteak, leaving Nagpore on 
the right, and Chanda on the left. It then passed 
Yedalabad, and Beder, and penetrated as far as theKistna, 
plundering as it went. On reaching the Kistna it turned 
up along the left bank for some distance, and then struck 
north towards the district of Nuldroog, which it entered 
early in January 1817. 

At this time Major Robert McDowall 2nd battalion Defeated 
24th regiment, was moving about in the Nizam's dis- moDo^!^ 

^ On the Godavery opposite to Soindia'a fort at Hindia. It was one 
of the head^quarter oampe of the Pindaries. The aocoant of the 
movements of Bnksoo's party is taken from a letter from the Resident 
at Hyderabad to the liadras Goyemmenty 19th January 1817. 


CHAP. XXII. trictB of Beder^ Nandair, and Nuldroog^ with a small field 
~* force consiBting of part of his own battalion, some com- 
panies of the 2nd battalion 15th regiment nnder Captain 
Williams^ and a body of Mysore Siliadar horse nnder 
Annajee Bow. On the I4th January, when marching 
towards the town of Omergh in Nnldroog, he reoeiTed 
information to the effect that the Pindarics were in the 
neighbourhood of the village of Moorli, distant about 8 
miles towards the south-west. Leaving his camp si 
Omergh under the protection of 80 men^ the Major marched 
about 9 p»m. with 325 rank and file^ and 1^000 Siliadar 
horsCj and about 3 a.m. on the 15th he surprised the 
Pindarics in their encampment^ and dispersed them with 
considerable loss. 

They continued their flight until evenings when they 
made a short halt, after which they resumed their retread 
taking the most direct line for the Gk)davery. Their loss 
was estimated at about 500 men, killed, wounded^ and 
taken prisoners ; 800 horses, of which half were very good, 
were captured, and about 200 were killed and wounded. 
Two of the chiefs, named Oawder^ and MoomdeOj besides 
several other leaders, were wounded, but they w&& 
carried off by their men by being tied on their horses. 
All their booty was left behind, except what they had 
about their persons, and a large quantity of arms, princi< 
pally swords and spears^ were abandoned. 

The inhabitants rose upon the plunderers during tiieir 
retreat and captured a number, all of whom were exe- 
cuted by order of the Nizam's Government. 



Cavalry, 1812—1816. 

In March 1812 the standard for the horses of native Height and 
cavaky was raised to 14 hands 2 inches, bnt with per- J|i2. *^"*' 
mission to take horses one inch lower, provided they 
were of good blood, compact, strongs and active* As 
regards age it was laid down that no horse should be 
bought under 8i years' old in time of peace, or under 4 
years in time of war, or above the age of 6, except when 
the exigencies of the service might require it. This 
order continued in force until June 1816, when the 
standard was again reduced to 14 handa. 

On the 26th January 1813, the native o£Scer8and men Bewarda far 
of the body guard, and of the 1st regiment of cavalry, PenU^ 
who had returned to Madras after having been attached ^^^ 
to the Embassy in Persia, were thanked in general orders 
for their meritorious conduct while on that service. A 
gratuity equal to three months' pay and batta was granted 
to each man of the two detachments, and a sinular gra- 
tuity was paid to the families of men who had died during 
their absence from the Madras Presidency. Several of 
the native officers and men received additional rewards, 
some in the shape of promotion, others in that of 
enhanced pensions. 

Oold medals of the order of the '^ Ldon and Sun '' Medala. 
having been subsequently conferred on Jemadars Syed 
Hoossain, and Hoossainee Beg, by Abbas Mirza the 
Prince Bc^ral, the Court of Directors, as a special mark 
of favor, permitted these officers to wear them. 

During the early part of 1813, it was ordered that, ITnifonny 
from the Ist January 1814^ the cavalry, which since 1794 
had worn scarlet jackets with white facings, should be 



CHAP.XXn. clothed in dark blae with ailver lacOi and the nndCTmen- 
tioned fiunngs were asdgpied to the several regimenlB :— 

5ih regiment Pale jaUow* 
6th „ Ormnge. 
7th ^ Bnff. 
8th M Deep yellow. 

Ist regiment Pale yellow. 
9&d ff Orange. 
3rd „ Buff. 
4th M Deep yellow. 


Changed to 
grey, 1818. 

ment, 1818. 

to Adjutants, 


The Court of Directore objected to the diange oa 
account of the high price of bhie cloth, owing to wUdi 
the amonnt of the off-reckoning fnnd had been aerionriy 
diminished, for which reason it was ordered that grey 
cloth should be worn by the cavalry. This order was 
carried out in 1818, since wMoh time there has not been 
any alteration in the color of the nnif orm. 

Daring November 1813, the *' Madras Veterinary 
Establishment'^ was transferred from the Presidency town 
to Arcot. The number of boys to be educated asfarrieis 
was increased to fifty-eight, with the view of sapply- 
ing the horse artiflery, and body guard, as well as tin 
cavalry. Each boy was to receive four pagodas per 
mensem, from which sum his messing, and neceaaariei 
were to be provided* 

He was to be famished annually, at the expense ol 
Government, with one uniform jacket and one waftering 
cap. A barrack was provided for the ac(K>mmodation of 
the lads, with the same allowance of famitare ae thst lor 
European soldiers. 

On the 17th April 1816, the pay and allowaiiceB of 
Adjutants of native cavalry were fixed at Rs. 147 per 
mensem, viz., staff pay Us. 62, allowance for a el^k Ba. 
40, for stationery and candles Bs. 15, and Bs. 30 for a 

A recruiting depdt for the general service of the cav- 
alry was formed at Arcot in May under the command of 


Captain Oatlaw 3rd cavalry. Each regiment was directed CHAP.XXir. 
to fornisli a detail consisting of 2 snbadars^ 2 jemadars. Establish* 
8 havildars, 8 naigues, and 16 privates, to do duty at ^^^^^ 
the depdt. The staff was to consist of 1 riding-master 
and native adjatant, 1 drill havildar, 2 pay havildars, 
1 drill naigae, 2 rough-riders first class, 2 rough-riders 
second class, 1 staff serjeant, 2 trumpeters, and the 
ordinary proportion of artificers. 

200 recruits, 200 horses, 200 sets of horse appoint- 

VOL. III. 48 




Bewardfl to 
the detach- 
ment from 

Beview by 
Lord Moira, 

Artillbbt, 1812—1816. 

The detail of natiye horse artillery which returned 
from Persia in September 1812 having been strongly 
recommended to the favorable consideration of Gk>Tenh 
ment by saccessiTe British Ministers in Persia, and bj 
the Commander-in-Chief^ a pension of 110 pagfodas per 
mensem was granted to Subadar Shaik Moideen Bahader, 
and it was resolved at the same time that a pension of 
50 pagodas per mensem should, on his decease, be paid to 
his nearest heir for the maintenance of the family. The 
subadar was also presented with a horse and a palankin, 
and a grant of 16 cawnies of land was made to him. 

The non-commissioned officers and privates fit for 
farther service were promoted to the ranks of jemadar, 
and havildar of cavalry respectively, and such of tk 
privates as were unfit for duty were pensioned on di3 
pay of naigues of cavalry. 

Snbadar Shaik Moideen having subsequently hem 
presented with a gold medal of the order of the ^ LioR 
and Sun " by Abbas Mirssa, the Prince Royal, he wbs 
permitted by the Court of Directors, as a special maik 
of favor, to wear that decoration. 

General, the Earl of Moira, afterwards Marquis of 
Hastings, having landed at Madras in September i8iS 
on his way to Bengal as Governor-Oeneral, took tl^ 
opportunity to review the artillery at the Mount, after 
which he issued the following order : — 

"* Head Quarters^ Choultry Plain, IBth September 1813. 

'* The Sari of Moira desires to express how highly lie w« 
gratified by his inspection of the Honorable Company's 
corps of artillery at the Mount yesterday. The conditica 
of the corps, the steadiness of the men, and the precision d 
the manoeavres spoke decisively in praise of the attentiia 


whioli must have been applied by Colonel Bell, Captain CHAP. XXII. 
Noble, and tbe other officers acting under him. 

*' The observation of Lord Moira was, not very long ago, 
specifically called to all those details which constitute the 
fitness of a corps of artillery for service ; and he is happy to 
say that the troops which he saw yesterday, bear an honorable 
comparison with the excellent pattern he was, at the former 
period, accastomed to contemplate." 

About the end of October the use of the gorget, as Abolition of 
part of the appointments of an officer of artillery, was 
ordered to be discontinued. 

On the 7th December the Commissary of Stores, in Command of 
charge of the arsenal at Fort St, George, was relieved in^tbe Fort 
from the duty of superintending and inspecting the »^<l>^ Black 
ordnance on the works; the charge of the g^uns on the 
fortifications and in the batteries of the Fort and Black 
Town^ and of the expense magazines belonging to them^ 
together with the command of the detachment of artil- 
lery doing duty in Fort St. George, was ordered to be 
Tested in an officer of experience, to be specially selected 
for that purpose from the corps of artillery^ and whose 
authority was to be entirely independent of the Commis- 
sary of Stores. 

The horse and foot artillery stationed at the Mount Inspection 
were inspected and reviewed by the Commander-in-Chief ^ndeJ^n™* 
in July 1814, and Major-General Bell, the Commandant, Chief, 1814, 
was thanked in general orders for the high state of disci- 
pline and efficiency in which the corps had been found. 

The Court of Directors, in their letter to Bengal of the General 
16th February 1814, which was published at Madras on ^^^^ <>' 
the 28th October, cancelled the order of 1806 regarding and engineers - 
the employment of General Officers of artillery and ©mVio^oiu 
engineers on the Staff, and also that which prohibited *^® ^^^-^ 
them from exercising the command of their respective 
corps after promotion. 




Command of 
cavalry gnun 
when in 
battery, 1816. 

Paj and 
allowanoes of 


*' Para. 133. We therefore direct tliat no (General Officer of 
engineers or artillery be hereafter pnt npon the Cbneral Sid 
of the army ; bnt that yon select from among the Ge&enl 
Officers of engineers and artillery, and the officers actnalljit 
the head of those corps at the time, whether General OflSoes 
or not, such officers as yon may think most fit to oondact tbe 
duties of those corps respectively." 

In March 1815 the Commander-in-Chief, when in camp 
with the ** Army of Beserve^'^ directed it to be considefed 
as a rule of the service, that whenever cavalry gans were 
brigaded, or bronght together to act in battery, the com- 
mand of them should be given to an officer of the corps of 
horse artillery, if any part of that corps should happen to 
be serving with the army or detachment. 

On the 17th April 1816 the pay and allowances of 
Adjutants and Quartermasters of horse and foot artiUeiy 
were fixed upon the following scale, viz. : — 

Staff pay Rr. 62 \ 

Writer ... ... ... ... „ 40 1 

Stationery and candles „ 15 i 

XxOvBe ••■ ... ... ... ,, ow / 

On the 23rd December of the same year orders wen 
issued for the formation of a *' Rocket troop/' to be 
attached to the corps of horse artillery. 

The following establishment was sanctioned : — 

Rs. 147. 

4 Subalterns. 

1 Troop Quartermaster. 

2 Stafi* Serjeants. 
4 Serjeants. 

2 Farriers. 
4 Corporals. 
8 Gunners. 
64 Matrosses. 

2 Trumpeters. 

7 officers* horses, 110 regimental horses, 10 camels with 

The ordinary proportion of artificers, horsekeepers, ani 



EHOINBBRS, 1812—1816. 

Lieatenant-Colonel Colin Mackenzie^ of the Madras Surveyor. 
Engineers^ having been nominated by the Governor- ^^^'^^'5 
General to be Surveyor-General of India^ the appointment 
was notified in general orders at Madras on the 26th May 

European Infantry, 1812—1816. 

The following order regarding the performance of the 
ceremonies of marriage and baptism by military officers 
was published on the 23rd October 1812 : — 

*' Adverting to the angpnentation recently made by the Marriages 
Honorable the Court of Directors to the establishment of Jgj2, *'^^^°*'' 
Chaplains, the Honorable the Governor in Council is of opinion 
that no necessity can in future exist for the performance of 
the ceremony of marriage by any military officer, and accord- 
ingly directs that all military officers do consider themselves 
precluded from discharging the part of the duty eventually 
assigned to them in the general orders dated the 27th of 
March 1805. 

'^ The Governor in Council likewise directs that the same 
restriction may be considered applicable to the ceremony 
of baptism, except in the case of such children as may be 
in a weak or precarious state of health.'^ 




Lettering and 




Beriew by 
hard Moinu 

On the 15th November^ the practice of distingnisliing 
troops and companies by letters was introdaced into the 
Madras Army. 

The grenadier and light companies were excepted from 
the operation of the regulation. It was ordered at the 
same time that every man should, when entertained, have 
two numbers assigned to him, viz., a general or regiment- 
al number and a company number. 

The arms and accoutrements of all corps were to be 
marked with the letter and number of the troop or 

The distribution, custody, and issue of arrack for the 
use of the troops was placed under the Commissamt 
Department from the 1st February 1813. 

The office of Deputy Judge Advocate was revived early 
in 1813, and five ofiicers were then appointed to the 
department, to be stationed at the undermentioned places, 
viz., one at the Presidency, one at Trichinopoly, one at 
Seringapatam, one at Bellary, and one at Secunderabad. 

On the 23rd June Lieutenant-Oeneral the Honorable 
John Abercromby, then Governor and Commander-in- 
Chief, issued an order directing that a general parade 
and public guard mounting should take place on the Island 
at Madras every Sunday ^ morning at 6 o'clock^ and that 
it should be attended in full dress by every officer of the 
General Staff at the Presidency, and also by all other 
officers there, unless prevented by sickness or specially 
permitted to be absent. 

All the troops at the Presidency were reviewed on the 
16th September by General, the Earl of Moira, after- 
wards Marquis of Hastings, then on his way to Calcutta 
to take his seat as Governor-General. His Excellency 

^ ThiB order contmned in foroe nntil the 82nd Norember 1888, wtei 
it was cancelled by the Commander-in-Chief. 


paid a high compliment to the appearance of the troops^ OHAP.XXIL 
more especially to that of H.M.'s 89th foot, then forming 
part of the garrison of Fort St. George. 

No particular rale having been laid down as to the Pay ^^ 
amount claimable by officers daring their confinement ofoffioera 
as prisoners of war, the following order of the Court of ^''"?^^*^®" 
Directors on that subject was published to the army on 
the 6th October :— 

''When an officer shall be detained by the enemy as a 
prisoner of war in India, he shall, dnriug his residence on 
shore in India, receive the pay and half batta of the rank he 
may hold at the time of his capture, or may obtain by promo* 
tion during his captivity, but on all other occasions during 
his captivity, whether on boardship in India, or ashore or on 
boardship in Europe, he shall receive the pay of his rank 

On the 29th October an order, of which the following Appointment^ 
is a precis, was issued with regard to appointments on ^^ *^® '*"*' 
the staff : — 

1. No officer to be eligible to hold any appointment 
conferring the official rank of Ideutenant-Colonel until 
after nine years' service. 

2. No officer to be eligible to hold any appointment 


conferring the rank of Major, or any subordinate appoint- 
ment on the general staff of the army, until after seven 
years' service. 

8. No officer to hold any general or personal staff 
appointment, that of aide-de-camp excepted, until after 
five years' service, three of which must have been passed 
in regimental duty. 

4. No officer to hold a regimental staff appointment 
until he has performed three years' regimental duty. 

5. No officer to be an aide-de-camp until he has been 
present with his regiment for one year. 

The dress regulations of October 1810 were modified Dress, 1814. 



CHAP.XXII. hj an order of July 1814, from which th& followiBg are 
extracts : — 

*' Wellington pantaloons and half boots are to be worn by 
all officers of engineers, artillery, infantry and pioneeors, 

" Black kid-skin^ caps, of the same muster in every reeped^ 
as in use with the Madras European Begiment, are to bo 
worn by all officers of engineers, infantry, and pioneers. 

^ For bad weather and cold climates, WeUingrtom panta- 
loons of dark grey cloth are permitted to be worn — quite plain 
without trimming or ornament. Plain great ooats of tike 
same color are also established, made single-breasted with 
regimental buttons and distinguishing epaulettes or wings, 
for all regimental officers. 

** Sword-belts and sashes to be worn aboye the great ooata. 

'' The full dress ooats of the general officers, and of such of 
the general staff as have facings, are always to be worn widi 
the lappels buttoned back." 

()n the 20th December 1814 regimental canteens were 
established, and regulations for their management were 
published to the army. 

On the 5th January 1816 it was directed that for the 
future, blank cartridges were to be made up exclusively 
in blue paper, and ball cartridges in brown paper. 

On the 17th April orders were issued for the abolition 
of the " Military Institution,'^ ^ and of the survey branch 




Abolition of 
the military 

^ These were fonnd bo nnsaited to the climate that they were 
abolished in 1816. 

' This institution was established at the Presidency in Norember 1804, 
daring the GroTemment of Lord William Bentinck, for " the improve, 
ment of military education by the instruction of a certain nmnber of 
officers in g^metiy, military drawing, and the practical appHeation of 
those acquirements to the purposes of military seryioe." The estab- 
lishment was limited in the first instance to twelve yoang offioen 
recently promoted from the Oadet company, but the number wao sabee- 
quently increased to about thirty. Quarters were provided in Fart 8t. 
George for the members, and a mess was established, attendance at which 
was compulsory. The Town If ajor was charged with their instruction in 
garrison duties. 


of the Quartermaster-General's Department, from the CHAP. XXII. 
Slat May, in conformity with instractions from the Court 
of Directors to that effect, conveyed in the following 

terms : — 

"The Military Institation in England rendering that of 
Fort St. George unnecessary, that institntion is to be dis- 
oontinned, together with all expenses connected with it, such 
as the salary of the Mathematical Instructor and his assist- 
ant, as well as all the expenses of the Surveying Department." 

When publishing these instmctions the following 
remarks were made by Government : — : 

" The Right Honorable the Governor in Council takes this 
opportunity of expressing his entire approbation of the mode 
in which the duties of Mathematical and Drawing Instructor 
to the Military Institution have been discharged by Captain 
Troyer of H.M.'s 12th raiment. 

" The Governor in Council has also noticed with the highest 
satis&ction the testimony borne by His Excellency the Com. 
mander-in-Chief to the merits and acquirements of all the 
officers who have been attached to the institution. Their 
nniform good conduct and exemplary application have entitled 
them to the commendation of Government, and are alike 
honorable to the character of the institution, to its superin- 
tendence, and to themselves." 

Daring the same month the pay and allowances of Pay and 
Adjutants of European infantry were fixed upon the same AdjuSflu ° 
scale as that sanctioned for Adjutants and Quartermas- 
ters of artillery. 

On the 21st May 1816 an order was issued by the Dress. 
Commander-in-Chief by which officers of all ranks were 
required to wear their swords on every occasion of their 
appearing in public, and the contrary practice was de- 
nounced as nnmilitary. Officers were at the same time 
informed that undress jackets and foraging caps were in- 
tended for drills, fatigae duties, or occasions unconnected 
with duty within their respective lines. The appearance 
VOL. III. 49 







Shell jackets. 

from H.M.'s 


of any officer in public except in fnll drese was proUbited, 
and His Excellency remarked that he had witnessed with 
regret instances of ** very serious inattention to the eti- 
qaette of dress.'' 

Brevet commissions of the rank of Captain were granted 
in Jone to all Lieatenants in the Company's sernce irbo 
had not attained that rank at the expiration ot fi&een 
years from the dates of their appointments as cadets, W 
no extra allowances were sanctioned. Eiight Lieatensnts 
of cavalry and twenty-four Lieatenants of native infants; 
were promoted on this occasion. This brevet promotion 
continued upon the same principle until the changes wiiicli 
followed the mutiny of 1857. 

During June a new regulation cap^ as prescribed for 
H.M.'s regiments of infantry, was ordered to be adopted 
by the officers of the Madras European Regiment, wbidi 
order was extended a few months later to all Euiopeas 
officers of infantry. 

Uniform shell jackets for officers of artillery, engi- 
neers, and in&ntry, to be worn at drills, fatigue dntieSi 
marching, and in the lines, were introduced daring Sep- 

On the 11th October an order was published by de 
Oovemor-General to the effect that all Ume'-expired men 
belonging to fi.M.'s regiments in India should be allowed 
the option of volunteering into the Company's artillei; 
or in&ntry. This order was republished at Fort St. 
George on the 20th November with the undermentioned 
particulars, vis*, men enlisting for a period of three yean 
to receive a bounty of 15 pagodas (Bs. 52-8-0) each, tfaoee 
enlisting for five years to receive 25 pagodas (Bs. 87-8-0) 

About the same time, bounty, to the amount of three 
guineas per man, was sanctioned in the case of volanteecs 
from any of H.M.'s regiments returning to England. 


No man above 30 years of age, or under 5 feet 7 inches CHAP.xxil. 
in height, to be received into the artillery. There was standard of 
no limitation as to height with respect to volunteers for Toi^iiteers. 
the European Regiment, but no man above 32 years of 
ag^ was eligible. 

On the 6th December the Governor in Council, in Commissariat 
ccmformity with instructions received from the Court of ^ *^®'^ 
Directors, fixed the undermentioned sums as the extent 
to which the officers of the Commissariat Department 
were to be required to furnish security. 

Commissary-Oeneral 50,000 

Deputies 30,000 

Assistants ... ... 20,000 

Deputy Assistants ... 10,000 

Sab-Assistants ... ... 5,000 

It was ordered at the same time that in future the 
security should be lodged with the Accountant-General 
before the officer appointed assumed charge of his ofKce. 

In 1806 the number of Chaplains allowed for the whole Chaplains, 

1809 16 

Presidency was only 9, but, on the urgent representation 
of the Senior Chaplain^ the number was increased to 18 
during 1809, viz., 3 at the Presidency, I in Black Town> 
1 for St. Thomas' Mount and Poonamallee, 1 for Yellore, 
Arcot, and Wallajahbad, 1 at Seringapatam, 1 at Banga- 
lore, 1 at Cannanore, 1 at Mangalore, 1 at Masulipatam, 
1 at Yizagapatam, 1 for the Ceded Districts, I at Trichino- 
poly, 1 at Negapatam, and 3 to meet contingencies. 

The Court of Directors, in their letter of the 3rd Nov- 
ember 1815, authorized a further increase to the extent 
of four additional Chaplains, and the following changes 
in the distribution were ordered during 1816, viz., sepa- 
rate Chaplains were allowed for St. Thomas' Mount, and 
Poonamallee, 2 for Vellore, Arcot, and Wallajahbad, 1 for 
Secunderabad, 1 for Jaulna, and Quilon was substituted 
for Mangalore. 



Nativk Infantbt, 1812-16. 
Alterations in On the SOtli September 1811 a pattern knapsack of a 

equipments . 

new kind was sent from the Adjatant-Grenerars OfBoe to 
erery battalion^ with instmctions to adopt it as soon as 
it oould be done witbout putting the men to nnnecesearj 
expense. Haversacks were introduced at the same time, 
principally for the carriage of rice^ for which purpose tke 
knapsack was forbidden to be used. 

The following is the list of necessaries to be carried ii 
the knapsack : — 


2 handkerchiefs. 
2 dnpattahs. 
2 loongies. 

8 white jackets. 
3 pairs of drawers. 
2 pairs of knee bands. 

1 flat dish ^ To be made of a small portable size, and to & 

2 basins. I into each other. 
Emery, whiting, black- / In such quantities as shall be 

ing or heel-ball, and / regpilated by Conunandjuits 
pipe-clay. I of corps. 

1 carpet of a small size, and neatly folded, to be placed ob 
the top of the knapsack, over which the watch-coat is to 
lie horizontally, and both attached to the knapsack bf 
the long straps. 

1 jumbo to be slung from the sepoy's right shoulder. 

and dress, On the 22nd Jannary 1812, officers commanding diTi- 

sions and forces were informed by circulars from ike 
office of the Adjutant-G-eneral^ that the Commander-in- 
Ohief would permit pantaloons to be worn instead of 
short-drawers (Volume I, page 380) by such Native in- 
fantry corps under their command as might ^' solicit the 
indulgence." A few days later the change was made 

The following is an extract from the circnlar letter on 
the subject, dated 4th February 1812 : — 


** The white pantaloons are to be considered as the full OH AP. XXII. 
dress of the battalion, and to be worn on all occasions of poQtaJiooiui 
parade, in reyiew order, general duties of garrison and can- 
tonments, and on occasions of ceremony. Each man to be 
provided with two pairs. 

'' The colored pantaloons to be made of striped sonssee, or 
sucli other suitable cloth as the commanding officer may, 
from the local situation of the corps, think it eligible to adopt, 
but the greatest attention must be paid to uniformity in color. 

^' Commanding officers will take care to choose the most 
plain, and correiB pendent either with the color of the jackets 
or facings." 

The great inconvenience ^ of the short-drawers was 
assigned as the reason for discarding them^ and it was 
also asserted that they were not less expensive than 

The same letter contained the following paragraph 
regarding sandals : — 

" The Commander-in-Chief also directs that you will take Sandals, 
every pains to establish a uniform sandal to be worn by the 
men on all duties, and that it may be fixed upon, in communi- 
cation with the Native officers, of a light strong muster, 
sufficiently larg^ in the sole to cover the bottom of the foot, 
and not encumbered by any unnecessary straps or fastenings 
over the foot." 

These^ and other changes introduced during 1820-23, Changes in 
not having been published in general orders^ escaped the the Native 
observation of Government until about the end of 1823, Jj^*^^^* 
when they were detected by Sir Thomas Munro, who Banction of 
pronounced them to have been made in violation of the forbidden, 

-_ 1823.26. 

' Sir Thomas Mxinro, when reviewing the subject of nnanthoriaed 
alterations in dress some years afterwards, remarked that the reasons 
given for doing away with the drawers conld not be serionsly main- 
tained. He observed that they had been in nse for nearly lialf a century 
without their inconvenience ever having been discovered, that native 
troops marched better in them than in pantaloons, and that they were 
cheaper and more portable* 



CHAP. XXII. resolution of Government^ dated 24th September 

(ante, page 228), and recommended that a stop slioold 
be pat to the issae of circolar letters affecting^ in tnj 
way^ the dress of the Native troops^ without previwtt 
reference to Government. The matter was also repoited 
to the Court of Directors^ who^ in July 1826, sent oat u 
order forbidding any changes in the dress or eqaipmentt 
of the Sfative Army without their previous sanction. 

On the 13th October orders were issued fur the fonn- 
ation of four light infantry battalions at Bangalore ander 
the superintendence of Lieutenant-Colonel MoLeodf' 
H.M.'s Royal Scots. The undermentioned battalions 
were selected for this purpose :— 

The 1st battn. 3rd regt., or Palamcottah Lt. Infy. (3rd FU) 
„ Ist „ 12th „ „ Wallajahbad ,, (2did W.U) 
„ let „ 16th „ „Trichinopoly „ (3UtT.U) 
„ 2nd „ 17th „ ,, Chicacole* ,, (34tb C.U) 



The establishment of each 

battalion was fixed at— 


10 Subadars. 

1 Serjeant Major. 

10 Jemadars. 

1 Quartermaster Serjeui 

50 Havildars. 

1 Native Adjutant. 

50 Naigues. 

1 Drill Havildar. 

10 Drummers. 

1 Drill Naigne« 

10 Fifers. 

1 Drum Major. 

10 Buglers. 

1 Fife Major. 

20 PuckalHes. 

1 Bugler Major. 

700 Privates. 

1 Vakeel. 

70 Sepoy recruits. 

2 Native Dressers. 

Ten companies^ numbered 

from 1 to 10. 

1 This appointment was disapproYed by the Goiirt of Direotcars in ibdr 
letter of the 16th June 1816, on the gronnd that a folly qa»Sid 
officer might easily have been found in their own serrioe. 

* Reduced 1882. 



The light infantry battalions were entitled to take the OHAP.XXII. 
** Right/' agreeably to their respective seniority, of all privileges, 
other corps of Native infantry. 

Each battalion was to be famished with cloaks of 
broadcloth once in six years, and the knapsacks were to 
be carried at the public expense on all occasions of actual 
"field service. 

Subsidiary orders, from which the following are 
extracts, were issued by the Commander-in-Chief in 
November : — 

" Although the battalions of light infantry are liable, in 
common with the other troops of the line, to be called upon 
to perform all duties to which infantry are subject, yet, in 
order to maintain their discipline more perfect in cantonment, 
and to keep them in readiness in the field for their more 
active services, they are not to be included in the rosters for 
fatigue and ordinary duties, unless in cases of urgent neces- 

'* The lowest standard height of the men of the light Btandaid 
infitntry battalions is fixed at five feet four inches. They ^'^ ^^' 
must be stout, well limbed, active, of good caste and con- 
nections, and free from all natural or contracted complaints < 
No man is to be enlisted for the battalions above the age of 
20 years." 

*' The Gommander-in.Chief is pleased to establish the dress Uniform. 
of the light infantry battalions as follows : — 

Color of 



Oolor of 

Color of 
Clothing of 


of Officers' 

Buttons and 

how put on. 



White with 

Green and 

Yellow, S and 8. 

Gold, with 
green stripe. 

About the end of the same year it was ordered that Arms of 
the havildars of all corps of Native infantry should, in S*Nitit7 
futuroj be armed with halberts, and swords slung in infantrj. 



CHAP. XXII. frog belts; with the exception of the havildars of ligiit 
companies^ who were to carry fusils^ and small Aial 

Bedoction. The establishment of battalions of Native in&ntry «tf 

reduced to 780 privates from the 1st October; all men 
in excess of that number to be returned as supemamei*- 
ries until absorbed, or until further orders. The Intii- 
lions with the Hyderabad subsidiary force were still kept 
up to the strength of 900 privates^ 120 of whom were to 
be returned as supernumerary. 

On the 23rd February 1813, the establishment d 
recruit and pension boys^ as fixed in 1806, was revisd 
as follows :— 

Becruit ftnd 
pension hojn, 

Becmit Pensioii 

To a regiment of Nafcire cavalry 
battalion of „ infantry 




















and transfer. 


The recruit boys were to be selected from the relatives 
or connections of old soldiers of the several ranksyiiotto 
be taken under the age of 11 years, nor unless healthj 
and well grown. Any recruit boy who, at the age of 
18 years, was unfit for transfer to the ranks, was to be 
reported to head-quarters in order that he might be 

Pension boys were admissible at any age under II 
years, and were to be selected on the same principle tf 
recruit boys on the occurrence of vacancies, provided 
they were eligible in respect of health and size. Anj 
pension boy found unfit for transfer after having at- 
tained the age of 14 years^ was to be reported to head- 
quarters in order that he might be discharged. 

On the 10th August^ two Native dressers were allowed 
for every battalion, viz.^ one first dresser on 10 pagodas, 
and one second dresser on 7 pagodas per mensem. 


Daring 1 806^ each of the 46 companies of Native invalids CHAP.XXn. 
was ordered to be permanently located in the district 
where the battalion to which it was considered attached 
had been raised. 

This arrangement was made principally for the pur- The 
pose of facilitating recruitings but also with the view of ^^^^ds 
affordine protection to the families of battalions on field formed into 

• . . mi four Veteran 

or foreign service. Thirty-nine stations were fixed upon battalions, 
accordingly, and the distribution was made in general 
orders during September 1807. However, the system 
was found objectionable in many respects, and in July 
1813, Lieutenant-General John Abercromby, then Gover- 
nor and Commander-in-Chief, recorded a minute in which 
he condemned the existing organization of the Native 
invalid establishment for the following reasons, viz., that 
in consequence of the want of efficient means of super* 
vision, everything connected with payments, clothing, 
returns, musters, &c., was complicated and irregular, 
the result being unsatisfactory both to the soldier and 
the officer in charge ; that many of the companies were 
stationed at places where there was no duty for the men 
to perform, whereas there were many stations at which 
they might be profitably employed. 

That in point of fact they could only be considered as 
pensioners drawing the full pay of effective soldiers, 
besides burdening the State with the cost of their arms, 
accoutrements and clothing. 

On these grounds the Lieutenant- G-eneral proposed to 
form the companies into battalions, and this being agreed 
to, it was resolved, on the 15th October, that from the 
1st January 1814 the whole of the Native invalids on the 
establishment should be formed into four veteran batta- 
lions, to be denominated — 

vou III, 60 








Paj and 



Officers of 

Badges for 
Aseaye, 1818. 

The let or " Madras Native Veteran BatUIim." 
The 2od or *' Ainee Native Veteran Battaiion." 
The drd or '' Oanjam Native Veteran Battalion." 
The 4th or '* Dindignl Native Veteran Battalion.'* 

Each battalion was to be commanded by a Europeu 
commissioned officer of the invalid establiahment, to be 
selected and appointed by the Commander-in-Chief. 

An Adjutant^ to \h selected from the list of Conductors, 
or of deserving Serjeants, was allowed to each battahoiL 

Each battalion was to consist of ten companies of soc^ 
strength as might be fonnd necessary from time to isnm, 
and the following fixed establishment was allowed :— 

1 Serjeant Major. 

1 Qoartermaster Serjeant. 

1 Native Adjatant. 

1 Havildar Major. 

1 Vakeel. 

1 Dmm Major. 

1 Fife Major. 

30 Sepoy Reermts. 
40 Pension Boys. 
10 Pockallies. 

2 Native Dressers. 
2 Toties. 

The same proportion of artificers as allowed to a batU- 
lion of effective Native infantry. 

It was ruled at the same time that all officers transfo- 
red to the Veteran establishment, from whatever brand 
of the service, should draw the pay and allowancQS ol 
officers of infantry. 

The uniform of the Native Veteran battalions wu 
ordered to be the same as that of the " Camatic Europess 
Veteran Battalion/' viz., red, with grey facings and 
silver lace. 

On the 80th November the number of European com- 
missioned officers to be attached to a battalion of pioneers, 
was fixed at two Captains, six Subalterns, and one A^^ 
ant Surgeon. 

Although the Governor-General in Council had, ob 
the 30th October 1803, directed that honorary oolon» 


with an appropriate device, should be presented to every CHAP.XXli, 

regiment or battalion engaged at the battle of Assaje, 

no steps were taken to carry out the order at Madraa 

until October 1811, when the Commander-in-Chief moved 

the Gk)vemment to adopt the device of the ^* Elephant/' 

as borne by His Majesty's regiments which had been 

present on that occasion. Government approved of the 

recommendation, and ordered the preparation of the 

requisite number of badges, silver for the Native officers, 

and copper for the other ranks. It appears, however, from 

a letter to the Court of Directors dated 31st December 

1813^ from which the following is an extract, that the 

badges were not issued until the month of May in that 


*' It was our intention to have published a general order on 
the occasion of distributing these badges, but as honorary 
colors had already been presented to the corps engaged in 
that battle by the late Commander-in-Chief, and as the Euro- 
pean officers had been permitted to wear badges of distinction 
under the same authority, we deemed it sufficient to request 
the present Commander-in-Chief to give the necessary direc- 
tions for the distribution." 

On the 11th March 1814, the " Volunteer Battalion '' Madras 
was formed into a rifle corps of the undermentioned Corps," 1814. 
strength, viz. : — 

1 Field Officer. 

8 Captains. 
16 Subalterns. 

1 Adjutant. 

1 Quartermaster. 

1 Surgeon. 

8 Subadars. 

8 Jemadars. 

1 Native Adjutant. 

1 Serjeant Major. 

1 Quartermaster Serjeant. 
48 Havildars. 

1 Bagler Major. 
16 Bnglers. 

48 Naigues. 
720 Privates. 
40 Beeruit Boys. 
30 Pension Boys. 
8 Puckallies. 

2 Native Dressers. 


CHAP. XXII. The ordinary establishment of artificers was allowed, 
also 1 Drill Havildar, 1 Drill Naigue, 8 Taj Havildart, 
and 1 Vakeel. 

The commissioned officers, European and Native, were 
to continne to be borne on the strength of their respec- 
tive battalions. 

The corps was to consist of eight companies, and tf 
it was to be a select body of men, all non-commissioned 
officers, rank and file, not considered equal to the daties 
of light infantry, were drafted into the line. The bal^ 
lion was allowed the same priyilege with regard to the 
carriage of knapsacks as had been granted to the regi- 
ments of light infantry. 

PriTilegei, In January 1815 it was ordered that the '' Rifle Corps" 

should be entitled to take the *' right '^ of all other regi- 
ments of Native infantry, and that it should be exempted 
from fatigue, and other ordinary general duties in canton- 
ment in the same manner as the light infantry batta- 

Beriewofthe The 1st battalion 3rd regiment was inspected asd 

1814. ' reviewed by the Commander-in-Chief at Wallajabad in 
March 1814, for the first time since it had been made a 
light infantry corps, and it was found to have attained 
so high a degree of efficiency that the officers were com- 
plimented in general orders. 

Redaction. On the 26th April 1814 the establishment of a batta- 

Uon of Native infantry was reduced from 780 to 750 

Beview of the The " Rifle Corps '^ was inspected at Poonamallee is 
Bifle Corps, j^^ ^^ ^^^ Commander-in-Chief. His Excellency ex- 
pressed his satisfaction in general orders with the soldi^ 
like appearance of the men, the perfect state of their 
equipments, and the steadiness and precision of the corps 
at field exercise. 


On the 22nd Jaly regulations were pnblislied regarding GHAP.XXU. 
the issue of family certificates^ and the manner in whioh pamiiT 
payments were to be made. The department was^ at the p^jnnent*. 
same time^ placed under the management and control 
of an officer designated the " Superintendent of Family 
Payments/' Subsidiary rules for the guidance of the 
department were issued in February 1815. 

The fort of Seringapatam^ always unhealthy, became Seringa, 
so much worse during 1814-15 that the European part P***™- 
ot the garrison, consisting of H.M/s 34th regiment, and 
a detachment of Madras artillery, was reduced to such a 
state of inefficiency that it was withdrawn during July 
1815. The Native troops had also suffered, but not to 
so great an extent, and it was therefore resolved to limit 
the garrison to a detachment of Native infantry, and a 
small detail of artillery, to be relieved from Bangalore 
every three months. 

This resolution, however, was not carried into effect, 
and two battalions of Native infantry remained at Serin- 
gapatam until 1819, when the garrison was reduced to a 
single battalion. 

On the 8th January 1816 a circular letter was sent to Dress of 
officers in command of light infantry battalions directing i^uitxy, 
the substitution of black pantaloons in lieu of the red ^^^®* 
pantaloons then worn. 

The officers were directed to wear white trousers in 
undress, and trousers of green cloth on duty, at reviews, . 
and in marching order. 

During April the allowances of Adjutants were fixed at Adjutants' 
Rs. 132 per mensem, viz., staff pay Rs. 62, writer and »»o'^"»<«»- 
stationery, Bs. 40^ and Bs. 30 for a horse. 

A dep6t to provide recruits for the Native infantry Reomitin^ 
corpa employed beyond the frontier was established at ^^^' 


CPAP.XXII. Ellore in May, and was placed under the superintendence 
of a European officer. 

Each battalion on service was to furnish a detail con- 
sisting of 1 Native Officer, 2 Havildars, 2 Naigraes, and 
4 Privates, to be stationed at the dep6t. The staff was 
to consist of 1 Native Adjutant, 1 Drill Havildar, 1 Diill 
Naigue, 2 Pay Havildars, and 1 Vakeel, 500 Recruits, and 
the ordinary proportion of Artificers. 

Payment of On the 25th May the payment of military pensions 
was transferred to the office of the " Superintendent of 
Family Payments." 





List of Ariiit collected in Tinneoelly, Shevagunga, Bamn/xd, and DindiguL, 

dated 7th March 1802. 

Small gaiiB . . . 

>•> •>• ••• ••• ••• 

• •• 



t«« ••• •■■ «•• «.• 

. t 



•1. .•• a.i •■• .«• 

• •• 


Firelookfl ... 

•>• ... ••1 >•• ••< 

•  t 

... 6,164 


... .11 .« ■•• ••• 

• . • 

... 9,956 


... ■«. •.• ••• ..a 



Musket and pistol barrek 

. • 


Pikes and spears 

••• •.• ... ..• ••• 

. . • 

... 35,878 

Pike and spear beads 



If.B.— About 12,000 swords and daggers, 1,000 bayonets, 1,000 bows, 10,000 CoUay 

(Signed) P, A. AONEW, Lieiifc..Gol., 
Palamcottah, Commanding BelackmnL 

7th March 1802. 




Casualties at the Siorm of the Pettdh at Ahmednugffur, Sth August 1803« 

Killed. Wounded. Total. 
H.M.'8 19tli dragoonB 
Sth cayalry ... 
H.M.'fl 74th regiment 
H.M/a 78th ,, 
Ist hattaUon 2nd K.I. 
Iflt )| 8rd 
Ut ,, 8th 
Snd „ 12ih 
2kid )t 18th „ 
lot „ pioneers 





• • • 

* • • 



• • t 




• • • 




• • < 




• • • 

• ■• 



• • • 




t •• 




• •• 

• •• 



• • > 




• • • 

• • • 



• • • 




OaeuaUiee before the Fort, Qth^ 10th, and llth August 1803 

ArtiHevy ••• 
H.M.'8 74th ... 
l8t battalion 8rd 
lat „ Sth 
2nd „ 12th 
Ist „ pioneers 

Qfieen Killei. 
Captain Grant, H.M.'s 78th. 

„ Humberaton, „ 
Lientenant AndeTsan, „ 

,y Plenderleath, 1st bat. 3rd. 

Killed. Wounded. Total. 

• • • 


7 8 

• • • 

• •* 

2 2 


t « 1 

1 1 




• to 

 • • 

3 3 

• • • 


6 7 

^1 ... 


19 22 


QffieerB Wounded, 

Lientenant Neilson, H.M.'s 74th. 


Larfcins, „ 78th. 

TOL. in. 




ABttumof the Killed, Wouitded, and tfia^inj t^ the Datachwuja*titi& 
comnuatd of Uajor-O^n^ral th« So*orabU Arthur WMesiej/ at lluBiA 
of AMaya, agMfut the Jrmy of Zhwlut Bou Sdndtah, on fW«jF Hi 

4th HaUts oknltT 

6th „ „ 

7th „ 

DatHhment, lit iMttaUon 


8nd „ 







1 ... 






u . 






















Bombay „ ... 



H.M.'i 7«li nwiiMnt ... 

I8t „ 4th „ ... 
Irt „ 8th „ ... 
bt „ 10th „ ... 









Total ... 


















< These owoaltiea were oot of the half oompaoj Mrring irith tha pIAeti ^ 
LieateuBDt Brown, amoaatlng to abont B2 Dotkaommiuloiied rank and flle^ Tbil 
t^ou yn» at Nanlaiah iKth the bagga(i. 



C — (Oontinuedy 

Jteiurn of the Killed^ Wounded^ and Missing of the Detcichmeni under the 
command of MajoT'Oeneral the Honorable Arthur WeUesley aJt the Battle 
of Assaye^ against the Army of DowhU Bow Scindiah^ on Friday 2Srd 
September 1803 — (Goniinned). 



























Lieutenant and 














[.Bl.'s 19th light dragoons ... 


• » t 


• • « 

• • « 




th Native carahry 

•  • 

 • • 

• • • 


t • • 


Bu y> ly ... •«• 


• • • 


• •• 


• • • 

• . • 

VD, tf if • . . • . • 


• •• 


• •  

• • 1 


letachment, 1st battalion 

• i  

•  • 


• • • 




„ 2nd „ 

• •• 

• • • 

• •  

« •  



„ Bombay »» 

• • • 

• • I 

• •  

• • • 



ttached to cavalry gons .. 

• a • 

• •• 

• • • 

• • t 

« • • 

•  • 

[ .M.'s 74th regiment 


• • * 







:.M.'s 78th „ 

• » • 






St battalion 2nd M.N.I. . . . 

* • • 

• •« 

• •• 

it „ 4th „ 

 • • 

• • • 

• • • 

It „ 8th 

• • • 


• • • 

It M 10th „ 

• •  


• • • 

ad „ 12feh „ 



« •  


• »• 


• • • 

• •; 

• • • 

• • • 

• • « 

Total ... 















A Betwrn <^ the Killed, Womtded, attd Uusing t^ tie DiOaehmo^l mmini 
eommand c^ Miyor-Qmieral the Sonorable Arthur WeUealag of U« Bd 
t^ Ataaye, againat ike Army c^ TiowhU Sow Seindiah, om fWdUy S3a 
hepUmbar 1803— (Continned). 
















































Bth „ „ 






...i 1. 

lib „ „ 












i . 

2iid „ .. 




BomW „ 



Attoohed towtFHltygwu ... 




H.M.'i 94th regiment ... 



::;i 'ii 









iBt „ 4Ui „ 






Irt „ 8th „ ... 








Irt „ 10th „ ... 









and „ 12th „ ... 







Total ... 



















t»li(ni waa at Nanlniab irith the baggage. 

are oat of the half cmaptaj serring with Uie pit^sl 
luting to abont 63 uon-BOtanuHeitmed rank utd file. 



•S.J . 























•-•-* :8-«aas 




::::::: :rH : ft-* 



*.*w :»^«,»go |3g 


.H : : :i« : ;«9i-i : 

• • • • • 


'^'^•^ql :::::: 



« : 



|H^»o^• : : : ; : : 
CO • • • • • • 




09 09 



8 sS'S'S'S'S'S-S 

:^ : :052C6o»^oo 


:floiooo :^flo 

« : : :«S*s :»h»^ : :^ 

. • • ^91 09  


•« K-: = * s 2 : 




■4» -*» -^ 

CD 40 QB 


.a fd 


:09 :»H5 ; ;2sJS'**'^^ a 







9 11 89 

:« :«o :ot : 

• • « « 

. • ! 


:OT 1-409 09 flkiH 




••••••• • 

••••••• • 

*•■••■• • 

::::::: ^ 





Betum of Ordnance^ Fire Anm^ 8fc.^ §cc,, taken by the Force 
in the south of TVavancore under the command of LieutenatU' 
Oolonel the Honorable A. SenUeger. 

Where captured. 









Arambooly Lines 

Onnuia Comarj Lines. . 

Action at Nag^rooil ... 





Arloor ... 


Total ... 









• • • 



• • • 
















22,942 2,080 

l^.fi. — A namber of the abore brass guns rendered nseless by order, 
and sereral iron guns (abont 20) destroyed on the coast ; 12,000 stand 
of arms, 5 hios of leaden balls, and 600 barrels of powder foond 
at Trerandram, now on the road to Oodagherry $ also 140 pieces of 
ordnance to be removed from Trevandrom to Oodagherry for the 
purpose of being destroyed, together with about 5 lacs of leaden 
balls taken at Papanaverara. About one lac of round shot taken at 
Oodagherry not included in the above. For want of instruments it 
has not yet been sorted. 

(Signed) J. C. FRANCKE, Captain, 


(Signed) A. SENTLEGBB, Lieat.-Col. 

Caxp Oodaghebbt, 
let AprU 1809, 



Several dispnteB arose between the captors, as weQ aa 
between the captors and Ooyemment, respecting the distri- 
bntion of the property f onnd at Amboyna, Banda, and the 
other islands. The spices alone amounted to 255,584 lb. of 
doTcs, 307,549 lb. of nutmegs, and 55,878 lb. of mace, the 
whole of which was claimed by the captors, but it was ulti- 
mately decided by the Admiralty Oourt at Madras, in Septem- 
ber 1811, that the captors had no right to any spices received 
into the Government stores after the surrender. 

Two Dutch brigs, one taken by the Madras troops in tiie 
island of Bouro, and the other by those at Laricque, were 
seized by Captain Tucker as prizes to His Majesty's ship 
'' Dover," the right of making such prizes being, in hia 
opinion, restricted to His Majesty's ships of war. Two 
small vessels, captured by Ensign Boy of the Madras Euro» 
pean Begiment at Saperoua, were taken possession of by 
Captain Tucker on the same ground. 

The result of this affair has not been ascertained. 



The following is the esiiaiate of prospective military charges 
after the capture :— 

Begvlar Troops. 

ArtUlerj 480 pagodas ; Detachment Madras European 
Begiment^ completed to 200 rank and file 1,800 pagodas; 
victualling 750 pagodas. Total per mensem 3,030 pagodas, 
equivalent to Bs. 10,605, or 4,696-24-0 Spanish dollars. 

Corps of Amboynese, 
1 Oaptain, 1 Adjutant, 1 Serjeant Major, 1 Drill Serjeant. 


1 Adjutant, 20 Serjeants, 20 Ciorporals, 10 Drummers, 600 
Privates, 7 Water-carriers, 2 Oarpenters, 2 Smiths, 1 Bel- 
lows Boj, 1 Ghidkledar, 1 Ghudder. 

Each man allowed one dram of arrack and one measure of 
rice per diem, and two measures of salt monthly. 

Pay of the whole per mensem 2,994 Spanish dollars. 

The men of the Amboynese corps were reported as being 
tractable, and of good physique.